Introduction to Sociology
>Is an imagined term-difficult to measure but widely used.
>Different societies have different types of social institutions.
>Sociologists who study society & how it shapes people are called structuralists.
>We learn from society through socialisation (NUTURE)
>Starts in school & continues for the rest of your life.
>SS is linked to social rules.
E.g. Daughter, mum, student.
Values: What society sees at important (attitude)
>Socialisation provides the norms/values of society.
.>Norms come from primary/secondary socialisation (They don't exist without rules)
Mores: Manners (Norms & Values)
Rules: Informal laws linked to roles
E.g. Breast feeding until age 3
Laws: Formal rules with formal punishment (general)
Culture: A way of life of a society
Cultural Diversity: Difference/variety found in societies.
Subculture: Culture within a culture.
E.g. Youth, fashion & music
Typically share norms&values but differ slightly.
High culture: Cultural products and activities which have highcultural status. E.g. Opera
Most people can't access high culture, so is it relevant to study?
= ELITIST CULTURE
Conspicious Consumption is the norm, individuals consume branded goods that are the same to try and gain social status =causes subcultures
Culture: The ideas/customs/social behaviour OR a way of life.
Underclass: People surviving on benefits. =Culture can determine your life chances.
High Culture: An advantage in the education system (Teachers are agents of the middle class)
McDonaldisation: The spread of western culture throughout the world (Caused by globalisation)
Key Words on Post Modernism.
>Cultural Diversity: More than 1 culture
>Cultural Hybridity: Merging of cultures
>Globalisation: Compression of time & space
>Fragmentation: Separated & individualistic
>Consumerism: Buying products
>Commodification: Turning all things into a profit
>Pick & Mix: Individuals choosing certain people's norms & values
>Digital Revolution: The internet
1) Post modern society started in 1980's as a consequence of the digital revolution (Creation of the internet - Society/work/migration)
3) Pick & mix makes hybridity
4) Internet is making people individualistic. Society (physical) has been replaced by a virtual.
PM's argue the characteristics of society have changed due to a digital revolution.
The 'cognitive power' :
Power to persuade
>Dominant system of knowledge in that society
> Of pre-modern society was religion (pre-determined)
>Of modern society was science
>Of post modern society is reflexivity
The individual is now the expert in society because of the internet
Surveillance Society: The Government & social institutions within society 'watch' their citizens due to their individualism & fragmentation of PM society.
It's the dominant form of social control
Grand-narrative: Any dominant forms of knowledge, any cognitive power which isn't reflexivity.
=Cognitive power of PM society is different from modern society, social variables have collapsed.