These signs and symptoms are indicative of which of the following?
-Inc. CO2 Retention -Inc. Mucus -Orthopneic -Exertional Dyspnea -1-2 Word Dyspnea -Prolonged Expiratory Time -Thin Appearance
-No Cyanosis -Ineffective Cough -Barrel Chest -Easily Fatigued -Anxious -Use of Accessory Muscles -Leads to R Sided Heart Failure
-Purse Lip Breathing -Bronchi Collapse on Expiration -SOB -Wheezing -Frequent U.R.I.s -Digital Clubbing
Right sided failure
Left sided failure
The exchange of air into and out of the lungs.
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the organism and the environment. A cellular level of exchange.
Where should the distal end of an ETT be if it is correctly placed?
The right mainstem bronchi
The left mainstem bronchi
Just superior to the carina
What is Atelectasis?
The natural balance the body tries to maintain.
The collapse or partial collapse of a lung caused by deflation of the alveoli.
The counter movement caused by 2 or more breaks in 2 or more consecutive ribs.
The inflammation of the abdomen caused by alcoholism or poor liver function.
Which of the following is true of the diaphragm? (Choose all that apply)
It is the primary mover of the respiratory system
It is the secondary mover of the respiratory system
It is controlled by the phrenic nerve
It is controlled by the vagus nerve
It is involved in inhalation, which is a passive process
It is involved in inhalation, which is an active process
It is involved in exhalation, which is a passive process
It is involved in exhalation, which is an active process
What is the term given to the lining of the outside of the lungs?
What is the rubbing of the visceral and parietal pleura called?
What is the term given to the inner lining of the chest cavity?
How are ventilations regulated on a healthy, conscious patient? (Choose all that apply)
By the medulla
By the pons
By the vagus nerve, via stretch receptors
By the phrenic nerve, via chemoreceptors
By changes in the partial pressure of O2, detected by chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries, aorta, and the medulla
By changes in the partial pressure of CO2, detected by chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries, aorta, and the medulla
What is the normal SpO2 range for a patient with COPD?
Which of the following can cause interference with diffusion of O2 and CO2 particles accross the alveolar membrane? (Choose all that apply)
Fluid in interstital spaces
Thickening of the endothelial lining
Increased intrathoracic pressure due to inhalation
What does our body require for good pulmonary perfusion? (Choose all that apply)
Adequate blood volume
Intact pulmonary capillaries
Efficient pumping action by the heart
Obstruction due to trauma, infection, or foreign body in the lower or upper airway can cause disruption in ventilations.
Which of the following are signs of a life threatening problem with regards to the assessment of the respiratory system? (Choose all that apply)
Altered Mental Status (AMS)
Severe central cyanosis, pallor, or diaphoresis
Absent or abnormal breath sounds
1-2 word dyspnea
Use of accessory muscles or presence of retractions
Doubled over grasping the knees
Systolic blood pressure of 115
Which of the following are causes for disruption of ventilations? (Choose all that apply)
Obstruction due to trauma, foreign body, or infection
Proper ventilation cannot take place without which of the following? (Select one)
An adequate airway
Which of the following indicate respiratory distress?
Purse lip breathing
Ability to speak in full sentences
Blue or pink skin
Altered mental status
Excessive accessory muscle usage
Which of the following is the term for hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen?
Which of the following can cause a false reading on an SpO2 sensor?
Which of the following can cause disruption in perfusion?
Alteration in blood flow
Change in hemoglobin availability
A hard night of drinking
What is the first thing you should check when arriving on scene?
What Is characterized by sudden and severe shortness of breath at night that can wake a person up can cause coughing and wheezing.
Paraoxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
Which of the following are important to ask in an OPQRST history?
What makes it better/worse
What made you call us today
How bad is it (scale of 1-10)
How long has it been going on
How do you feel
Are you currently taking any medications
Which of the following refers to blood produced with coughing?
Which of the following does Pneumonia produce?
Yellow/White and thick
Which of the following does Asthma or Bronchitis produce?
Which of the following does TB produce?
What is another term for paradoxical movement?
Contralateral chest syndrome
Crackles in the skin are indicitave of __________.
Air leaking from the respiratory system
What 3 things should you do for a physical examination of the respiratory system?
Palpate, measure, and inspect
Inspect, palpate, and percuss
Stop, drop, and roll
Look, listen, and learn
What is a major difference between asthma and emphysema?
Emphysema patients are barrel chested all the time, Asthma patients are only barrel chested when they are having an exacerbation
There is no difference
Asthma patients have wheezes, Emphysema patients do not
Asthma patients will have anxiety as one of their symptoms, Emphysema patients will not
Which of these patients are known as "Pink Puffers?"
What kind of sound is snoring?
Upper airway obstruction
Lower airway obstruction
Fluid in lower airway
Which breath sound could be described as ominous, inspiratory, and in the upper airway?
Which breath sound is associated with being "musical?"
Which of the following can be described as coarse and rattling?
Which of the following could be described as crackles?
What does PEFR stand for?
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
Perfusing Even Flow Rate
Pulmonary Edema Friction Rub
Pulmonary Education For Rehab
Which of the following indicates chronic hypoxia?
Define Pulsus Paradoxus:
When you have paradoxical movement of the chest resultant of multiple fractures of 2 or more consecutive ribs
When there is a drop of 10 or more mmHg in systolic blood pressure on inhalation due to increased intrathoracic pressure
Inflammation of the abdomen due to increased pulse rate
The collapse of the alveoli due to a lack of surfactant
Which of the following can provide a false positive when using capnography? (Choose all that apply)
What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult?
12-20 per minute
15-30 per minute
25-50 per minute
What is the age at which patients are determined to be adults?
What is the normal respiratory rate for a child (1-8 yrs)?
What is the normal respiratory rate for an infant (<1 yr)?
Which of the following are the basic principles of Respiratory Distress management?
Maintain the airway, use an advanced of an airway as you feel comfortable with ASAP. Maintainting airway patency is the priority.
Maintain the airway, start with basic airway maintenance and advance from there. Always protect C-Spine if trauma is suspected.
Any patient with respiratory distress should receive O2.
O2 should never be withheld from a patient with suspected hypoxia.
Put an OPA in every patient, regardless of consciousness.
Give every patient with respiratory distress an albuterol treatment, it can't hurt them.
The number 1 cause of upper airway obstruction is ____________.
mucus and surfactant
What does ARDS stand for?
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Acute Repositional Dyspnea Sleep
Alive but Ready to Die for Shit
COPD can be caused by all of the following: Sepsis, Aspiration, PNA, Pulmonary Injury, Burns/Inhalation Injury, O2 Toxicity, Drugs, High Altitude, Hypothermia, Near Drowning Syndrome, Head Injury, Pulmonary Embolism, Tumor Destruction, Pancreatitis, Invasive Procedures (Bypass, Hemodialysis), Hypoxia, Hypotension, or Cardiac Arrest.
What are the 3 -ates of managing an Asthma patient?
Oxygenate, Dilate, Hydrate
Oxygenate, Inflate, Hydrate
Hydrate, Elevate, Palpate
Which way will the trachea deviate if the patient has a collapsed left lung?
Which way will the trachea deviate if the patient has a tension pneumothorax on the right side?
Which of the following are signs and symptoms of left sided failure? (Choose all that apply)
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
Blood tinged sputum
Which of the following are indicative of right sided heart failure?
Increased peripheral venous pressure
Anorexia and complaints of GI distress
Onset before age 12 years