Definitions of Sociology From "The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology"
The study of society
The study of groups
The study of social behaviors
The study of culture
Sociological Imagination( Cohension, Sociologist Perspective, Sociology, Sociological Imagination ) is the study of social life and behavior especially in relation to social systems, how they work, how they change, the consequences they produce, and their complex relation to peoples lives
helps us to identifying patterns in human interaction, how and why these patterns exist, the consequences of them and how to produce of change these patterns.
is the ability to see the social patterns that influence individual and group life.
Applied Sociology is the use of the discipline of sociology with specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization, while clinical sociology is dedicated to altering social relationships and restructuring social institutions.
Who believed in a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society?
is the degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds
Mechanical Solidarity is the interdependence brought about by an increasingly specialized division of labor (how people divide their task), while Organic Solidarity is what people experience as a result of performing the same or similar task.
Gemeinschaft is a society in which life is intimate and Gesellschaft is a society dominated by impersonal realtionships
may have both explanatory and predictive powers- it can help us see the relationships among seemingly, isolated phenomena as well as, understand how one type of change in an environment leads to other changes.
Functionalists and Conflict Theorists are micro-level, while symbolic interactionists are macro-level
The Functionalist Perspective
None of the above( The Functionalist Perspective, Sociologist Perspective, Interactionism, None of the above ) emphasizes the way that the parts of society are structures to maintain its stability.
refers to an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability.
Manifest Functions are unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution, While Latent Functions are open, stated, conscious functions they involve the intended.
assumes that social behaviors is best understood in terms of conflict between competing groups.
are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position.
generalizes about everyday forms of social interactions in order to understand society as a whole.
Who is regarded as the founder of the interactionist perspective?
George Herbert Mead
is a sociological framework in which human beings are seen to be living in a world of meaningful objects.
An important figure in the study of societal change
None of the above
Who is most commonly known for socialism and communism (they are also central to sociology for their ideas about social class and class struggle)?
Who is best known for their studies on suicide rates among different groups and plays an important role in getting sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline?
Who was the most influential of all sociologist, raising issues that remain controversial even today and believed that religion was the central force in social change?
Who advocated that sociological research should be value-free, or that personal values or bias should not influence social research?
Quantitative Methods seeks information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form, while Qualitative Methods attempts to collect information about the social world that cannot be converted to numeric form.
Deductive Research starts with empirical observation and then works to form a theory, Inductive Research starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observation and then analyzes data to confirm the theory.
is an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to access the concept.
is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variable.
Dependent variable is what depends on the other variable while independent variables cause or influence the other variable
is when every member of an entire population is being studied has the same chance of being selected.
is the extent to which we can claim that our findings informs about a group larger than the one that we studied.
is mapping out cause and effect relationships in which we know that change in one variable causes change in another.
exist when a change in one variable coincides with change in the other.
A spurious correlation happens when two variables change together but neither causes the other.
To be sure of a real cause and effect relationship, we must show?
There us no evidence that the correlation is spurious because of some third variable
There are exactly two constant varables
The independent variable precedes the dependent variable in time
two variables are correlated
Reliability is the extent to which a measure produces consistent results, while validity is the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.
refers to a variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly assible information and data.
is a systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.
What is the Hawthorne effect?
the unintended influence of observers
when people are very truthful when they are being observed
When people lie more when they are being observed
When someone don't like being interviewed
refers to how the researcher being present may influence the responses of the participant.
is the complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society.
refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture.
are defined as anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture.
refer to using ones body to communicate with others and are simply shorthand means of communication.
is a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
is the process by which one generation passes the culture to the next.
states that our thinking and perception are not only expressed by language, but actually shaped by language.
are culturally defined standards by which people judge desirability, goodness, and beauty, and which serve as broad guidelines for social living.
are rules and expectations that develop out of a groups values by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
Types of Norms?
Sanctions is what happens when people do everything in there power to go against norms
Taboos are norms so strongly ingrained that even the thought of them are greeted with revulsion, while ethnomethodology is a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals respond.
Material Cultures are?
things like jewelry, art, buildings, clothing , and etc
are ways of thinking
are social patterns
is a group ways of thinking (beliefs, value) and common patterns of behavior (gesture, language)
Ideal Culture is when actual social patterns only approximate cultural expectations, while real culture is defined by social patterns which are mandated by cultural values and norms
refers to cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
designates cultural patterns that are widespread among a societys population.
is the close relationship among various elements of a cultural system.
refers to the fact that cultural elements change at different rates which may disrupt a cultural system.
what are cultural changes that are set in motion by what factors?
consists of trying to appreciate other groups ways of life in the contexts in which they exist, without judging them as superior or inferior to our own.
is an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the U.S. and promoting equality of all cultural traditions.
is using our own culture (assuming to to be good, right, superior) to judge other cultures.
is the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns.
are groups whose values and related behaviors are so distant that they set their members off from the dominant culture.
are groups whose values set their members in opposition to the dominant cultures,
refers to personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.
keys to promoting global culture?