Activation of the thalamus can activate the innate fear pathway. Without the collaboration of the prefrontal cortex, this activation can lead to fear manifestations without a source.
Which of the following statements about the manifestation of anxiety/fear symptoms is not true?
Lesions of the medical prefrontal cortex increases the risk for anxiety.
Inhibition of the orbitofrontal cortex leads to the hyperactivity of the amygdala in the presence of a potential threat which produces fear responses.
In the innate fear response, the thalamus is activated by the amygdala with sequential prefrontal cortex activation leading to the fear manifestation.
The amygdala mediates key functions in the processing of fear and threat-related information.
Select all of the options that are effective in the treatment of anxiety disorder
Select the statements about the tuberomamillary nucleus that are true
It is inhibited by GABA from the ventrolateral pre optic area.
It is activated by glutamate
It is inhibited by orexin
Histamine promotes calm wakefulness through H2 receptors
Where to benzodiazepines bind and what is their mechanism of action?
They bind to a niche between the α and γ subunits of the GABAa receptors behaving as GABA agonist
They bing to the niche between the α and γ subunits of the GABAb receptors acting as a positive allosteric modulator
They bind to a niche between the α and γ subunits of the GABAa receptors behaving as positive allosteric modulators
They bing to the niche between the α and γ subunits of the GABAb receptors acting as a GABA agonist
Positive modulation of the GABAa receptors of the amygdala will produce a hypnotic effect
Flumenazil is a GABA antaagonist
Which anti-xiolitic(s) would be a good choice for an elderly patient?
Drugs binding to α1, α2, α3, α5, and γ subunits of the GABAa synaptic receptor mediate phasic inhibition triggered by peak concentrations of GABA predisposing users to dependence.
What is the recommended rate of reduction for people wanting to discontinue the use of benzodiazepines?
Stop immediately and drink a lot of water
Flumenazil injections over the course of 5-7 days
Decrease by 10 percent each day
None of the above responses are correct
Barbiturates produce an anti-xiolitic effect by binding to the β subunit of the GABA-a receptor. At high concentrations, they can mimic GABA and directly activate chloride channels.
Overdose of barbiturates can lead to death due to respiratory and cardiac depression and the lack of an effective antagonist.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors are Indicated for use with Barbiturates because they shorten the length of action, decreasing side effects.
What statement below is accurate regarding the changes the amounts of BDNF in the brain of depressed patients?
There is an INCREASE in the amount of BDNF in the Hippocampus and a DECREASE in the amount of BDNF in the Nucleus Accumbens
There is an INCREASE in the amount of BDNF in BOTH the Hippocampus and the Nucleus Accumbens.
There is a DECREASE in the amount of BDNF in BOTH the Hippocampus and the Nucleus Accumbens.
There is a DECREASE in the amount of BDNF in the Hippocampus and an INCREASE in the amount of BDNF in the Nucleus Accumbens.
Which class of anti-depressants cause the "Cheese Effect"