PSYC 172 Final Review

Question 1 of 168

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According to the text, sexual behavior is defined as:

Select one of the following:

  • penis-in-vagina intercourse

  • the behavior that is chiefly associated with reproduction

  • the behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm

  • any behavior that distinguishes males from females

Question 2 of 168

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Richard von Krafft-Ebing had a special interest in _____.

Select one of the following:

  • normative sexuality

  • pathological sexuality

  • nonhuman sexual behavior

  • sexually transmitted diseases

Question 3 of 168

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In the 20th century, a study looking at the physiology of sexual response was conducted by:

Select one of the following:

  • Alfred Kinsey

  • Masters and Johnson

  • Margaret Mead

  • Bronislaw Malinowski

Question 4 of 168

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Avid viewers of TV soap operas may begin to believe that sexual intercourse between unmarried individuals is mainstream because this is the most frequently shown sexual activity on these programs. This process is an example of:

Select one of the following:

  • sexual repression

  • cultural diversity

  • agenda setting

  • cultivation

Question 5 of 168

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Which of the following is true of sexuality on the island of Mangaia?

Select one of the following:

  • Premarital sex is essentially unknown

  • Masturbation is the only form of sexual activity undertaken

  • Foreplay is limited to kissing and fondling of the buttocks

  • Boys learn about cunnilingus from male experts

Question 6 of 168

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According to a research based on social class variations and sexuality, which of the following women is most likely to terminate a pregnancy by abortion?

Select one of the following:

  • Millie, a high school drop-out

  • Joan, a high school diploma holder

  • Sandra, a college sophomore

  • Kelly, a masters degree holder

Question 7 of 168

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In the traditional Latino culture, gender roles are epitomized by the concepts of machismo and marianismo, which:

Select one of the following:

  • tolerate premarital sex for both men and women

  • discourage premarital sex for both men and women

  • tolerate premarital sex for men and discourage it for women

  • discourage premarital sex for men and tolerate it for women

Question 8 of 168

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Research on nonhuman species suggests that same-gender sexual behavior is:

Select one of the following:

  • the predominant form of sexual interaction among nonhuman species

  • found only in primates

  • found in many species

  • nonexistent in all other species, apart from humans

Question 9 of 168

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An example of a negative sexual right is the:

Select one of the following:

  • freedom to express one's sexuality with same-gender partners

  • freedom to experience sexual pleasure

  • freedom from sexual abuse and violence

  • right to reproductive self-determination

Question 10 of 168

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A research statistic shows that 10 percent of males have engaged in masturbation by age 11. This value indicates the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • median

  • mean

  • frequency

  • cumulative incidence

Question 11 of 168

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Which type of measurement uses questions such as "With how many different partners have you had sexual intercourse without having an interest in a long-term committed relationship with this person?"

Select one of the following:

  • Social Desirability Scale

  • Sexual Orientation Index

  • STI Risk Scale

  • Erotophilia Index

Question 12 of 168

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Which of the following relationships suggests a positive correlation?

Select one of the following:

  • As the number of sexual partners increases, the number of sexually transmitted diseases increases.

  • The greater the number of years of marriage, the lower the frequency of intercourse.

  • The fewer the number of sexual partners, the greater the number of sexually transmitted diseases contracted.

  • The greater the number of years of marriage, the lower the number of sexually transmitted diseases contracted.

Question 13 of 168

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With respect to their sampling procedures, Masters and Johnson:

Select one of the following:

  • studied the same males who participated in the Kinsey studies

  • assumed that random sampling was necessary

  • failed to use a random sample of the population of the United States

  • recruited participants exclusively from the special populations of their interest

Question 14 of 168

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Masters and Johnson's report "Human Sexual Response" differs from surveys of sexual behavior because:

Select one of the following:

  • it directly observed sexual behavior

  • it focused on sexual minorities

  • it had a high test-retest reliability

  • it used implicit measures to study behavior

Question 15 of 168

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Which of the following is a standard technique used to understand the impact of mass media on sexuality?

Select one of the following:

  • Content analysis

  • Web-based survey

  • Magazine survey

  • Direct observation

Question 16 of 168

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Debra wants to conduct a sex study on individuals who enjoy sadomasochism. She contacts a few of her friends who engage in sadomasochistic behavior. In turn, they contact others whom they know are sadomasochists or attend S/M parties. Eventually, a sample of 200 participants is obtained. Identify the type of sampling method used in this survey.

Select one of the following:

  • Stratified sampling

  • Probability sampling

  • Random sampling

  • Snowball sampling

Question 17 of 168

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Which among the following is a limitation of the NHSLS?

Select one of the following:

  • American Indians were underrepresented in the sample

  • Responses had high levels of concealment and enlargement

  • It did not include enough people from ethnic minority groups--particularly Asian Americans

  • IT provided no information on the sexuality of individuals who were more than 40 years old

Question 18 of 168

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The computer-assisted self interview:

Select one of the following:

  • accommodates poor readers through audio components

  • lacks the privacy that written questionnaires provide

  • uses biological measures to test the response of participants

  • relies on direct observation methods of collecting data

Question 19 of 168

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In a study about sexuality, participants of a perfectly random sample were truthful and tried to give information that was as accurate as possible. Identify the factor that is most likely to make their self-reports inaccurate in this context.

Select one of the following:

  • Difficulties with estimates

  • Concealment

  • Volunteer bias

  • Enlargement

Question 20 of 168

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In conducting a study of sexual research, you collect your sample from walk-ins at a local doctor's office. This type of sample is a:

Select one of the following:

  • product of probability sampling

  • random sample

  • convenience sample

  • systematic and representative sample of the local community

Question 21 of 168

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The ____ are rounded pads of fatty tissue lying along both sides of the vaginal opening and are covered with pubic hair.

Select one of the following:

  • labia majora

  • fallopian tubes

  • labia minora

  • seminiferous tubules

Question 22 of 168

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Which of the following is one of the physical consequences of infibulation?

Select one of the following:

  • heightened sexual arousal

  • Increased risk of urinary infections

  • increased incidence of orgasms

  • fewer complications during childbirth

Question 23 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the G-spot?

Select one of the following:

  • It is located on the front wall of the vagina

  • It is homologous with the male penis

  • It is an insensate spot on the vaginal wall

  • It is typically more sensitive than the clitoris

Question 24 of 168

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The ____ are erectile tissues that lie close to the crura of the clitoris, and are the size and shape of a pea pod.

Select one of the following:

  • fallopian tubes

  • seminiferous tubules

  • vestibular bulbs

  • vas deferentia

Question 25 of 168

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The organ that is responsible for female ejaculation is the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • fundus

  • meatus

  • vas deferens

  • Skene's gland

Question 26 of 168

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The raised ridge at the edge of the glans of a penis is called the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • corona

  • shaft

  • meatus

  • perineum

Question 27 of 168

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The ____ is an additional layer of skin that forms a sheathlike covering over the glans of a peanis.

Select one of the following:

  • urethra

  • fourchette

  • scrotum

  • foreskin

Question 28 of 168

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Which of the following procedures results in the excretion of urine at the base rather than at the tip of the penis?

Select one of the following:

  • Subincision

  • Supercision

  • Excision

  • Infibulation

Question 29 of 168

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The death rate from cervical cancer has decreased sharply since the mid-1960s, mainly as a result of ____.

Select one of the following:

  • Pap tests

  • CT scans

  • genetic mapping

  • breast self examinations

Question 30 of 168

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Jason looks like and identifies as a typical male. He goes to the doctor for abdominal pain and is told by the physician that he has a uterus. Which of the following could theoretically account for Jason's condition?

Select one of the following:

  • XY congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  • lack of SRY

  • 5 alpha reductase deficiency

  • mutation of the gene for the Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone Receptor

Question 31 of 168

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It is NOT possible for an individual to have which pair of structures simultaneously?

Select one of the following:

  • Clitoris and penis

  • Scrotum and penis

  • Vagina and testes

  • Vas deferens and epididymis

Question 32 of 168

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In a content analysis of clinics offering female genital cosmetic surgery, it was found that:

Select one of the following:

  • most described the range of variation in the appearance of the vulva

  • most describe requirements for psychological evaluation before undergoing survery

  • all agree to the standards of the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecologists

  • none describe non-surgical approaches to genital appearance concerns.

Question 33 of 168

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Which of the following is true about masturbation and menstruation?

Select one of the following:

  • Masters and Johnson suggested masturbation as a possible remedy for menstrual cramps

  • Masturbation is not advised during menstruation because it may exacerbate the cramps

  • After an orgasm during menstruation, fluids become congested in the pelvic region

  • Masturbation is dangerous because orgasm interferes with uterine contractions necessary for menstrual flow

Question 34 of 168

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Which of the following statements best summarizes the hormone-mood relationship causing PMS?

Select one of the following:

  • Most mood swings are a result of high levels of secretions from the adrenal glands.

  • Most mood swings experienced by women are caused by the influence of their respective cultures, with a minimal role played by hormones.

  • Most mood swings are caused by a rise in the level of testosterone in the blood.

  • Most mood swings are likely to be related to the decline of estrogen and progesterone.

Question 35 of 168

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One of the main functions of estrogen includes:

Select one of the following:

  • stimulating breast growth

  • decreasing the mucous membrane of the vagina

  • enhancing muscle growth

  • promoting bone growth past the pubertal years

Question 36 of 168

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Which of the following is true of Klinefelter's syndrome?

Select one of the following:

  • It occurs in genetic females that have a single X chromosome.

  • It can be reversed by surgery.

  • It involves overproduction of sperm and low testosterone levels.

  • It occurs when a genetic male has an extra X chromosome (XXY).

Question 37 of 168

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The embryonic source of the glans penis is the:

Select one of the following:

  • genital tubercle

  • genital swelling

  • Mullerian duct

  • Wolffian duct

Question 38 of 168

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The Skene's gland in females and the prostate in males have the same embryonic source--the urethral primordia. The Skene's gland also secretes a fluid that is biologically similar to the milky alkaline fluid secreted by the male prostate. Based on this, we may say that:

Select one of the following:

  • these organs are homologous but not analogous

  • these organs are analogous but not homologous

  • these organs are both analogous and homologous

  • these organs are neither analogous nor homologous

Question 39 of 168

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One of the most common intersex syndromes, which often results in identifying genetic females as males, is:

Select one of the following:

  • congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

  • Triple Y syndrome (YYY)

  • Triple X syndrome (XXX)

  • androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)

Question 40 of 168

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Adolescence is a developmental period of life:

Select one of the following:

  • defined by the psychological transition toward adulthood

  • characterized completely by the physiological changes in the body

  • marked by the normative and universal time frame of 13 to 18 years

  • recognized positively and celebrated by all societies of the world

Question 41 of 168

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In the luteal phase,

Select one of the following:

  • the follicle turns into a glandular mass of cells called the corpus luteum.

  • the endometrium breaks down and is discharged through the cervix.

  • the degeneration of the corpus luteum is accompanied by a rise in progesterone.

  • the lutenizing hormone is no longer secreted.

Question 42 of 168

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For an erection to occur:

Select one of the following:

  • the body's dopamine receptors need to be shut down temporarily

  • the veins carrying blood away from the penis should function normally

  • the arteries supplying the corpus spongiosum with blood should constrict

  • the arteries supplying the corpus cavernosa with blood need to dilate

Question 43 of 168

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Where is the G-spot located?

Select one of the following:

  • Below the fourchette

  • On the front wall of the vagina

  • Above the perineum

  • Inside the seminiferous tubules

Question 44 of 168

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During the excitement phase of the sexual response cycle, the clitoris:

Select one of the following:

  • is softer than usual

  • descends into the body

  • becomes insensate

  • becomes enlarged

Question 45 of 168

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Which of the following occurs in men during the excitement stage of the sexual response cycle?

Select one of the following:

  • The scrotal sac hangs away from the body

  • The skin of the scrotum thickens

  • The scrotal sac relaxes

  • The spermatic cords lengthen

Question 46 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the female orgasm?

Select one of the following:

  • It can be achieved more easily than the male orgasm.

  • It is of two types: uterine and ovarian.

  • It occurs only during a woman's refractory experience.

  • It does not always leave tangible evidence of its occurence.

Question 47 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle?

Select one of the following:

  • It lasts longer for women who have orgasmed than for women who have not.

  • It is a reversal of the processes that built up during the excitement stage.

  • It is the sustained period of excitement that occurs just before a man orgasms.

  • It is characterized by a state of tumescence in men that does not dissipate easily.

Question 48 of 168

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Myotonia is one of the two basic physiological processes that occur during the sexual response cycle. It involves:

Select one of the following:

  • the dilation of blood vessels

  • an increased blood flow

  • muscle contractions

  • the swelling of body tissue

Question 49 of 168

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Women are capable of multiple orgasms because:

Select one of the following:

  • they do not experience the excitement phase

  • they do not experience the ballooning phase

  • they do not have a refractory period

  • they do not have a resolution period

Question 50 of 168

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Why was Masters and Johnson's model of sexual response criticized?

Select one of the following:

  • It ignored the basic physiology of sexual arousal and response.

  • It was representative of humankind as a whole only in terms of sexual drive.

  • It did not study the cognitive and subjective aspects of sexual response.

  • It gave too much weight to the desires and passions of the subjects.

Question 51 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the vagina during the excitement phase of the sexual response cycle?

Select one of the following:

  • The vagina's response to arousal is always faster than the response of a penis.

  • Vaginal lubrication is due to the secretions of the Bartholin glands.

  • The capillaries in the walls of the vagina dilate to increase blood flow.

  • Vaginal lubrication is due to the secretions of the Tyson's glands.

Question 52 of 168

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Research indicates that female ejaculation occurs in some women with the stimulation of the ____ glands.

Select one of the following:

  • Skene's

  • Tyson's

  • Cowper's

  • Bartholin

Question 53 of 168

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Several researchers, including Perry and Whipple, have suggested that a type of female orgasm, other than the one investigated by Masters and Johnson, exists. They have termed it "____ orgasm" and state that its main cause results from the stimulation of the G-spot.

Select one of the following:

  • uterine

  • clitoral

  • vaginal

  • cervical

Question 54 of 168

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Which of the following has research discovered about androgens?

Select one of the following:

  • The sexual drives of women are not affected by the deprivation of androgens.

  • Androgen levels increase with age in both men and women.

  • Androgens are related to sexual desire in both men and women.

  • The sexual drives of men are not affected by the deprivation of androgens.

Question 55 of 168

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Which of the following is true of pheromones?

Select one of the following:

  • Pheromones need to be consciously perceived in order to be effective.

  • The vomeronasal organ, which helps detect pheromones, is absent in women.

  • Pheromones are secreted by the endocrine glands and released into the bloodstream.

  • People's brain responses to pheromones differ according to their sexual orientation.

Question 56 of 168

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In two-person sex, the best way to stimulate the woman's genitals is to:

Select one of the following:

  • press forcefully on the clitoris since this area is almost always insensate.

  • manipulate the clitoris by pulling and pushing it.

  • begin with light, gentle stroking of the thighs and the inner and outer lips.

  • rub the clitoris when it is fairly dry to increase the levels of erotic friction.

Question 57 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the woman-on-top position?

Select one of the following:

  • It is most suitable for a couple who wish to increase the chances of conceiving.

  • It provides women with little or no clitoral stimulation.

  • It is ideal for a man who wishes to control his ejaculation.

  • It does not allow couples an opportunity to communicate via facial expressions.

Question 58 of 168

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Masters and Johnson's research excluded:

Select one of the following:

  • people who were orgasmic

  • people who were multiply orgasmic

  • people who experienced a lack of sexual desire

  • people who had high sexual desire

Question 59 of 168

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Kaplan's triphasic model of sexual response contains the ____, which was missing in Masters and Johnson's model.

Select one of the following:

  • biological component, muscular contractions

  • cognitive component, sexual desire

  • physiological component, vasocongestion

  • sensual component, orgasm

Question 60 of 168

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____ is a sexual technique used by lesbians in which one woman lies on top of another and moves rhythmically in order to produce sexual pleasure.

Select one of the following:

  • Rimming

  • Anilingus

  • Interfemoral intercourse

  • Tribadism

Question 61 of 168

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Freud used the term ____ to refer to the period of childhood following the resolution of the Oedipus complex.

Select one of the following:

  • Electra complex

  • oral fixation

  • adrenarche

  • latency

Question 62 of 168

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Which of the following does research indicate about masturbation in boys?

Select one of the following:

  • Boys typically begin to masturbate earlier than girls.

  • Boys generally masturbate less frequently than girls.

  • Boys are incapable of stimulating themselves unaided.

  • Boys are unable to achieve true erection before puberty.

Question 63 of 168

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Which of the following is true of sexual encounters between children around the age of 4 or 5?

Select one of the following:

  • Children tend not to exhibit any sexual curiosity during this age.

  • Sexual encounters during this age generally involve looking at or touching each other's genitals.

  • Sexual encounters during this age generally involve the oral stimulation of each other's genitals.

  • Sexual encounters during this period are a sign of abnormality.

Question 64 of 168

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Preadolescents typically:

Select one of the following:

  • Integrate themselves well with members of the opposite gender.

  • display an aversion toward members of their own gender.

  • engage in sexual exploration with same-gender peers.

  • express very little curiosity about their own sexual parts.

Question 65 of 168

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The manifestation of sexualization in Western society has been linked to:

Select one of the following:

  • a larger number of young women turning to cosmetic surgery.

  • a decline in the popularity of provocative clothing

  • a marked rise in the self-esteem of young adolescents.

  • broadened career aspirations of young girls.

Question 66 of 168

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Heterosexual behavior is generally a progression beginning with kissing, then petting, moving on to oral sex, and then to penis-in-vagina intercourse. These behaviors tend to follow ____.

Select one of the following:

  • sexual imperialism

  • a sexual script

  • homonormativity

  • a gender sequence

Question 67 of 168

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Which of the following does research indicate to be true of adolescent intercourse across cultures?

Select one of the following:

  • America has the lowest number of adolescents reporting intercourse among the developed nations of the world.

  • America has a lower number of adolescents reporting intercourse than in Latin American countries.

  • The percentage of girls who report intercourse is lower in Latin American countries than in African nations.

  • The percentage of adolescents who report intercourse is the same across all countries of the world.

Question 68 of 168

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Which of the following has research found to be true of teen pregnancies?

Select one of the following:

  • The cycle of teen pregnancy is often passed from one generation to the next.

  • The incidence of teen pregnancies in the US has risen drastically over the last 50 years.

  • Few teen pregnancies occur amongst girls belonging to minority groups.

  • The incidence of teen pregnancies in the US hasn't changed over the last 50 years.

Question 69 of 168

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Which of the following is true about online communication through social networking sites and Instant Messaging?

Select one of the following:

  • It provides more auditory cues than direct forms of communication.

  • It stimulates disclosure of more personal information.

  • It increases a person's concern about how other people will react to them.

  • It reduces social integration and connection.

Question 70 of 168

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In what way are "hooking up" and "friends with benefits" similar to each other?

Select one of the following:

  • They are both forms of casual sex outside the bounds of a romantic relationship.

  • They are both forms of casual sex within the bounds of a romantic relationship.

  • They are both unplanned sexual encounters between two strangers.

  • They are both unplanned sexual encounters between platonic friends.

Question 71 of 168

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According to Erikson's model of psychosocial development, parents who accept their 5-year-old's masturbatory behavior are encouraging the development of ____.

Select one of the following:

  • mistrust

  • autonomy

  • stagnation

  • isolation

Question 72 of 168

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The term "never married" refers to a growing section of adults in society. Which of the following is true of the composition of this group?

Select one of the following:

  • This group consists solely of individuals who have chosen to remain single for life.

  • This group includes individuals who intend to marry someday in the future.

  • This group consists only of priests, nuns, and people who have taken a vow of celibacy.

  • This group excludes homosexual people who cannot marry because of the law.

Question 73 of 168

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Which of the following is true of cohabiting couples?

Select one of the following:

  • The majority of cohabiting couples do not plan to marry each other.

  • The marriages of cohabiting couples are more likely to end in divorce.

  • Cohabiting couples have higher relationship quality than married couples.

  • Cohabiting couples have sex less frequently than married couples.

Question 74 of 168

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According to research on the frequency of marital intercourse:

Select one of the following:

  • The frequency of marital sex has increased sharply since the 1940s.

  • An individual's race and religion influences the frequency of coitus greatly.

  • The frequency of intercourse tends to decline with age.

  • Cohabiting couples have intercourse less frequently than married couples.

Question 75 of 168

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Which of the following does research suggest to be true of work and sexual satisfaction?

Select one of the following:

  • Sexual satisfaction is highest in families where one spouse works from home.

  • Sexual satisfaction is highest in families where one spouse is unemployed.

  • Sexual satisfaction is not affected by job satisfaction.

  • Sexual satisfaction is strongly impacted by job satisfaction.

Question 76 of 168

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Which of the following is true of attitudes toward extramarital sex?

Select one of the following:

  • Infidelity is sanctioned by societal norms in most urban areas.

  • Infidelity seldom occurs among members of primitive societies.

  • Attitudes toward extramarital sex are good predictors of extramarital sexual behavior.

  • Attitudes toward extramarital sex are not good predictors of extramarital sexual behavior.

Question 77 of 168

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Michael felt that he hadn't been receiving enough attention from his wife over the last year. As a result of this, he began an extramarital affair with his co-worker. Which theory helps us understand what motivated Michael to have the affair?

Select one of the following:

  • Swinging theory

  • Evolutionary theory

  • Endogamic theory

  • Equity theory

Question 78 of 168

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The non-possessive, honest, responsible and ethical philosophy and practice of loving multiple people simultaneously is called ____.

Select one of the following:

  • misogamy

  • misogyny

  • singleism

  • polyamory

Question 79 of 168

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In what way do divorcees differ from widows?

Select one of the following:

  • Divorcees are less likely to seek a second marriage than widows.

  • Widows are less likely to be financially secure than divorcees.

  • Widows are more likely than divorcees to engage in postmarital sex.

  • Divorcees are more likely than widows to engage in postmarital sex.

Question 80 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the climacteric?

Select one of the following:

  • It is experienced exclusively by young men.

  • It includes menopause, the cessation of menstruation

  • It occurs most frequently in young girls.

  • It marks a period of increased fertility in women.

Question 81 of 168

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According to Masters and Johnson:

Select one of the following:

  • the elderly should abstain from sexual activity because of declining physical health.

  • the elderly can maintain their sexual capacity by regular sexual expression.

  • the elderly should abstain from sexual activity because of declining emotional health.

  • the elderly are physiologically incapable of orgasming or feeling sexual pleasure.

Question 82 of 168

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Brian is more likely to be attracted to Helen, who lives across the hall from him, than Sharon, who is a co-worker he sees once or twice a year at office parties. This phenomenon is known as the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • mere-exposure effect

  • bystander effect

  • social desirability effect

  • matching phenomenon

Question 83 of 168

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Terry, an attractive 25-year-old, is interested in dating Brad, who is a successful lawyer. Terry is hardly interested in Bill who is a plumber. However, Jill--a less attractive 24-year-old waitress--thinks Bill would be an acceptable date. Which of the following explains the women's preferences?

Select one of the following:

  • Matching phenomenon

  • Contrast effect

  • Misattribution of arousal

  • Mere-exposure effect

Question 84 of 168

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According to the reinforcement theory, we are attracted to people who are similar to ourselves in social characteristics because:

Select one of the following:

  • they are more likely to be nice to us and the interaction with them is rewarding.

  • they are quite likely to hold different individual values, even though they are like us.

  • it is more socially acceptable to partner with individuals who have similar values.

  • similar people are less likely to give each other positive reinforcement.

Question 85 of 168

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The features of Mark's face on one side of his nose are not symmetrical to the features on the other side of his nose. According to sociobiologists, this reflects a ____.

Select one of the following:

  • high degree of facial attractiveness

  • potential development instability

  • fluctuating symmetry

  • high degree of perceived similarity between the bilateral features

Question 86 of 168

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Which of the following is true about intimacy?

Select one of the following:

  • The term is applicable to individuals but not to relationships.

  • Intimacy need not be reciprocal in nature.

  • Intimacy and mutual self-disclosure build on one another.

  • Intimacy and trust are mutually excluive.

Question 87 of 168

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Sternberg has found that the best predictor of satisfaction within a relationship is:

Select one of the following:

  • the match between partners' levels of passion.

  • the match between the partners on all of the components of love.

  • the match between the number of reinforcements and punishments the person gives us.

  • the match between partners' intimacy relative to the match between partners' commitment.

Question 88 of 168

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Anna has trouble trusting her boyfriend David. While David wants to engage in intimate conversations, Anna feels uncomfortable with this closeness. She also maintains an emotional distance from most people in her life. Which of the following attachment styles is Anna most likely to have?

Select one of the following:

  • Secure

  • Anxious-ambivalent

  • Preoccupied

  • Fearful or avoidant

Question 89 of 168

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Which of the following statements is NOT true about leveling?

Select one of the following:

  • It requires clear and uncensored communication of all the hard feelings one has for their partner.

  • It essentially involves not saying anything that would deliberately hurt your partner.

  • It means stating your thoughts clearly, simply, and honestly.

  • It entails a "no holds barred" approach.

Question 90 of 168

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What happens to a romantic relationship if it lasts over time?

Select one of the following:

  • There is a shift, as the relationship progresses, from passionate to companionate love.

  • The passionate component of love becomes very important in long-term relationships.

  • Companionate love keeps the relationship together early on and then passionate love takes over.

  • Companionate love is present at the beginning of the relationship but slowly diminishes over time.

Question 91 of 168

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After playing a vigorous game of basketball, Ed experienced an increased heart rate and sweating from playing and found himself more attracted to women than Tyrone who did not play the game. What phenomenon can best explain the fact that Ed was more attracted to women than Tyrone?

Select one of the following:

  • Ed's sex drive is higher than Tyrone's

  • Ed's misattribution of arousal

  • Ed's heterosexual orientation

  • Ed's insecure attachment style.

Question 92 of 168

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"You moron! Can't you do anything right?" This statement is an example of which of the following destructive patterns of interaction as identified by Gottman?

Select one of the following:

  • Aggressiveness

  • Contempt

  • Defensiveness

  • Withdrawal

Question 93 of 168

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Which of the following statements is true about gender identity disorder (GID)?

Select one of the following:

  • Research by Zucker has shown that gender identity disorder is found in children as young as 2 to 3 years old.

  • A significant number of patients affected by GID are first diagnosed in their twenties and thirties.

  • A vast majority of children with GID persist in the condition and go on to become completely transsexual adults.

  • GID typically develops in late adolescence and not during childhood.

Question 94 of 168

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Which of the following is true regarding the female-to-male gender reassignment surgery?

Select one of the following:

  • Generally, the newly-constructed penis is capable of ejaculation.

  • After the gender reassignment surgery, most transsexual men are able to have sustained and strong erections.

  • A metoidioplasty is a type of female-to-male gender reassignment surgery that involves elongating the clitoris.

  • Only skin from the thigh can be used to construct the penis.

Question 95 of 168

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For how long is a male-to-female transsexual given estrogen?

Select one of the following:

  • For about a year before surgery

  • For about a year before and after surgery

  • For about two years before and after surgery

  • For the rest of her life

Question 96 of 168

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____ is defined as unhappiness or dissatisfaction with one's gender.

Select one of the following:

  • Gender identity

  • Cisgender role

  • Gender congruence

  • Gender dysphoria

Question 97 of 168

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Adolescent female sexuality is ____.

Select one of the following:

  • person-centered

  • body-centered

  • self indulgent

  • genitally-focused

Question 98 of 168

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Which of the following statements is true with regard to Helen Singer Kaplan's views on the development of sexuality in women across the lifespan?

Select one of the following:

  • Women reach their complete potential for sexual enjoyment by their late teens.

  • Women evolve from a body-centered to a person-centered approach to sex as they age.

  • Women have a markedly slower sexual response mechanism by their mid-thirties.

  • Women develop the ability to orgasm more consistently in their mid-thirties.

Question 99 of 168

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Heiman found a high correlation between self-reports and physiological measures of arousal in women when:

Select one of the following:

  • women had been told to pay attention to their arousal.

  • women engaged in sexual intercourse in the laboratory.

  • women masturbated in the laboratory.

  • women were informed of the experimental value of the study.

Question 100 of 168

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___ in a relationship is likely to be a prerequisite for participating in sexual intercourse for women more than for men.

Select one of the following:

  • Low self-disclosure

  • Freedom from commitment

  • Emotional involvement

  • Limited communication

Question 101 of 168

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In studies of sexuality, the largest difference in sexual behavior between men and women exists in the incidence of ____, especially when the factor of age is considered.

Select one of the following:

  • sexual intercourse

  • oral-genital contact

  • anal intercourse

  • masturbation

Question 102 of 168

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____ refers to an approach that simultaneously considers the meaning and consequences of multiple categories of identity, difference, and disadvantage.

Select one of the following:

  • Transitivity

  • Gender stereotyping

  • Intersectionality

  • Gender acquisition

Question 103 of 168

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A ____ is defined as a set of norms, or culturally defined expectations, that define how people of one gender ought to behave.

Select one of the following:

  • gender role

  • gender identity

  • gender variance

  • gender stereotype

Question 104 of 168

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Reiss suggests that homosexuality is most likely to develop in cultures with:

Select one of the following:

  • females competing with males for authority.

  • dominant males and rigid gender roles.

  • gender roles which are very flexible.

  • gender roles which are not well-defined.

Question 105 of 168

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One body of evidence that is consistent with Bem's interactionist theory is that:

Select one of the following:

  • gay men and lesbians are less likely to have a history of gender nonconformity.

  • gay men and lesbians are likelier to have a history of gender nonconformity.

  • a majority of lesbians, when younger, felt no different from other girls.

  • gay men almost always find members of the opposite gender attractive as well.

Question 106 of 168

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Studies of hormone levels have revealed that:

Select one of the following:

  • homosexual males have considerably lower levels of testosterone than do heterosexual males.

  • homosexual males have considerably higher levels of testosterone than do heterosexual males.

  • administering testosterone to homosexual males reduces their sex drive considerably.

  • testosterone levels do not appear to differ much between heterosexuals and homosexuals.

Question 107 of 168

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The fraternal birth order effects shows that:

Select one of the following:

  • gay men tend to have more older brothers.

  • gay men are likelier to have an earlier birth order.

  • lesbians tend to have more older sisters.

  • lesbians tend to have a late birth order.

Question 108 of 168

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The fact that the rate of homosexual concordance is substantially higher for identical twins than for nonidentical twins shows that:

Select one of the following:

  • sexual orientation is determined solely by environmental factors.

  • there is a genetic contribution to determining sexual orientation.

  • there is no genetic contribution to determining sexual orientation.

  • sexual orientation is determined solely by cultural factors.

Question 109 of 168

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Kate has a score of 3 on the Kinsey scale. This means that she:

Select one of the following:

  • is exclusively heterosexual.

  • is exclusively homosexual.

  • has equal heterosexual and homosexual experience.

  • identifies as an asexual.

Question 110 of 168

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What does research say about the effect of homosexual parenting on children?

Select one of the following:

  • Research shows that an overwhelming number of children raised by gay parents turn gay themselves.

  • Research shows that children raised by gay parents often lead more troubled lives than children raised by traditional families.

  • Research shows that the mental health of children raised by gay parents is no different from that of children raised by traditional families.

  • Research shows that an overwhelming number of children raised by gay parents are sex offenders.

Question 111 of 168

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Which of the following did research discover to be true of the tearoom trade?

Select one of the following:

  • A large portion of men who participated in the tearoom trade were married "heterosexuals".

  • The tearoom trade is an urban legend used to turn liberalists against homosexuals.

  • None of the men who participated in the tearoom trade were covert homosexuals.

  • All of the men who participated in the tearoom trade were overt homosexuals.

Question 112 of 168

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The process of ____ involves acknowledging to oneself, and then to others, that one is gay or lesbian.

Select one of the following:

  • closetting

  • coming out

  • conditioning

  • hetero-integrating

Question 113 of 168

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____ is the belief that everyone is heterosexual and that homosexual behaviors are denigrated.

Select one of the following:

  • Homonormativity

  • Homosexism

  • Heterosexism

  • Heterocephalism

Question 114 of 168

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____ refers to a person's erotic and emotional attraction toward members of a certain gender.

Select one of the following:

  • Gender identity

  • Sexual selection

  • Sexual orientation

  • Homofixation

Question 115 of 168

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Under the ____ approach, Arnold Buss delineates the three features of sexual abnormality to be discomfort, inefficiency, and bizarreness.

Select one of the following:

  • psychological

  • empirical

  • sociological

  • statistical

Question 116 of 168

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Which of the following people would be described as having a hard media fetish?

Select one of the following:

  • George, who can never have sex with his wife unless the TV is on in the background

  • Jason, who experiences intense sexual arousal when he touches fur coats.

  • Jacob, who is sexually aroused by the smell and feel of leather.

  • Saul, who refuses to engage in any sexual activity unless his partner poses nude for him.

Question 117 of 168

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The sexual behavior most likely to be classified as a "victimless" crime would be:

Select one of the following:

  • transvestism

  • voyeurism

  • exhibitionism

  • frotteurism

Question 118 of 168

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The term sexual addiction has been criticized because:

Select one of the following:

  • it is not possible to have too much sex

  • the withdrawal period following termination of sexual behavior involves no psychological distress.

  • there appears to be no physiological withdrawal symptoms when a person abstains from an addictive sexual behavior.

  • no true cases of addictive sexual behavior have ever been documented.

Question 119 of 168

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Which of the following is true with regards to sadomasochists?

Select one of the following:

  • They use every opportunity that presents itself in daily life to inflict pain on others.

  • They are inherently more likely to be involved in violent sexual crimes.

  • They find pain arousing only when it is part of a carefully scripted sexual ritual.

  • They derive sexual pleasure from any form of physical pain that they encounter in their day-to-day lives.

Question 120 of 168

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In bondage and discipline, the role preferred by both men and women is the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • passive (bottom)

  • active (top

  • independent (middle)

  • egalitarian

Question 121 of 168

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A more accurate term encompassing satyriasis and nymphomania is:

Select one of the following:

  • cybersexuality

  • perversion

  • asexuality

  • hypersexuality

Question 122 of 168

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____ is defined as a desire to induce oneself to a state of oxygen deficiency to create or enhance sexual arousal or orgasm.

Select one of the following:

  • Halitosis

  • Asphyxiophilia

  • Insomnia

  • Sexsomnia

Question 123 of 168

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____ refers to automatic, unintentional sexual behaviors during sleep.

Select one of the following:

  • Asphyxiophilia

  • Sleep apnea

  • Insomnia

  • Sexsomnia

Question 124 of 168

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Applied to preventative medicine for sexual variations, primary intervention would mean:

Select one of the following:

  • intervening in home life or in other factors during childhood.

  • using surgical castrations to control deviant sexual impulses.

  • providing androgen-suppressing hormonal treatment.

  • administering cognitive-behavioral therapies to paraphiliacs.

Question 125 of 168

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A systematic review of controlled outcome evaluations of psychological and hormonal treatment programs found that, overall:

Select one of the following:

  • such programs resulted in sexual recidivism.

  • use of hormonal medications showed the largest effect.

  • classical behavioral programs have the greatest significant effect.

  • cognitive-behavior therapy had no impact on recidivism.

Question 126 of 168

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Which of the following is true of rape?

Select one of the following:

  • t is the most frequently reported crime in the United States.

  • Its legal definition does not extend to forced oral or anal sex.

  • It involves nonconsensual oral, anal, or vaginal penetration.

  • Its legal definition refers to women and excludes men.

Question 127 of 168

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Which of the following is true of suspicious schemas?

Select one of the following:

  • Sexually aggressive men have very weak suspicious schemas.

  • Suspicious schemas are typically broken down by castration.

  • Only women have been proven to have suspicious schemas.

  • Suspicious schemas can be altered with cognitive therapy.

Question 128 of 168

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Paula told her mother that she'd been raped at a nightclub. Her mother responded with, "What were you doing at the nightclub? If you'd stayed at home it never would have happened." Which of the following views about the nature of rape does Paula's mother take?

Select one of the following:

  • Rape is caused by the psychopathology of rapists.

  • Rape is the result of social anomie.

  • Rape is precipitated by the victim.

  • Rape occurs due to social disorganization.

Question 129 of 168

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Identify the theoretical view of the nature of rape that holds that rapes occur more frequently when a community is not able to enforce norms against crime in general.

Select one of the following:

  • The existential theory

  • The victim-precipitated theory

  • The experiential theory

  • The social-disorganization theory

Question 130 of 168

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Which of the following is true of rapists according to research?

Select one of the following:

  • The vast majority of them have had traumatic head injuries as a child.

  • They lack empathy and often don't feel that they've done anything wrong.

  • They seldom objectify women.

  • They are seldom sexually aggressive.

Question 131 of 168

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The most frequent suggestion given by the prisoners themselves for ending rape in prison is to:

Select one of the following:

  • chemically castrate violent prisoners.

  • physically castrate violent prisoners.

  • isolate rape victims from other prisoners.

  • segregate those who are most vulnerable.

Question 132 of 168

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Prisoners use rape as a means of establishing a dominance hierarchy, thus proving to be a clear example of how rape is an expression of:

Select one of the following:

  • power and aggression.

  • asexuality.

  • homonormativity.

  • heteronormativity.

Question 133 of 168

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Which of the following is true of rape and ethnicity?

Select one of the following:

  • African-American women are less likely to be raped than white women.

  • African-American women are less likely to report rape than white women.

  • Hispanic American women are the ethnic group at greatest risk for rape.

  • White women are not as psychologically disturbed by rape as Hispanic women.

Question 134 of 168

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____ is an inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic nature.

Select one of the following:

  • Dissociative amnesia

  • Restorative amnesia

  • Refractory amnesia

  • Transient global amnesia

Question 135 of 168

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Which of the following is true of pedophilia?

Select one of the following:

  • Recidivism is very rare among pedophiles.

  • The majority of pedophiles are uneducated.

  • Most experts believe that sexual attraction toward a child cannot be changed.

  • All experts agree that there is no link between brain injuries and pedophilic behavior.

Question 136 of 168

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Researchers have identified four different types of sexual harassment. In the case of ____ harassment, the man is truly motivated by a desire for sexual intimacy, but he won't take no for an answer and persists with unwelcome sexual advances.

Select one of the following:

  • earnest

  • hostile

  • virtual

  • tertiary

Question 137 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the services provided by a call girl?

Select one of the following:

  • A call girl works regular shifts at a brothel and may see several clients in a day.

  • A call girl plies her trade on the streets and thus is often at risk of physical violence.

  • A call girl has considerable autonomy concerning the services she provides.

  • A call girl acts as an escort to her clients but does not provide sexual services.

Question 138 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the experience offered by escort services?

Select one of the following:

  • Escort services can also offer clients the girlfriend/boyfriend experience.

  • Escort services offer only sexual services to their clients.

  • Escort services offer services only to homosexual clients.

  • Escort services are limited to phone conversations and cyber sex.

Question 139 of 168

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The prostitutes that charge the least amount of money are the ____.

Select one of the following:

  • streetwalkers

  • call girls

  • escorts

  • gigolos

Question 140 of 168

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Who among the following is considered a third party in commercial sex work?

Select one of the following:

  • Streetwalker

  • Madam

  • Hustler

  • Call girl

Question 141 of 168

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The recruitment and control of persons, by threat or use of force or deception, for purposes of sexual exploitation is known as ____.

Select one of the following:

  • erotophilia

  • sexual imperialism

  • sex trafficking

  • coprophilia

Question 142 of 168

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Which of the following is true of occasional johns?

Select one of the following:

  • They are the clients who seek only occasional contact with prostitutes.

  • They are male prostitutes who occasionally service homosexual men.

  • They are gay men who seek only occasional contact with women.

  • They are clients who occasionally act as pimps to prostitutes.

Question 143 of 168

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What do bar hustlers and female streetwalkers have in common?

Select one of the following:

  • Both are the most exclusive type of prostitute.

  • Both are the most expensive type of prostitute.

  • They both service heterosexual women.

  • They both sell their services to men.

Question 144 of 168

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Leisure travel with the purpose of purchasing sexual services is known as ____.

Select one of the following:

  • sexual imperialism

  • sex trafficking

  • sexting

  • sex tourism

Question 145 of 168

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The legal terminology used to describe literature, art, or film that is foul, disgusting, or lewd to the authorities or to society is ____.

Select one of the following:

  • aphrodisia

  • exotica

  • erotica

  • obscenity

Question 146 of 168

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Which of the following is true of pornographic magazines?

Select one of the following:

  • They are more popular and demand a larger audience than pornographic Web sites.

  • Their production, distribution, and perusal are illegal in the United States today.

  • Their content is not controversial and is therefore suitable for children.

  • Their circulation has declined because sexual videos are easily accessible online.

Question 147 of 168

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____ refers to an interest in sexual activity that leads the individual to seek out sexual activity or to be pleasurably receptive to it.

Select one of the following:

  • Frigidity

  • Libido

  • Dyspareunia

  • Nymphomania

Question 148 of 168

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____ refers to a lack of response to sexual stimulation, including a lack of lubrication.

Select one of the following:

  • Female sexual arousal disorder

  • Premature ejaculation

  • Sexual aversion disorder

  • Female orgasmic disorder

Question 149 of 168

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Holly cannot orgasm through sexual intercourse. In fact, she has never had an orgasm in her life. Medically, Holly's condition is known as ____.

Select one of the following:

  • nymphomania

  • satyriasis

  • anorgasmia

  • vaginismus

Question 150 of 168

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Some women may only attain orgasm through hand or mouth stimulation by the partner. The notion that this is a disorder can be linked to the:

Select one of the following:

  • sexual scripts and beliefs that there is a "right" way to have sex

  • definition of orgasm by modern scientific thought

  • fact that it does not consider the other partner's need to orgasm

  • physiological changes that accompany an orgasm

Question 151 of 168

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____ refers to genital pain experienced during intercourse

Select one of the following:

  • Chlamydia

  • Dyspareunia

  • Anorgasmia

  • Frigidity

Question 152 of 168

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Which of the following statements is correct according to the cognitive-physiological model of sexual functioning and dysfunction?

Select one of the following:

  • Interpreting arousal as anxiety increases one's arousal further.

  • Higher levels of anxiety increase one's sexual arousal proportionately.

  • Interpreting arousal as sexual arousal increases one's arousal further.

  • Physiological arousal does not lead to effective sexual functioning.

Question 153 of 168

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One of the basic goals of Masters and Johnson's therapy was to:

Select one of the following:

  • eliminate goal-oriented sexual behavior.

  • identify physiological triggers of sexual dysfunction.

  • involve the family in the reconditioning process.

  • review childhood traumas that could have caused sexual dysfunction.

Question 154 of 168

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Which of the following is a specific technique developed for the correction of premature ejaculation?

Select one of the following:

  • Solitary masturbation prior to sex

  • The stop-start technique

  • The use of androgen injections

  • The mirror exercise

Question 155 of 168

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One of the most effective programs for women with orgasmic dysfunction is the:

Select one of the following:

  • squeeze technique

  • stop-start technique

  • psychotherapeutic approach

  • directed masturbation technique

Question 156 of 168

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Which of the following is true of the implantation of an inflatable penis?

Select one of the following:

  • It is a common treatment for erectile disorder with no side effects since no drugs are required.

  • It makes it possible to experience an erection with the aid of a pump.

  • It is used primarily in the treatment of mild cases of erectile dysfunction.

  • It is recorded to have a success rate of 100 percent.

Question 157 of 168

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The drug Viagra works:

Select one of the following:

  • by changing the mental state of the man, prompting erection.

  • by relaxing the smooth muscles in the corpora cavernosa.

  • by raising the testosterone levels in the female.

  • by prompting increased lubrication in the vagina.

Question 158 of 168

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Which of the following is a major reason why chlamydia goes undiagnosed and untreated, especially among women?

Select one of the following:

  • The social stigma attached to the infection.

  • The high costs of medical treatment.

  • The asymptomatic nature of the infection in a majority of cases.

  • The good recovery rate in response to home remedies.

Question 159 of 168

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Which of the following complications may occur if chlamydia is left untreated in women?

Select one of the following:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Genital warts

  • Proctitis

  • Miscarriage in pregnant women

Question 160 of 168

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The majority of people infected with HPV:

Select one of the following:

  • are prone to develop breast cancer

  • are likely to develop pelvic inflammatory disease

  • are male homosexuals

  • are likely to have no symptoms

Question 161 of 168

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Amy notices, several blisters on her labia, which are quite painful, especially when they burst. They go away in a few weeks, but often return unpredictably for 7 to 14-day periods. Amy regularly has sex with her boyfriend whom she met a month earlier. Her symptoms point to a likely case of:

Select one of the following:

  • HPV infection

  • genital herpes

  • chicken pox

  • chlamydia

Question 162 of 168

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If we examine AIDS in Thailand, it appears the most common means of transmission is:

Select one of the following:

  • homosexual intercourse

  • heterosexual intercourse

  • intravenous drug use

  • contaminated blood

Question 163 of 168

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In the United States, AIDS in infants has:

Select one of the following:

  • nearly been eliminated

  • doubled in the past 5 years

  • been found to be passed from fathers as well

  • remained uncontrolled because of the lack of drugs to treat AIDS

Question 164 of 168

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One of the main reasons for an increase in gonorrhea in the last couple of decades has been:

Select one of the following:

  • that gonorrhea has always increased during wartime activity.

  • that gonorrhea has mutated and is no longer curable with antibiotics.

  • the shift from the condom to the pill that has raised the infection among women.

  • the fact that both infected males and females are now asymptomatic for longer durations.

Question 165 of 168

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Neville reveals to his doctor that he had sex with a stranger almost a month ago while on vacation and is worried about the risk of a possible STI. The doctor finds that Neville is exhibiting the first stage of syphilis which is characterized by:

Select one of the following:

  • a grayish-greenish discharge

  • a chancre

  • a skin rash

  • blisters on the back

Question 166 of 168

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Identify the STI against which an effective vaccine is available.

Select one of the following:

  • Hepatitis B

  • Chlamydia

  • AIDS

  • Genital herpes

Question 167 of 168

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Candida is caused by a type of ____.

Select one of the following:

  • retrovirus

  • bacterium

  • fungus

  • protozoan

Question 168 of 168

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Drake is experiencing a discharge from his urethra and there is a mild discomfort when he urinates. Drake is most likely suffering from ____.

Select one of the following:

  • chlamydia

  • syphilis

  • HIV infection

  • genital warts

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