PHYSIO Exam #1

Question 1 of 34

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The Nerntz potential for Na+ does not suggest that the concentration of this ion is equal on both sides of the membrane.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 2 of 34

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The movement of water across a membrane is always an active process requiring primary active transport.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 3 of 34

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The Nernst Equation is important for:

Select one of the following:

  • Determining the absolute membrane potential.

  • Determining the electrical potential difference, for a single ion, needed to counter the concentration difference.

  • Determining the electrical potential difference, for multiple ions, needed to counter the concentration difference.

  • Determining the concentration difference, for multiple, needed to counter the electrical potential difference.

Question 4 of 34

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When determining the "equilibrium potential" for Na+, we have to assume the membrane is permeable to all solutes.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 5 of 34

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Any difference in energy across a membrane is considered the ___________ that pushes a molecule in one direction of the other.

Select one of the following:

  • magnum force

  • carrier force

  • delta force

  • driving force

Question 6 of 34

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To initiate the action potential of the cell's resting membrane potential must first be changed to reach the threshold of voltage-gates sodium channels.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 7 of 34

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Which process listed below is most responsible for maintaining the electrochemical gradient of a resting membrane?

Select one of the following:

  • facilitated diffusion of Na+

  • Na+/K+ pump

  • Ca storage

  • Starbuck's coffee

Question 8 of 34

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If a positively charged ion is more concentrated inside the cell, the electrical forces required to balance the chemical gradient would be directed ____________. Thus, the equilibrium potential (which reflects the voltage inside of the cell) for this ion would be __________ charged.

Select one of the following:

  • inward; positively

  • outward; negatively

  • outward; positively

  • inward; negatively

Question 9 of 34

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Extracellular Na+ is higher than intracellular Na+. If the membrane potential were allowed to reach the equilibrium potential for Na+, in which direction (at the moment equilibrium is reached) would overall Na+ movement be?

Select one of the following:

  • inward

  • outward

  • no net movement

  • varies by cell

Question 10 of 34

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The initial rapid change in resting membrane voltage (potential) seen during an action potential is called the "repolarization phase".

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 11 of 34

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The functioning (physiology) of our body is dependent and mimics the functioning of _____________.

Select one of the following:

  • cell

  • tissue

  • organ

  • all of the above

Question 12 of 34

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The largest concentration of the body’s water resides in the ____________________.

Select one of the following:

  • Extracellular fluid

  • Plasma

  • Intracellular fluid

  • Interstitial fluid

Question 13 of 34

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Na+ has a higher concentration in the extracellular fluid, than in the intracellular fluid.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 14 of 34

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In warm weather, particular sensors within the body may sense that the body temperature is increasing. In response the systems of the body respond by trying to decrease the temperature change. This is an example of________________________.

Select one of the following:

  • Starbuck’s coffee reaction

  • Osmotic control, moving water from inside the body out

  • Homeostasic control systems

  • I don’t know

Question 15 of 34

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Lactose is a disaccharide composed of ...

Select one of the following:

  • Glucose and Lactose

  • Galactose and Glucose

  • Galactose and Fructose

  • Fructose and Glucose

Question 16 of 34

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Which statement about enzymes is not true?

Select one of the following:

  • Enzymes are generally proteins

  • For enzymes to be active they should first bind/link to a reactant molecule (substrate)

  • Are usually one dimensional in shape and function.

  • Can catalyze a reaction between to other molecules.

Question 17 of 34

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The enzyme _______ catalyzes the reaction whereby nucleotides are added to the polynucleotide chain that contains DNA (deoxyribose sugars).

Select one of the following:

  • RNA polymerase.

  • helicase.

  • DNA polymerase.

  • histone.

Question 18 of 34

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The Mitochondria –

Select one of the following:

  • Can vary in number from cell to cell

  • Utilizes Aerobic mechanisms (electron transport chain) to produce ATP

  • Uses phospholipids for its membrane

  • All of the above

Question 19 of 34

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The Golgi apparatus sorts, modifies and packages proteins into vesicles targeted for their final destination.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 20 of 34

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The property of phospholipids can be described as ___________.

Select one of the following:

  • A single polar region that is miscible in aqueous solution.

  • A hydrophobic region that associates with water and hydrophilic regions that face one another.

  • A hydrophilic region that associates with water and hydrophobic regions that face one another.

  • None of the above

Question 21 of 34

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Which statement is NOT an accurate description of HOMEOSTATIC mechanisms of the body?

Select one of the following:

  • They function through either positive or negative feedback systems.

  • They maintain each regulated variable around a set point.

  • They maintain a constant internal environment in the face of a variable external environment.

  • They have an unlimited capacity to respond to changes in the external environment.

Question 22 of 34

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The _________________ is the site where lipids, triglycerides, and steroids are synthesized, as well as where calcium is stored within the cell.

Select one of the following:

  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum

  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  • Lysosomes.

  • None of the above

Question 23 of 34

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The enzymes of glycolysis are located within the ______________ of the cell.

Select one of the following:

  • inner mitochondrial membrane

  • outer cell membrane

  • lysosome

  • cytoplasm

Question 24 of 34

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The concentration of Na+ in mammalian systems is generally

Select one of the following:

  • Lower outside of the cell versus inside of the cell.

  • Higher outside of the cell versus inside of the cell.

  • Equal on both sides of the cell membrane

  • Not an issue due to the ions permeability of the membrane.

Question 25 of 34

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The rate of diffusion in an open solution is dependent on several factors including concentration gradient, permeability across the membrane, viscosity of the fluid, and temperature.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 26 of 34

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Which choice below does not play a role in determining osmolarity?

Select one of the following:

  • Concentration of solute

  • Permeability

  • Solutes that can cross the membrane

  • Solutes that can not cross the membrane

Question 27 of 34

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Active transport differs from facilitated diffusion in that it uses energy to move a substance (downhill) in the direction of its concentration or electrical gradient.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 28 of 34

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Passive transport of an ion requires that it move down its concentration gradient.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 29 of 34

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Properties associated with protein membrane active transporters is/are -

Select one of the following:

  • Selectivity

  • Uses energy from solute concentration gradient

  • Uses energy stored in ATP bonds

  • All of the above

Question 30 of 34

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Which statement below is true?

Select one of the following:

  • Voltage across a membrane is “pressure”.

  • A Concentration differences across a membrane is a “pressure”.

  • The cell membrane containing a cell can be considered a “pressure”

  • All of the above are true

Question 31 of 34

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Osmotic pressure is the pressure necessary to prevent the movement of water across a membrane.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 32 of 34

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Sodium-linked glucose transport, where both Na+ and glucose are moving in the same direction, is an example of
_____________.

Select one of the following:

  • countertransport.

  • Secondary active transport.

  • antiport.

  • Primary active transport.

Question 33 of 34

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The Na+/K+ pump is an excellent example of secondary active transport.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 34 of 34

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Extracellular Na+ is higher than intracellular Na+. If the voltage across the membrane of the cell were to reach the
equilibrium potential for Na+, at the moment it reaches equilibrium, in which direction would the net Na+ movement be?

Select one of the following:

  • Inward

  • outward

  • varies by cell

  • No net movement of Na+

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PHYSIO Exam #1

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Quiz by , created about 1 year ago

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