What type of cellular adaptation is seen in this picture? (Hint: it's the prostate)
What type of cellular adaptation is seen in this organ?
The heart can undergo both hypertrophy and hyperplasia.
What type of cellular adaptation is seen in this picture?
Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding metaplasia?
Most common change is columnar --> squamous
The new cell type is better capable of enduring the stressful environment
It is an irreversible process
It occurs in respiratory epithelium
The thyroid pictured on the right has undergone hyperplasia and hypertrophy.
Myocardial hypertrophy is always pathologic.
This patient with tonsilitis shows cells that have undergone:
Vitamin A deficiency is associated with atrophy because the cells need Vitamin A for differentiation of specialized epithelium.
Which of the following is not associated with Hypoxemia?
Budd-Chiari Syndrome is an example of hypoperfusion of the tissue with blood leading to reduced supply of oxygen and substrates for glycolysis.
Methemoglobinemia can cause hypoxemia by creating a ventilation perfusion mismatch.
Which of the following is NOT associated with reversible changes of cell injury.
Plasma membrane blebbing
Myelin figures in the cytoplasm
Which term best describes the nuclear changes shown?
Pyknosis: shrinkage and increased basophilia due to chromatin condensation
Karyorrhexis: fragmentation of pyknotic nuclei
Karyolysis: Decreased nuclear basophilia due to DNA degradation by nucleases
Loss of nuclei
What are the 2 main events that characterize irreversible cell injury ?
Disturbances in the membrane function and activation of the complement system
Glycogenolysis and increased pH in the interstitial fluid
Mitochondrial dysfunction and breakdown of cell membrane
Loss of microvilli and detachment of ribosomes from the ER
These hepatocytes have undergone reversible cell injury.
What type of necrosis is demonstrated in these images?
Liquefactive necrosis only occurs in the brain.
What is the type of necrosis demonstrated by these images?
Wet-gangrene is a superimposed bacterial infection in an area with necrosis due to loss of blood supply (coagulative necrosis).
Which of the following is NOT associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species?
The electron transport chain
Ischemia-Reperfusion injuries can happen when blood flow is restored to ischemic viable tissue which is reversibly injured.
Antioxidants, chelators, and catalase are all examples of mechanisms that can remove ROS
Dystrophic calcification occurs in dead/dying tissues in the absence of systemic hypercalcemia. Cell loses ability to regulate intracellular calcium and crystalline calcium phosphate forms.
Which of the following is an exogenous pigment?
Which disease of premature aging has mutation in LMNA gene. The defective protein Progerin accumulates in the nucleus. Male pattern baldness, atherosclerosis and CAD are common with lifespans less than 10 years.
Hutchinson Guilford Progeria
Factor V Mutation/Leiden Mutation
Werner Syndrome is a disease of premature aging due to a mutation in the WRN gene, which plays a role in telomere length maintenance and processing DNA damage.
Inflammation is a hallmark of apoptosis.
Which of the following are not associated with physiologic apoptosis?
The de-webbing of fingers during embryogenesis
The shedding of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle
The elimination of mutated genes that accumulate misfolded proteins
The elimination of self-reactive lymphocytes
Which of the following is NOT a main pathway in the initiation of apoptosis
Cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell
Uterine serous carcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a possible alteration of p53 in the pathogenesis. Mutated p53 is incapable of inducing apoptosis and therefore cells with damaged DNA can continue to proliferate and undergo malignant transformation.
Which of the following is not a trigger for inflammation?
Which of the following is a component of the acute inflammatory response?
Response time of days to years
Vascular proliferation and scarring
Fluid and plasma exudation
Which statement is incorrect?
Calor and rubor are caused by vasodilation
Tumor is due to decreased vascular permeability
Dolor is an outcome of the kinin cascade
Histamine release can cause rubor
Which is incorrect regarding platelets?
They are formed from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow
They contain a pyknotic nuclei
They contain dense granules and alpha granules
They are part of the primary hemostatic plug
Which cells are likely to be seen in an allergic reaction?
Which statement is correct regarding mast cells?
They have cytoplasmic granules with lysosomal enzymes, cytokines, and major basic protein
They are also called polymorphonuclear cells
They are widely distributed throughout connective tissue
They can differentiate into dendritic cells
Transudates are high in protein and come from inflammation.
Which is not a pathway in the complement system?
Mitochondrial (Intrinsic) Pathway
Which factors are invovled with chemotaxis, recruitment and activation of leukocytes?
C3a & C5a
C3a & C3b
IgG & IgM
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) results in complement-mediated lysis of RBCs due to which of the following mechanisms/defects?
Loss of Hageman Factor (Factor VII)
Deficiency of the C1 inhibitor
Excessive production of the Membrane Attack Complex
Deficient plama lectin the the mannose binding lectin pathway
Which of the following is not a step in leukocyte Recruitment?
During the resolution phase of acute inflammation, neutrophils undergo apoptosis.
The umbilical cord taking longer to separate after the baby is born may be a sign of Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency.
Impaired fusion of phagosome with lysosomes, disordered trafficking of organelles, giant granules in leukocytes, and neutropenia are all symptoms of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.