An abnormal, excessive or synchronous firing of populations of brain neurons. These are transient and often reversible
Seizures are a manifestation of an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the brain. Which of the following statements about seizures is incorrect
Excitation is due to excessive firing of glutamaterigic neurons.
Inhibition of GABAergic neurons can be an effect therapy for the treatment of seizures.
Defective inhibition of excitatory firing is major cause of seizures
At what region of the brain does the corticospinal tract decussate?
Na+ Channel Blockers stabilize channel in their closed, resting state making the activity of the drug activity dependent
Select all of the statements that are true regarding anti-epileptic drug Phenytoin.
It is the first line drug for the treatment of partial seizures.
Phenytoin is NOT indicated for use in absence seizures.
It increases the recovery of voltage-gated Na+ channels from inactivation
A potential side effect of phenytoin is hirsutism
Select the response that is incorrect regarding anti-epileptic drugs
Carbamazepine is contraindicated in the case of absence seizures
Valproic acid is safe effective against most partial and generalized seizures inlcuding absence seizures
Because of it's causes an increase in liver enzymes, valproic acid is contraindicated in children < 2 years old.
Anti-Epileptics that block Ca2+ (L,N) channels are effective in the treatment of absence seizures
The first line treatment for infantile spasms is ACTH or prednisone
Which statements below describe the importance of the neurotransmitter dopamine?
Dopamine has a significant role in learning, motor control, goal-directed behavior, and the regulation of hormones.
Tyrosine hydroxylase converts Tyrosine to DOPA which is rapidly converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase.
Activation of dopamine D1-like receptors inhibits adenylyl cyclase leading to a decrease in the concentration of cAMP
Dopamine belongs to the catecholamine family
D2 receptors play a key role in schizophrenia and extrapyramidal movement
D4 receptors are implicated in addictive behavior.
Which of the following statements about dopaminergic pathways are correct?
The mesolimbic pathway is associated with motivational emotional responses
The mesocortical ( a part of the basal ganglia motor loop) is associated with coordination of movement
The tuberoinfundibulnar pathway regulates the secretion of prolactin by pituitary gland and is involved in maternal behavior
The mesolimbic pathway is associated with pleasure, reward, and goal-directed behavior.
Dopamine receptors adenylyl cyclase leading to a in the concentration of cAMP. Dopamine D1-like receptors adenylyl cyclase leading to an in the concentration of cAMP. receptors are implicated in addiction. receptors play a key role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and extrapyramidal symptoms. receptors are implicated in impulse control and mania.
A patient present with an EEG showing a increased activity in a small group of neurons in the left motor cortex. Which of the following statements about the presentation of this seizure is FALSE?
The patient would have convulsions on the left side of the body
The patient will remember the seizure
The patient will benefit from glutaminergic potentiators
None of the above
An epileptic patient is in your office and loses consciousness for a brief period of time (5-10 seconds). Luckily they were hooked up to an EEG machine which documented the encounter. You see a a distinctive spike-and-wave pattern. Which statement(s) below are true?
This patient may have symmetrical fluttering of the eye lids during the episode
Low Ca2+ current in the thalamus would be discovered upon further study
This patient is experiencing an absence seizure
This patient very likely was accused of daydreaming as a child.
All of the above
The body uses SODIUM channels to overcome the synchronous firing of neurons in GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC Seizures.
Which statement about infantile spasms is FALSE?
These can lead to permanent cognitive delay/deficit
They present with sudden, repetitive, myoclonic jerks
Fragmentary, bilateral attacks
Sudden "drop attacks" with some partial seziure activity
You have a 6 year old currently recurrent periods (5-10 seconds) where they appear to daze off then come back to attention. The EEG monitory shows a distinctive spike-and-wave pattern in all regions of the brain. Which drug would be the most appropriate to treat this child's condition?
Which clinical manifestations of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease is FALSE?
Tightness/Stiffness of Muscles
Tremors that decrease with deliberate movements
Decrease muscle tone/strength
Parkinson's Plus Syndromes
Present with multiple system atrophy
Display with marked orthostatic hypotension
Respond very poorly to therapy, thus have a worse prognosis than idiopathic PD
Patients typically have an abnormally wide gait
Which statement about cholinergic drugs is FALSE?
The highest content of ACh in the brain is located in the striatum
ACH release in inhibited by dopamine
Cholinergic activity due to lack of dopamine is responsible to bradykinesia.
Anticholinergics side effects include dry mouth, blurry vision, constipation
Usually occur younger patients
Treatment with anti-psychotics is ineffective
Movement is typically contralateral
Can occur due to lesions of the contralateral subthalamic nucleus