How did protection for the spotted owl influence interest in mushroom collecting?
What two factors caused wild mushrooms collected in the U.S. to become more valuable?
What are two characteristics of #1 grade matsutake mushrooms?
Describe the relationship between matsutake mushrooms and the candy cane plant.
Where would you look if you wanted to find morels?
How can you distinguish the King bolete from Satan’s bolete?
What is a truffle and what role does it play in the life history of the fungus that produces it?
What attracts pigs to truffles?
Why might dogs be a better choice for truffle hunters than pigs?
Black truffles grow on the roots of hazelnut trees in plantations in France. What is the primary limitation on productivity in these plantations?
What naturally occurring phenomenon can provide the force needed to release spores from a puffball?
How do you know when a puffball is too old to be eaten?
Describe the relationship between the two fungi that constitute a lobster mushroom.
How does one become an expert in mushroom identification according to the state of Minnesota?
What is the most popular edible mushroom?
What substrate would you use to grow button mushrooms?
How is a Portobello mushroom related to crimini mushrooms?
Which mushroom does not require light in order to grow properly?
What would be a good substrate for growing oyster mushrooms?
Mushrooms are a good dietary source of certain vitamins, which ones?
How could a meal of mushrooms in ancient Rome give you an idea about how your host perceived your social status?
Describe how Locusta exposed Emperor Claudius to the deadly poison found in the death cap.
Why do recent immigrants face a higher than average risk of mushroom poisoning?
Describe four ways that people can get sick from eating mushrooms that are unrelated to mushroom toxins.
Why is it a good idea to cook mushrooms before eating them?
What age group is most at risk of mushroom poisoning?
Describe three characteristics that would help you to identify Amanita phalloides
Amatoxins are heat‐stable and acid‐stable. Why are those properties important?
What is meant by the term LD50?
Why are cells killed when exposed to amatoxins?
What is the most common cause of death in people who eat Amanita mushrooms?
Emesis refers to removal of stomach contents. Why is this usually not an effective treatment for amatoxin poisoning?
What is the function of the poison control centers?
Why is charcoal commonly administered to victims of amatoxin poisoning?
How do penicillin and silibinin help minimize damage caused by amatoxins?
Name one edible fungus that is similar in appearance to a poisonous Amanita and describe one characteristic that might help you to tell the poisonous from the edible one.
Why should inky caps not be eaten in a meal that includes an alcoholic beverage?
What is a retrospective study and what are the strengths and weaknesses of this approach?
What is the difference between false gills and true gills?
Why was the Raven important to the people known as the Haida?
How did the Raven create fungus man?
How were Psilocybe mushrooms used in Mexico at the time of the arrival of the Spanish?
What archaeological evidence supports ancient interest in mushrooms by native peoples in Mesoamerica?
Under what circumstances would it be legal to possess and consume the peyote cactus in the United States?
What is Teonanácatl?
What was the basis for the criticism of Wasson’s study of mushroom use in Mexico?
Why was the CIA interested in Psilocybe mushrooms?
Describe the process by which the active ingredient in Psilocybe mushrooms was identified?
What is the basis for the activity of psilocin in the brain?
Information presented in books may not be based on sound science, why might that be the case?
Why is it not a violation of Federal law to possess spores of Psilocybe mushrooms?
What does it mean for a drug to be listed by the DEA as schedule I?
What are the four main ingredients in beer?
What is the malting process and why is it important for making beer?
What is mashing?
What does yeast contribute to beer?
The degradation of humulone (an ingredient of hops) by light can result in formation of mercaptan, which imparts a skunky flavor to beer. Beer makers have found two ways to prevent this problem. What are they?
Describe four ways in which wine making is different than brewing.
How does cheese making serve to preserve the food value of milk?
How does the growth of Penicillium roquefortii in milk curds affect the character of the final product?
What are two possible sources of the enzyme used to curdle milk and increase the amount of protein in the curd?
Needles are used to make holes in the curds during the production of fungal ripened cheese. Why is this done?
What requirements must be met in order for a cheese to carry the label “Roquefort”?
How could ergot poisoning have foiled Peter the Great’s attempt to invade Turkey?
What evidence supports a role for ergot poisoning in the Salem Witch Trials?
What are ergots and how do they play a role in the life cycle of the ergot fungus?
Why is it advantageous for fungi to infect flowers?
Why is ergot poisoning not a problem today?
What is a beneficial compound that has been obtained from ergot and how is it used?
What therapeutic uses of LSD were tested and which ones showed the most promise?
What was the objective of the Concord Prison experiment?
How can endophytic fungi be beneficial to their plant host?
How did Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest make use of the wood decay
fungus known as Fomitopsis officinalis?
What is a philologist?
Where is the fly agaric found in nature?
What are the physiological effects of consuming muscimol?
How did the Vikings use the fly agaric?
How does the story: ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland’ reflect awareness of the fly agaric and how it was used?
Explain how it may be possible for the same mushroom to have very different effects on people.
Gordon Wasson believed that Soma, as described in the Rig Veda, was a reference to the fly agaric. Why did Terence McKenna think Soma was more likely to be a species of Psilocybe?
McKenna suggested that inclusion of Psilocybe in the diet of early humans may have helped them to become better hunters. Why?
What is synthesia, and how could it have contributed to the development of human mental abilities?
What are three factors that helped the outnumbered Spanish Conquistadors triumph over the Aztecs?
What is one important difference in the way that mushrooms were used in a Velada in Mexico compared to how they were used by Shaman in Siberia?
Describe two options for dealing with the problem known as bunch rot (caused by the fungus, Botrytis).
Societal efforts to mitigate problems caused by drug abuse fall into three categories. What are they?