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What is the order of steps for the Breakthrough Strategy?
Reframe, use power to educate, build them a golden bridge, step to their side, go to the balcony
Use power to educate, build them a bridge, reframe, step to their side,
Go to the Balcony, user power to educate, reframe, build them a golden bridge, step to their side
Go to the Balcony, Step to their side, reframe, build them a golden bridge, user power to educate
Contingent reward: The degree to which the leader sets up constructive transactions or exchanges with followers. He or she clarifies expectations and establishes the rewards for meeting those expectations
The common information effect refers to the main determinant of how much a given fact influences a group decision is not the fact itself, but how many people happen to be aware of this fact prior to a group discussion
What are some threats to team creativity?
Evaluation apprehension and conformity
What all should you include to establish procedural fairness?
Consistency: procedures should be consist for every situation and person
Bias suppression: procedures should not be affected by personal self-interest
Accuracy: procedures should be based on accurate and valid info
Voice: allow those affected to have input in the decision making processes
Informal and Formal Q & A sessions to engage all stakeholders
A team charter?
What are the types of transactional leadership?
Management by exception: Degree to which leader takes corrective action on the basis of results of leader-follower transactions
Active: Monitor follower behavior, anticipate problems, and take corrective actions before the behavior creates serious difficulties
Passive: Wait until the behavior has created problems before taking action
Set goals and clear expectations
Provides support and recognition
Gets people to look beyond their self-interest.
The decision-making checklist includes the following:
1. Are the recommenders “in love” with their recommendation?
2. Were dissenting opinions explored within the recommending team?
3. Where did the numbers come from?
4. Are recommenders overly attached to past decisions?
5. If you had to make this decision again in a year, what information would you want, and can you get more of it now?
If you can read your teammates true emotions even when they are trying to hide them, what are you displaying?
As a leader, trust is built on three things:
The ability to repair trust as fast as possible
Bases of power
Behaviors of the leader
Sound moral and ethical principles
All of the above
What all is included to avoid escalation of commitment to a losing course of action?
SET LIMITS Ideally, a team should determine at the outset what criteria and performance standards justify continued investment in the project or program in question.
AVOID THE BYSTANDER EFFECT: In many situations, especially ambiguous ones, people are not sure how to behave and do nothing because they don't want to appear foolish. This dynamic explains the bystander effect, or the tendency to not take action when others are around.
AVOID TUNNEL VISION: Get several perspectives on the problem. Ask people who are not personally involved in the situation for their appraisal.
RECOGNIZE SUNK COSTS: Probably the most powerful way to avoid escalation of commitment is to simply recognize and accept sunk costs. Sunk costs are resources, such as money and time, previously invested that cannot be recovered. If making the initial decision today, would you make the investment currently under consideration (as a continuing investment), or would you choose another course of action? If the decision is not one that you would choose anew, you might want to start thinking about how to terminate the project and move to the next one.
AVOID BAD MOOD: Unpleasant emotional states are often implicated in poor decision making. Negative affect (such as bad mood, anger, and embarrassment) leads to nonoptimal courses of action—holding out the hope for some highly positive but risky outcome. When people are upset, they tend to choose high-risk, high-payoff options.
EXTERNAL REVIEW: In some cases, it is necessary to remove or replace the original decision makers from deliberations precisely because they are biased. One way to do this is with an external review of departments
What are the dimensions of transformational leadership?
Charisma or idealized influence:
Formal Recognition: refers to an individual and/or group providing contingently informal genuine acknowledgement, approval, and appreciation for work well done
What is part of the Big Five?
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Opennes to experience, Extraversion
Completeness, Agreeablenss, Neuroticism, Opneness to experience, Extraversion
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Emotional intelligence, Opennes to experience, Extraversion
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Emotional intelligence, Opennes to experience, Motivation
Team rewards may foster competition between teams, leading to suboptimization of the organizational goals.
Creating a bonus pool may be created based on the performance of the entire team. The bonus pool can be divided among the individuals who are members of the team based on how well the individuals performed is trying to avoid what?
Cutthroat cooperation effect
Level 1 of repairing trust is: Situation or Person. Relative easy, the situation. People subtract the effect of the situation and attribute what remains to the actor. Provide an external excuse and justification.
These fault lines may split a group into subgroups and provide an informal structure for intragroup conflict/Groups with strong fault lines are more likely to identify not with their group as a whole, but rather, with sub groups inside the team
What is missing to improve creativity in groups?
Create a functionally diverse team
Empower the team
Make it a competition
Use the anonymous nominal group technique
Establish a team charter
Set high quantity goals
Utilize informal recognition
Team members with lots of weak ties are best
Informal recognition refers to an individual and/or group providing contingently informal genuine acknowledgement, approval, and appreciation for work well done
LMX Theory: The leader-member-exchange model (LMX) focuses on the relationships that leaders develop with particular subordinates and what leaders of subordinates offer and receive in such relationships
Men are perceived as: independent, assertive and rational – autocratic style while women are perceived as: Women are more emotional, relationship focused, and accommodating – democratic style
What impacts creativity?
Being in groups
Level 3 of repairing trust is: Fixable or Fixed. You have to convince others that it was a stupid mistake and that it will not continue in the future. Each time you move down the level it becomes more difficult to repair trust. Will these issues persist into the future or not? Identify, acknowledge and assume responsibility. Offer an apology that acknowledges both guilt and regret. Voluntarily pay back the violation of the circumstance(s)
Halo Effect: It’s when we make an inference about specific traits on the basis of a general impression. It’s a mental short cut as we tend to grasp with relevant and tangible information, like performance. So we take that relevant information and make attributions about other stuff that are more vague or ambiguous. Pretty much a rule of thumb that lets people make guess about things that are hard to assess directly.
If you are repairing trust at level 3 what should you do?
Now the issue is whether or not these issues will persist into the future
•Identify, acknowledge, and assume responsibility
•Offer an apology (guilt + regret)
•Voluntarily paying a financial penalty
The most comprehensive way in which trust can be repaired is by affecting the truth of the violation
•Challenge the notion
•Provide tangible evidence
•Provide verbal denials (as long as consistent with the evidence)
Observers subtract the effect of the situation and attribute what remains to the actor
•Provide an external excuse
•Provide a justification
Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback are all part of what?
Improving group creativity
Ways to avoid groupthink
Groupthink: A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
Framing bias: The inconsistency is a preference reversal and reveals the framing bias. Almost any decision can be refrained as a gain or a loss relative to something
Four main principles:
1. Difficult specific goals lead to significantly higher performance than easy goals, no goals, or even the setting of an abstract goal such as urging people to do their best
2. Given goal commitment, the higher the goal the higher the performance
3. Incentives lead to the setting of and commitment to a specific difficult goal
4. Goal setting affects choice, effort, and persistence, but also cognition; people are motivated to discover ways to attain the goal
This describes what?
Providing rewards and punishment
A small request opens the door for a larger one. Asked people to put an ugly “Drive Carefully” sign in their front yard. 76% said yes if they had previously agreed to put a 3x3 inch safe driving sticker in their front window (versus 17%) is an example of what?
The drive-through technique
Overestimation of the group: Members of the group regard themselves as invulnerable and, at the same time, morally correct. This can lead decision makers to believe they are exempt from standards is part of what?
Threats to creativity
Threats to motivation
“Tell me about a time when you had to resolve a conflict between a coworker and a customer or supplier. How did the conflict come about, what were the steps you took to resolve it, and what was the eventual conclusion?” Is an example of what kind of question?
Behavioral or experience based
devil's advocate based
What is the order for organizational change process?
Enlist, Envisage, Understand, Motive, Communicate, Act, Consolidate
Communicate, Envisage, Understand, Enlist, Motivate, Consolidate, Act
Understand, Enlist, Envisage, Motivate, Communicate, Act, Consolidate
None of the above
"________________ step is gather and sharing information with key stakeholders to help them understand and align around the problem. This often occurs at a senior, depending on teh challenge". Is what step when going through organizational change?
Coming up with a vision
When enlisting what/who should you consider?
What is the effect on the stakeholders?
Who is the Sponsor?
Who is the Change Agent?
Who are the key Stakeholders?
Who are the helpers?
Who are the resisters?
What might we expect to see more of in the future? What might we expect to see less of in the future is part of what step in the organizational change process?
When Motivating in the organizational change process what all should you do?
Create a sense of urgency
Communicate the vision and strategy to all stakeholders
Share information and communicate honestly
Develop a strategy: "how you'll get there"
Make it personal
True or false: Repeat and reinforce your message during the change process using a variety of media is part of the "Communicate" step in organizational change?
Making structures compatible with the vision, aliging practices, policies, systems, providing training for employees, generate and publicize short-term wins, deal with managers who undercut needed change is part of which step for organizational change?
Consolidating uses increased creadibility to change policies, structures, and systems that don't support the vision, hire, promote and develop employees who can implement the vision, reinvigorate the process with new projects, themes, and change agents
When teams dwell on info is the commonly known and make decisions that often reflect the common knowledge. The portions of the superior decision alternative are with each different member, which could contradict the groups choice is known as what?
Threats to team creavitity
When setting up consistency, bias suppression, accuracy and voice what are you establishing?
Structured team decision-making
Ways to eliminate procedurally fariness
Ways to avoid group decision-making pitfalls
Which one(s) is the degree to which leader take correction action on the basis of results of leader-follower transactions?
Management by Exception (MBE)
Management by exception (Active)
Management by exception (Passive)
Larger teams are more likely to fall prey to groupthink. People grow more intimidated and hesitant as team size increases. Teams with more than 10 members may feel less personal responsibility for team outcomes
Passive MBE is waiting until behavior is a problem before doing something about it
Team members are more likely to discuss info that everyone knows, as opposed to unique information that each may have. As a result teams often fail to make decisions supported if all members had full info about the choice, is.....?
Hidden profile effect
Consequencess of the "common information effect"
Threats to team
What can you do to avoid decision-making pitfalls as a group?
Monitor team size
Make sure everyone is in a postive mood
Offer Contingent Rewards
The risk technique
Force the team to find a secon solution
Appoint a devil's advocate
Extend the time frame
When shifting to "System two" you are utilize a 1) 5 question checklist, focused on the decision-making process
2) Used to uncover "system one" errors and be detached from the recommendations
3) Use for important decisions, not the "rubber stamp" ones
4) The key is to be systematic and disciplined when using the checklist
The following helps to avoid what? "Many teams are afraid of being blamed for poor decisions—even decisions for which it would have been impossible to predict the outcome. Often, face-saving concerns prevent people from changing course, even when the current course is clearly doubtful. Teams that are given an excuse for poor performance before knowing the outcome of their decision are less likely to succumb to groupthink than teams that do not have an excuse."
The following best describes The "Risk Technique" to avoid groupthink: "a structured discussion situation designed to reduce group members' fears about making decisions. The goal is to create an atmosphere in which team members can express doubts and raise criticisms without fear of rejection or hostility from the team"
What leads to more risky decision making, add stress and impairs the team's effectiveness to making decisions?
Pressure of time
Lack of transformational leadership
Lack of contingent rewards
Discussing in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets or making clear what one can expect to receive when performance goals are achieved is part of Contingent reward
Its better to have contrived dissent over genuine dissent?
Indeed, groups with activated ______________ are more likely to form coalitions, experience conflict, and have lower satisfaction and lower group performance than groups with dormant ______________. Fill in the blank
Evaluation apprehension/conformity, free-riding/social loafing, production blocking, and performance matching are all threats to what?
What does LMX stand for?
When groups are under threat and desire to change, they favor men
How does mood impact creativity?
Positive mood promotes more expansive, divergent thinking, novelty, and playfulness
Dual-tuning model: Negative mood can help you determine which ideas are useful
Negative mood: can help think critically and how useful the idea is
The following is how to avoid escalation of commitment to a losing course of action: Set Limits, Avoid the bystander effect, avoid tunnel vision, recognize sunk costs, avoid bad mood and use an external review
Role Congruity Theory: proposes that a group will be positively evaluated when its characteristics are recognized as aligning with that group's typical social roles. For example: we assume teams with male leaders will be successful because their characteristics match up with the characteristics of a good leader.