Sexual Assault as defined by the Department of Defense.
Defined as intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, threats, intimidation, abuse of authority or when the victim does not or cannot consent.
Includes rape, forcible sodomy (oral or anal sex), and other unwanted sexual conduct that is aggravated, abusive, or wrongful (to include unwanted, inappropriate sexual contact), or attempts to commit these acts.
what constitutes sexual consent and what does not.
"Consent" is defined as words or overt acts indicating a freely given agreement to the sexual conduct at issue by a competent person.
An expression of lack of consent through words or conduct means there is no consent.
Department of Defense policy on confidentiality.
Victim can report sexual assault without automatic investigation (Restricted)
Confidentiality can remain intact only if reported to the SARC or to a health care provider on the military installation (not if reported through the chain of command)
Encourages victims to come forward for help
Gives victim time, support and increased control over personal information
risks associated with alcohol use as related to perpetration and victimization.
Alcohol is a contributor
assaults the victim
enables or encourages the perpetrator, allows the event to take place
observes the situation and chooses whether to act (or not)
assaulted by the perpetrator
significance of a Wingman as related to sexual assault prevention and response.
Protect your wingman by not acting as facilitators or passive bystanders
single most important part of character, moral compass of the military professional.
Service before self
Demands faith in the system. Total commitment to the highest ideals of personal sacrifice.
Excellence in all we do
not only a professional obligation but a moral responsibility as well. Strive to exceed standards and always search for new and innovative ways to accomplish the mission. .
importance of air force core values to
Personal growth and development o Professional growth and development and human relations
Establish an environment whereby all airmen are actively involved in eliminating waste and continuously improving processes.
AFSO21 roles and
Control chain responsibilities Standardizing and stabilizing the best practices that maximize value and minimize waste
o Employ a knowledge management system to share standard reference material and results from improvement activities
methods of Continuous Process Improvement ( CPI)
THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS
conducts the administrative affairs of the department and is directly responsible to the secretary of Defense. In the overall administration of the department, the secretary handles matters relating to the budget.
Chief of staff
Military head of the air force Member of the joint chiefs of staff
Responsible to the SECAF
CMSGT of the air force
Highest enlisted member Represents enlisted interest to the public and all levels government
Personal adviser to the chief of staff and SECAF
two series of treaties that have
greatest influence on the Law of Armed Conflict
Hague Conventions and the Geneva Conventions
Identify the types of economic
sanctions available to enforce the laws of war
Embargoes, boycotts, blockades and seizure of property belonging to the offending state. For example, during the Iraq war, financial transactions and transfers of funds to the Iraqi gov or to any other entity in Iraq or Kuwait were forbidden
ways to motivate people using Maslow’s needs theory.
Find out what need is lacking lower level need must be fulfilled first
Distinguish between McGregor’s
three motivational approaches.
o Theory X – people lacking ambition, people prefer to be told what to do. Knuckleheads. People resist change, people don’t like work
Hard approach – COERCION, tight controls over behavior, micromanagement
Soft approach – MANIPULATION, satisfying peoples desires, achieving harmony, manipulative approach, relaxing standards and permissive attitude.
o Theory Y – people actively seek work, Go Getters, prefer participate management
Create the correct environment: positive atmosphere, participation in decision. Open to follower contribution
ways to motivate people using
McGregor’s theory Y approach
Recognize achievements / contributions
• Don’t make promises you can’t keep
• Be a good role model
Give more responsibility when appropriate
• Let people model
Principles of War
unity of command
Economy of force
Direct military operations toward a define and attainable objective that contributes to strategic, operational, and tactical aims
Provides the means for forces to dictate the time, purpose, scope, intensity
Purpose of mass is to concentrate the effects of combat power at the most advantageous place and time to achieve decisive results
o Economy of force
Allocate minimum essential resources to secondary efforts
Places the enemy in a place of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power in a multidimensional combat space
Unity of command
Ensures concentration of effort for every objective under one responsible commander
Never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage.
Leverages the security principle by attacking the enemy at a time, place or manner for which they are not prepared
Avoiding unnecessary complexity in organizing, preparing, planning, and conducting military operations.
tenets of airpower
Centralized Control/Decentralized Executiono Flexibility/Versatility
o Synergistic Effects
how the tenets of air power
complement the principles of
While the principles of war provide general guidance on the application of military forces, the tenets provide more specific considerations for the employment of air, space and cyberspace capabilities. They reflect the specific lessons of air, space, and cyberspace capabilities throughout history.
what constitutes a profession
A vocation or occupation characterized by special knowledge and skills applied and dedicated to the improvement of society.
three characteristics of a profession according to Samuel P. Huntington
Broad Liberal Knowledge
The US Constitution
Maintain High Standards
Serve the American People
Education and training
Internal promotions and discipline
Promoting the growth of professiona
Differentiate between an institution and an occupation
An institution is legitimated in terms of values and norms that is a purpose transcending individual self interest in favor of a presume higher grade. An occupation is profession of three essential characteristics identified as expertise, responsibility, and corporateness.
Summarize the growth of executive dominance in foreign affairs
Presidential ascendancy has been expanding throughout the period since World War II
Describe key Constitutional powers of the US Congress
Assess and collect taxes-, regulate commerce, both interstate and foreign; to establish post offices and post roads; to declare war. To make laws.
concept of resiliency
The ability to withstand, recover and/or grow in the face of stressors and changing demands.
elements of Resiliency
Establish doctrinal guidance for leadership and force development.
fundamental elements of Air Force leadership
Motivate, influence, and direct people to carry out the mission
components of Air Force leadership
Institutional Competencies:Personal - face to face, interpersonal relations
Personal Leadership Competencies:
People/Team Competencies: Leading people - develop and inspire
six major environmental issues and their impact
Working place and living environment pollution
importance of managing diversity in the military.
Increases productivity and mission accomplishment. Mirrors civilian workforce.
Describe the AF Equal Opportunity Program
Foster and support equal opportunity, the AF Core Values and Airman's Creed, and must be carried out in the day-to-day actions of all personnel. The AF will not tolerate unlawful discrimination and sexual harassment or reprisal against individuals who engage in protected activity.
objective of the Military Equal Opportunity Program.
To improve mission effectiveness by providing an environment in which service members are ensured an opportunity to rise to the highest level of responsibility possible in the military profession, dependent only on merit, fitness and capability.
Identify the five key services of the AF Equal Opportunity Program.
MEO formal/informal complaint processing
Civilian EO informal complaint processing
Out and about assessments
Human relations education ( as requested by commanders)
Quarterly statistical reporting
eight sources of power
Personal: expertise, attraction, effort, legitimacy
Positional: centrality, flexibility, visibility, relevance
three strategies of transforming power into influence.
Force others to do what you say!
Produces immediate results, but stifles initiative and innovation
Help others want to do what you say do.
Both parties benefit, but requires trust
Show others that it makes sense to do what you say do.
Higher compliance and job satisfaction, but takes time to build trust
four stages of group growth
differences between groups and teams
Stronger sense of identification
Common goals or tasks
Member & task interdependence
Differentiated & specialized roles
Identify the characteristics of effective teams.
Defined mission, tasks, objective, or function
Cooperation & communication
Identify the principles of effective teams
○ Be clear & direct
○ Be concise
○ Listen actively
○ Avoid interrupting
Clarity in Team Goals
○ Everyone understands purpose & goals
○ No confusion or disagreement
accomplishing the mission
minimizing resource costs
four basic management functions
three primary roles of managers.
Interpersonal: figurehead, leader, liaison
Informational: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
Decisional: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
concept of Full-Range Leadership.
involves a wide variety of behaviors
helps resolve issues that arise in dynamic environments
illustrates behaviors needed to accomplish mission
elements of the Full-Range Leadership Model.
disconnected from the mission
Focus more on day-to-day task rather than inspiration of others
Management by Excpectipn (MBE)
Passive- Leader waits for things to go wrong
Active- Micro manages
Accomplish the task and receive an award
Focus becomes motivating/inspiring followers
4 types of Transformational Leadership
Individual Consideration (IC)
aimed specifically at subordinate development
leader promotes self-development
Helps others identify strengths and weaknesses
Intellectual Stimulation (IS)
leader stimulates creative thinking
pushes subordinates to think about new solutions
Inspirational Motivation (IM)
leader inspire and motivate subordinates
articulation of vision and expectations is key
subordinates gain confidence, and have a sense of purpose
Idealized Influence (II)
Leader is a role model
Actions align with core values
Attributes drive subordinates to emulate leader
Clearly telling people what, how, where, and when
Closely supervising performance
Listening to people
providing support and encouragement
Facilitate involvement in problems solving
and decision making
Four Situational Leadership Syles
High task, Low relationship
Solves problem & makes key decisions
Directs then guides follower
High task, High relationship
Hears suggestions, ideas, & opinions
Maintains decision making
High relationship, Low task
Focus of control shifts to follower
Follower has ability & knowledge to complete task
Leader actively listens & builds confidence
Low task, Low relationship
Follower makes key decisions & implement
Offers resource support
Delegates tasks judiciously
Encourages risk-taking & independent thought
how to assess followers’ performance readiness.
interplay between ability and willingness determine the levels of performance. Ability- amount of knowledge and experience
Willingness- amount of confidence and commitment.
each performance readiness level in the Situational Leadership Model
R1: Unable and insecure, or unwilling=S1 Telling
R2: Unable, but confident or willing=S2 Selling
R3: Able, but insecure or unwilling=S3 Participating
R4: Able, confident, & willing: Ready to achieve=S4 Delegating
differences between hearing and listening.
Physical act of receiving sound
Define effective listening
Involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between verbal and nonverbal messages
five steps of the listening process
Receiving – starts with a sound
Attending to – paying attention to the sound
Understanding – assigning meaning
Evaluating – agreeing or disagreeing
Responding – action (verbal or non-verbal
Explain the seven-step process for improving listening ability
1. Be conscious of your listening behavior
2. Motivate yourself to listen
3. Prepare to listen
4. Control your reactions
5. Work at listening
6. Listen for ideas
7. Concentrate on the message
List the risk factors associated with suicide
Negative social interactions
Actions airmen may take to intervene in impeding suicides
A-Ask your wingman
C-Care for your wingman
E-Escort your wingman
Reasons why airmen fail to seek suicide prevention help
Feels trapped as though nothing will help
Experiences tremendous guilt or shame
Sees themselves as worthless or a failure
Can’t get out of a depression
act or ceremony stemming from tradition
responsibilities as a professional military officer for reporting a violation of the LOAC
You must report the violation to your immediate commander. If the commander is apparently involved in the incident, then the report should be made to the next higher person with command authority.
When aircraft can attack targets located in an area densely populated with civilians
When the overall military gains from the attack outweigh the risks posed to the civilian population
Identify the types of economic sanctions available to enforce the laws of war
Embargoes, boycotts, blockades and seizure of property belonging to the offending state
two series of treaties that have the greatest influence on the Law of Armed Conflict
Hague Conventions and the Geneva Conventions
appropriate procedures when handling a suspected Honor Code violation
Take immediate action• Obtain witness (if possible)
• Approach suspected violator
• Do not discuss details outside those involved
• Understand implications of questioning integrity
Explain the interrelation of the core values and the code of conduct
adhering to the core values and warrior ethos forges a bond that ties you and all other military members together in strength, fidelity and honor
Article 2 of UCMJ
persons subject to this chapter. All military members
Article 7 of the UCMJ
the taking of a person into custody
Article 15 of the UCMJ
Commanding officer's non judicial punishment i.e suspension from duty, for nor more than 30 days, arrest in quarters for 30 days, forfeiture of not more than one-half of one month's pay per month
Article 31 of the UCMJ
Compulsory self-incrimination prohibited No person subject to this chapter may compel any person to incriminate himself or to answer any question the answer to which may tend to incriminate him.
goal of the Air Force Complaints Resolution Program (CRP)
To create an atmosphere of trust in which issues can be objectively and fully resolved without retaliation or the fear of reprisal
rights of a complainant in the Complaints Resolution Program (CRP)
File an IG complaint at any level without going through their supervisory channel
File a complaint with an IG without fear of reprisal
Request withdrawal of their IG complaint in writing;
goal of the Fraud, Waste, and Abuse (FWA) program
To use all available means to prevent, detect, and correct instances of FWA; to appropriately discipline perpetrators involved in FWA activities;
purpose of the Air Force Inspection System (AFIS)
To assess and report on a unit's readiness, economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and state of discipline to execute assigned missions.
Define “servant” in terms of being a servant of the nation
An officer makes a voluntary choice to place the nation’s interests ahead of his or her own personal desires
Describe the relationship between servitude , the Constitution, and our second core value of Service Before Self
Officers make a voluntary choice to serve the nation, to place the nation's interest ahead of his own personal desires/ swear to uphold the ideals and obligation embedded in our nation's constitution, laws and elected reps.
List the rights of which the Declaration of Independence is based
Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
Article I of the constitution
Article II of the Constitution
The Executive power of the president
Article III of the constitution
Judicial power and Supreme Court
Article IV of the Constitution
regulates the states' powers, and their interaction with the National government..
sets up the amendment process
2/3 of both houses shall deem it necessary
sets the status of the Constitution as the supreme law of the land, to which leaders must be loyal.
addresses ratification and declares that the constitution should take affect if 9 out of 13 states ratify
three enduring truths that describe the fundamental nature of war
o An instrument of policy, strategy, or culture
o A complex chaotic human endeavor
o A clash of opposing walls
• Define war according to Clausewitz
War is nothing but a duel on an extensive scale… Each strives by physical force to compel the other to submit to his will… War therefore is an act of violence to compel our opponent to do our will.”
• Identify the basic themes of war
o Politics and violence are intertwined
o War is policy “…that fights battles instead of writing notes”
o War is the continuation of politics with the addition of other means
4 viewpoints on war
Just War Theory
Wars are clashes of power and interest. Moral constraints should never be put above a nation’s self-interest. Focuses on military necessity, where all methods can or should be used to achieve victory
– Wars aren’t merely human affairs: Divine instruments of judgment authorized by God God responsible for outcome Cosmic battle between Good and Evil
Returning violence for violence multiplies violence, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. Opposes war as a means of settling disputes and advocates use of arbitration, surrender, or even migration Avoidance of war at all costs. War only as a last resort. Opposes war.
Just War Theory
Killing is morally unacceptable… Determine when war is morally justified and define actions that are permissible. Focuses on: Protection of non-combatants Wage war by clearly defined rules. Bottom line: Fight for a just cause and employ just means
• List the three factors that dominate war
Difficulty to see and understand what’s happening in battle. Once a literal “fog.” Now more figuratively: Too much happening, Misinformation, Conflicting information, Overwhelmed with too much info
Murphy’s Law at its worst! Troops are lost, Bombs miss their target, Enemies don’t act as expected. Friction is that which seems easy in war planning made difficult in reality!
– Plain dumb luck and fortune
• Describe the evolution of warfare according to Alan Beyerchen’s taxonomy of four world
o WWI: chemists - Decisive factor:
o WWII: physicists - Application of physics theories
o WWIII: information researcher's war-intel
o WWIV: social scientists (cross cultural, new "weapons" like understanding and empathy.
Priorities of the USAF
o Priorities – continue to strengthen the nuclear enterprise
o o Modernize our air and space inventories organizations, and training
key elements within and related to a typical Air Force Wing structure
o Wing Commander
o Wing Staff
o Comptroller Squadron
o Operations Group
o Maintenance Group
o Mission support group and medical group
The Department of Defense
• Identify the role of the President
determines the security needs of the nation and then takes courses of action to ensure that those are met.
Department of Defense
Role of Secretary of Defense
Support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; Ensure, by timely and effective military action, the security of the United States, its possessions, and areas vital to its interest; and Uphold and advance the national policies and interests of the United States
Department of Defense
Role of Joint Chiefs
members of the JCS serve as the communications chain of command and military staff to the unified and specified commanders. The JCS prepares strategic plans and provides for the strategic direction of the Armed Forces
role of the Armed Forces Policy Council
o They not only advise the Secretary of Defense on matters of broad policy relating to the Armed Forces, but also considers and reports on any other matters that, in the opinion of the Secretary, need attention
Define unified and specified command
o Specified commands are normally composed of forces from one military service; Unified Commands comprise forces from two or more military services and falls under one commander
State the Army mission
fight and win the Nation's wars through prompt and sustained land combat, as part of the joint force
List the major components of the Department of the Army
o Regular Army - Full-time soldiers
o Army Reserve - The reserve force, specialized and on call
o Army National Guard
definition of landpower
o Impose the Nation’s will on an enemy, by force if necessary.
o Engage to influence, shape, prevent, and deter in any operational environment.
o Establish and maintain a stable environment that sets the conditions for political and economic development.
o Secure and support bases from which joint forces can influence and dominate the air, land, and maritime domains of an operational environment
List the strategic roles of the Army
o Prevent – the Army must prevent conflict
o Shape – the Army must help shape the international environment to enable our coalition partners and contain our enemies.
o Win – the Army must be ready to win, and win decisively; to be able to attack and defend successfully against enemy ground forces.
o “Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives.
o Authoritative but requires judgment in application.
o Presents considerations on how to accomplish military goals and objectives
primary reason a commander may be forced to depart from doctrine
Political, economic, or social situation
State how a nation determines its national objectives
o Vital Interests—Broad, overriding importance to the survival, safety, and vitality of our nation
o Major interests—Affect our national well-being
o Peripheral Interests—Our nation may act because our values demand
List in order the five steps in the strategy process
o Determine National Security Objectives
o Grand National Strategy
o Military Strategy
o Operational Strategy
o Battlefield Strategy.
• Identify external factors that influence the strategy process
o Threats, Domestic Politics, Physical Environment, Economics, Technology, Leadership
Culture/Society, International Politics, Geography, Doctrine
Define the three levels of Air Force doctrine
o Basic Doctrine – Most fundamental and enduring beliefs that describe and guide the proper use, presentation, and organization of forces in military actions. - NOT a checklist
o Operational Doctrine – More detailed... how to organize and employ military forces and applies the principles of basic doctrine to military actions.
o Tactical Doctrine Most – detailed...describes proper employment of specific Air Force Assets ...it's the "specific tactics to accomplish specific missions.
what the principles of war provide to Airmen
o These apply to all areas of war including air, space, and cyberspace
Unity of Command
Ensures unity of effort for every objective under one commander.
operations toward a defined attainable objective.
Act rather than react and dictate the time, place, purpose, scope, intensity, and pace of operations. Seize the initiative
- Concentrate combat power at the decisive time and place.
Place the enemy in a disadvantage through combat power.
Economy of Force
- Create usable mass by using minimum combat power on secondary objectives. Make the fullest use of all forces available.
- Protects friendly forces and their operations from enemy actions that could provide the enemy with an unexpected advantage
- Strike the enemy at a time or place where they are unprepared.
- Avoid unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning, and conducting military operations.
List the tenets of airpower
1. Centralized Control/Decentralized Execution-
3. Synergistic Effect
how the tenets of air power complement the principles of war
The principles of war are for all use of force but airpower is unique and the tenets of airpower are more of a supplement
Describe the US Army’s initial reaction to the Wright Brothers’ heavierthan-air flying machine.
expressed little to no interest
Define strategic bombing
Attacking the heart of the enemy’s homeland in an attempt to destroy the enemy’s war-making capacity, infrastructure, and will to fight
impact of the allied strategic bombing campaign against Germany
It had a slight/little outcome on the war
Laid the foundation for future thought
List the major ideas espoused by Giulio Douhet
o Believed airpower was supreme after WWI
o Believed bombers would win all wars; land and naval forces would be defensive in nature
o Air weapon would be used against ports, railroads, and economic structures
o Best way to gain air superiority was to destroy the enemy’s ground organization
Describe Building Partnerships
Airmen interacting with international airmen to develop, guide, and sustain relationships for mutual benefit and security
Air Force definition of culture
Culture is the creation, maintenance, and transformation across generations of semi-shared patterns of meaning, sense-making, affiliation, action, and organization by groups
three skills of the Air Force Cross-Cultural Competence (3C) Development model
Culture-General: The ability to quickly and accurately comprehend, and then effectively act in any culturally complex environment to achieve the desired effect for the mission.
Culture-Specific: An approach that emphasizes specific aspects of particular cultures, affording Airmen much of the knowledge and/or skills necessary to interact more competently
State the definition of cultural domains.
Twelve universal categories of interaction, belief and meaning charred by all cultures
Family and Kinship
Ties between people who see themselves related by blood or by marriage
Sex and Gender
Biological differences between men and women, corresponding roles and responsibilities assigned by society, and associated beliefs and values
Sustenance of Health
The means and rituals by which humans feed themselves and treat their bodies
Religion and Spirituality
System of ideas about the spiritual reality or the supernatural along with beliefs and ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and control aspects of the universe
Politics and Social Relations
Individuals’ differential access to power and the ways groups of people exercise power, govern themselves, and collectively lead their daily lives
Economics and Resources
Impact of available resources and ways goods and services are allocated, produced, distributed and consumed in a society
History and Myth
The ways people perceive themselves and their culture based on past events and stories passed down generation to generation
Learning and Knowledge
Ways society transmits knowledge and cultural expectations to others
Tech and Materials
How society uses raw materials, equipment, knowledge and skills to transform their natural environment
Aesthetics and Recreation
Expressions of cultural norms of beauty or style and the ways people spend their leisure time
Language and Communication
Activity of transmitting thoughts, feelings, and information between people. Most important factor determining our effectiveness in another culture
Time and Space
How a culture views use of time and personal space (manifested in language and communication
three elements of cross-cultural communication
Non verbal-touch, space, time, movement
Situation where two parties find themselves divided by perceived incompatible interests or goals or competition for control of scarce resources
Define the three levels of Air Force doctrine
Basic Doctrine – Most fundamental and enduring beliefs that describe and guide the proper use, presentation, and organization of forces in military actions
Operational Doctrine-how to organize and employ military forces
Tactical- specific tactics to accomplish specific missions
ACC- AIR COMBAT COMMAND
HQ: JOINT BASE LANGLEY-EUSTIS, VA
Provides primary force of combat air power to America's war fighting commands
AMC- AIR MOBILITY COMMAND
HQ: SCOTT AFB, IL
To provide global air mobility….right effects, right place, right time
AFSPC- AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND
HQ: VANDENBERG AFB, CA
Provide resilient and cost-effective space and cyberspace capabilities for the joint force and the nation
AETC- Air Education and Training Command
HQ: Randolph AFB San Antonio, Tx
Recruit, train and educate Airmen to deliver airpower for America.
AFMC- AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND
HQ: WRIGHT-PAT, OH
Equip the Air Force for World-Dominant Airpower
AFSOC- AIR FORCE SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND
HQ: HURLBURT FIELD, FL
Present combat ready Air Force Special Operations forces to conduct and support global special operations missions
AFRC- AIR FORCE RESERVE COMMAND
HQ: ROBINS AFB, GA
MISSION: fly fight and win in air, space and cyberspce
PACAF- Pacific Air Forces
HQ: HICKAM AFB, HI
provide US Pacific command integrated expeditionary Air Force capabilities to defend the Homeland, promote stability, dissuade/deter aggression, and swiftly defeat enemies
USAFE- UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IN EUROPE
HQ: RAMSTEIN AB, GERMANY
directs air operations in a theatre spanning 3 continents, covering more than 15 million square mile, containing 104 independent states, and possessing more than one-fifth of the world's population