The appendicular skeleton is
mainly a propulsive structure with some supportive role: the hind limbs support and the forelimbs propulse and steer.
mainly a supportive structure with some propulsive role: the hind limbs support and steer and forelimbs propulse.
mainly a supportive structure with some propulsive role: the hind limbs are propulsive and forelimbs support and steer.
mainly a propulsive structure with some supportive role: the hind limbs are propulsive and forelimbs support and steer.
What is a bone of the heterotopic skeleton
Which bones are part of the axial skeleton?
What is another name for vertebrae C2?
The skeleton functions are to support, help with locomotion, protect the brain and the heart and lungs, and form red blood cells, it cannot store calcium and phosphorus.
Palmar stands for:
caudal aspect of the forelimb below the carpus and the surface of the fore paw that contacts the ground
caudal aspect of the hindlimb below the tarsus and the surface of the hind paw that contacts the ground
What is an example of a fibrous joint?
Cranial movement of the limb such as reaching out is called:
Moving limb away from the median plane or from the body trunk is called an:
Supination is defined as:
Lateral rotation of appendage so that palmar/plantar surface of paw faces medially
Lateral rotation of appendage so that palmar/plantar surface of paw faces the substrate
The most proximal, dorsal, cranial or central attachment of a muscle is called its:
A brachiocephalic dog has an elongated, narrow skull
This is a dorsal view of the skull. What is the name of the bone colored in GREEN.
This is a dorsal view of the skull. What is the name of the bone colored in LIGHT PINK
This is a ventral view of the skull. what is the name of the bone colored in LIGHT ORANGE?
The skull articulates with the temporo-mandibular joint at the __________ of the ramus.
The vomer bone is rostral to the presphenoid bone
The sagittal crest runs caudal to rostral, from the occipital bone to the temporal bone
Choose the correct order rostral to caudal for these 3 landmarks of the skull
optic canal, orbital fissure, rostral alar foramen
orbital fissure, rostral alar foramen, optic canal
rostral alar foramen, optic canal, orbital fissure
The mandibular foramen is the:
caudal opening of the mandibular canal
rostral opening of the mandibular canal
What landmark is number 20 pointing at?
What is #12 pointing at?
external acoustic meatus
What type of joint is the TMJ ? What movements does it allow?
condylar cartilaginous joint, allows movement in one axial plane only.
coronoid synovial joint, allows rotational and lateral sliding with little movement in one axial plane.
condylar synovial joint, allows movement in one axial plane, little rotational and lateral sliding.
coronoid cartilaginous joint, allows movement in a hinge-like fashion
How many teeth does a dog have in total?
How many molars does a dog have on 1 upper hemi-mandibule?
What is the dental formula of the dog?
2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1
2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 2/2
2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 3/2
2* I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3
In normal dental occlusion, the upper incisors are 1________ the lower incisors, the lower canines sit between the 2_________ and the 3__________, the premolars interdigitate in a 4_________________, and the upper last premolar and molars rest 5_______ to the lower molars.
1 behind, 2 upper canine, 3 last upper incisor, 4 pinking shear, 5 lateral
1 ahead of, 2 upper canine, 3 first premolar, 4 pinking shear, 5 lateral
1 in line with, 2 upper canine, 3 first premolar, 4 pinking shear, 5 medial
1 ahead, 2 upper canine, 3 last upper incisor, 4 pinking shear, 5 lateral
Select the odd one out
Mimetic muscles are innervated with what nerve?
cranial nerve V
Which muscle(s) of the face help(s) raise the lips?
Which muscle(s) open(s) the mouth?
The ____________ runs from the occipital area of the skull to the ventral part of the body of the mandible
What is the bone labeled 3?
Which muscle is split during a tracheostomy?
What is the function of the styloglossus muscle?
retract and depress the tongue
retract and elevate the tongue
protrude and retract apex
What is the function of the hyoglossus muscle?
retract and depress
retract and elevate
protrude tongue and retract apex
The styloglossus, hyoglossus and genioglossus are examples of _________ muscles
Which gland duct opens at the level of the upper fourth premolar tooth
The parotid gland is lateral to the mandibular gland on a ventral view.
The mandibular lymph nodes are caudal to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes
The trachea is dorsal to the oesophagus
The epiglottis flips caudally to allow food to pass to the oesophagus
In brachiocephalic breeds the __________________ can cause airway obstruction
elongation of the soft palate
shortening of the hard palate
The whole swallowing process works due to a coordinated series of events which begins involuntarily but, upon food contact with the highly sensitive pharyngeal mucosa, continues voluntarily.
Contraction of the cricopharyngeus muscle allows the bolus of food to enter the oesophagus
Pharyngeal muscles are supplied by the:
vagus X and glossopharyngeal IX nerves
glossopharyngeal IX nerve only
hypoglossal and vagus X nerves
trigeminal and glossopharyngeal IX nerves
Which is NOT true concerning the gag reflex?
protective spasm mediated by the vagus X and the hypoglossal IX nerve
activated by oropharyngeal wall irritation during swallowing
neuromuscular disease, anesthesia or altered consciousness can affect this reflex
absence of the reflex can suggest nerve damage
The pharyngeal muscles comprise
List the cartilage of the larynx from cranial to caudal
Epiglottis, Cricoid, Thyroid, Arytenoid
Epiglottis, Cricoid, Arytenoid, Thyroid
Thyroid, Epiglottis, Arytenoid, Cricoid
Epiglottis, Thyroid, Arytenoid, Cricoid
Select muscles of the larynx
The cricothyroid muscle is the only one innervated by the cranial laryngeal nerve
The cricoarytenoideus dorsalis ________ the glottis while the cricoarytenoideus lateralis __________ it.
The cricothyroid _____the vocal fold while the thyroarytenoideus ______it.
Epaxial muscles lie dorsally while hypaxial muscles lie ventrally to the transverse process of the vertebral column.
support the spinal column
flex the neck or tail
Which epaxial muscle supporting the spinal column is the most medial
Which muscle of the hypaxial group can be found in the neck area?
rectus capitis ventralis
In figure 3.6 (a) [on the left] What is the name of the structure colored in dark blue?
Where does the brachiocephalicus muscle originate?
mastoid process of the skull
What is the average total number of bones in an adult male dog?
How many pair of ribs does a dog have and how many pairs are considered "true ribs"?
The dog has 13 pair of ribs, 9 are considered true.
The dog has 14 pair of ribs, 10 are considered true.
The dog has 13 pair of ribs, 8 are considered true.
The dog has 11 pair of ribs, 8 are considered true.
Another name for sternebrae 1 of the sternum is?
Name the rib features from dorsal to ventral
head, neck, tubercle, body
body, tubercle, neck, head
tubercle, neck, head, body
head, body, tubercle, neck
What is the vertebral formula for the dog?
Cervical 7, Thoracic 11, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 20-23
Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 20-23
Cervical 7, Thoracic 12, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 20-23
Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacrum 3, Caudal 21-23
List some of the characteristics of the Atlas
large flat wings or transverse processes
lateral and transverse foramens
tall spinous process
fovea dentis and caudal articular fovea
All vertebrae have a body, a vertebral arch and various processes: cranial and caudal articular processes, transverse, spinous, accessory or mammillary depending on the vertebrae concerned.
Characteristics of the axis
tall spinous process dorsally
cranial projections called dens
transverse processes pointing cranially
all the above
C7 has a noticeably large transverse process
C7 has a tall spinous process
The first 9 thoracic vertebrae are similar while the last 4 begin to resemble lumbar vertebrae.
Characteristics of the thoracic vertebrae
short vertebral body
short and sharp transverse process
T10 has a spinous process that is more or less perpendicular to the long axis of the bone, known as the anticlinal vertebra
Characteristics of lumbar vertebra
large transverse process point cranially
wide spinous process
none of the above
Select the vertebra that has a mamillary process
Characteristics of caudal vertebra
taper and get shorter caudally
20-23 of them
also known as coccygeal
The vertebral column is said to be flexed when it is arched dorsally
What is the structure colored in pink called?
Between adjacent vertebrae there are discs of fibrocartilage. The center of the disc contains fibrous nucleus pulposus, surrounded by a lamellar structure of cartilaginous tissue, the annulus fibrosus. Theses discs have a shock-absorbing function.