Pathology

Question 1 of 18

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Permanent tissues (cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and nerves) cannot undergo hyperplasia, as they do not have stem cells

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 2 of 18

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Metaplasia is an adaptive change from one ___________________________ cell type to ________________________________-

Select one or more of the following:

  • differentiated

  • another differentiated cell type

Question 3 of 18

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Dysplasia is recognized by the alteration in the ___________________________ of cells and is still ______________________

Select one or more of the following:

  • size, shape and arangement

  • reversible

Question 4 of 18

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All of the following are key drivers of cell injury except?

Select one of the following:

  • Loss of ATP

  • Increase in cytoplasmic calcium

  • decrease in cytoplasmic calcium

  • Generation of Reactive oxygen species

Question 5 of 18

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All of the following are conditions where there is hypoxia without ischemia

Select one of the following:

  • High altitude

  • decreased ventilation

  • decreased Oxygen transfer (ex. emphysema)

  • Polycythemia

  • CO poisoning

Question 6 of 18

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Loss of ATP in cell injury leads to all of the following except

Select one of the following:

  • Impairs oxidative phosphorylation

  • Loss of function of Na/K ATPase pump

  • Calcium influx thereby increasing intracytoplasmic calcium

  • Increase in pH causing clumping of chromatin

  • decreased protein synthesis due to ribosomal dysfunction and swelling

Question 7 of 18

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All of the following result due to increased cytoplasmic calcium in cell injury except?

Select one of the following:

  • Increased calcium activates phospholipase, protease, endonuclease and ATPase etc

  • It also activates mitochondrial permeability transition pore which results in loss of membrane potential of mitochondria further limiting oxidative phosphorylation

  • Lipid peroxidation and membrane damage

  • None of the above

Question 8 of 18

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All of the following about ROS is correct except

Select one of the following:

  • Most potent ROS is O2-

  • H2O2 can act distant from site of production and is the intermediary of hydroxyl radical

  • Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) damages lipids proteins and DNA

Question 9 of 18

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Which of the following are the morphological changes that are seen in REVERSIBLE cell injury?

Select one of the following:

  • Cell swelling

  • Cytoplasmic eosinophilia

  • Plasma membrane blebbing

  • Chromatin clumping and redistribution due to decreased pH

  • All of the above

  • None of the above

Question 10 of 18

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The morphologic hallmark of cell death (irreversible cell injury) is loss of nucleus

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 11 of 18

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Coagulative necrosis in which tissue becomes a dry, opaque, eosinophilic mass containing the outlines of anucleated cells, resulting from the denaturation of proteins following hypoxia - is seen in all tissues except brain

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 12 of 18

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Pancreatitis exhibits 2 forms of necrosis they are 1____________________ and 2____________________________

Select one or more of the following:

  • Liquefactive

  • Fat

Question 13 of 18

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Caseous necrosis usually caused by mycobacterial or fungal infections

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 14 of 18

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The difference between dry and wet gangrene is that dry gangrene is associated with infection whereas the wet gangrene is not

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 15 of 18

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Resumption of blood supply and oxygenation to ischemic tissue may lead to further injury and tissue destruction

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 16 of 18

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Necrosis happens to a group of cells which leads to inflammation whereas apoptosis affects single cells marked by shrinkage of the cell, condensation of chromatin, formation of cytoplasmic blebs and fragmentation of the cell into membrane bound apoptotic bodies that are eliminated by phagocytosis

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 17 of 18

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Regarding apoptosis

Select one of the following:

  • Anti apoptotic proteins are BCL-2,BCL-XR, MCL1 - keep the Mitochondrial outer membrane impermeable by preventing the leakage of cytochrome c and other death-inducing proteins into the cytosol

  • Pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK upon activation oligomerizes within the outer mitochondrial protein and promote mitochondrial permeability by forming a channel in the outer membrane that allows leakage of cytochrome c from the intermembranous space

  • apoptosis is mediated by caspases - intrinsicpathway by inactivation of BCL-2

  • Extrinsic pathway via FasL-Fas death receptors

  • All of the above are true

  • 1,2 and 4 are true

  • 3,4 are true

  • None of the above

Question 18 of 18

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Atrophy is a result of decrease in stress which results in decrease in size and or volume of cell mass

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False
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ivenkat
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

questions on cell injury and inflammation

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Created by ivenkat over 1 year ago
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