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A new alliance between monarchs and ________ helped break the bonds of feudal society.
King Louis XI shared conquered Burgundian lands with ________.
Hapsburg Emperor Maximilian I
Isabella of Castille
Charles the Bold
Pope Alexander VI
Who sponsored Genoese adventurer Christopher Columbus?
Catherine of Aragon
King Henry VIII
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
One way in which the northern humanist Desiderius Erasmus gained fame as a religious reformer was by ________.
Keeping ancient Christian sources hidden from public view
Promoting that study of the Bible alone would best reform people
Helping to establish dogmatic religious practice
Editing the works of the Church Fathers
Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms in which of the following countries?
France, England, and Denmark
England, France, and Germany
Sweden, France, and Germany
Germany, Switzerland, and Norway
Which English humanist wrote a famous book called Utopia?
Columbus thought his first landfall was ___________.
By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of ________.
________ was by far the most effective and outspoken critic of the Spanish conquerors.
Michel de Montaigne
Bartolomé de Las Casas
The ________ of the West Indies and Brazil became the major center for black slavery in the mid-sixteenth century.
The primary reason monarchs sought out new sources of income in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was due to the ________.
Growing cost of warfare
Need to build new public offices
Continual increase in population
Growing cost of agricultural equipment
What was one key factor that broke the bonds of feudal society and made possible the rise of sovereign states?
The division of basic powers of government
Centralized royal power
The new alliance between king and town
Monarchs' dependency on the nobility
What caused the secure government of France created by Louis XI to become a defeated nation under his successors?
Bad foreign policy
The collapse of the English empire
The dissolution of Burgundy
Newly-acquired Burgundian lands
The Inquisition was a key national agency established in 1479 for the purpose of ________.
converting Christians to join Jewish and Muslim religions
increasing the size of the empire of Spain
driving the Moors from Spain
monitoring the activity of converted Jews and Muslims in Spain
During an assembly in Worms in 1495, Emperor Maximilian allowed the members to create ________.
a committee to overcome perversion of English justice
a seven-member electoral college
a Supreme Court of Justice
an imperial diet known as the Reichstag
The Brothers of the Common life, an influential lay religious movement, eliminated what requirements from the religious life of men and women?
Abstinence from food and drink before holy communion
Sleeping on wooden floors and benches
Eight hours of prayer and meditation each day
Vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
Who was a close friend of Erasmus?
Why did German humanists rush to Reuchlin’s defense when Pfefferkorn attacked Reuchlin for being a Jew?
To promote pro-Jewish sentiment
To promote academic freedom and good scholarship
To promote Luther’s ninety-five theses against indulgences
To support the Dominican order in Cologne
The Portuguese exploration of the African coast started out as a search for gold and slaves, but by the century’s end it had established ________.
an organization promoting freedom of religion
friendly relations with Muslims and pagans
a popular way to create gold jewelry
a sea route around Africa to Asia’s spice markets