Which of the following is a non-correctible factor related to postural deviations?
Lack of joint stability
Lack of joint mobility
When designing an exercise program for a beginning exerciser, it is best to focus on
enhancing muscular strength before shifting the focus to improving the client’s posture.
Barring structural differences in the skeletal system, a pronated ankle _______________.
Forces internal rotation of the tibia and slightly less internal rotation of the femur
Causes a lengthening of the calf muscles and limits ankle dorsiflexion
Has little effect on the rest of the body’s kinetic chain
Moves the calcaneus into inversion, lifting the inside of the heel slightly off the
The coupling relationship between tight ______________ and _______________ is
defined as the lower-cross syndrome.
Rectus abdominis; hamstrings
Hip flexors; erector spinae
Rectus abdominis; erector spinae
Hip flexors; hamstrings
When performing a shoulder screen and observing the client from a posterior view, a
trainer notices an outward protrusion of the vertebral borders, but not the inferior angles,
of the scapulae. What deviation is most likely being observed?
During the hurdle step screen, you observe that the client exhibits an anterior tilt with a
forward torso lean. What muscles should you suspect of being underactive or weak?
Stance-leg hip flexors
Gluteus medius and maximus
Hip adducts and tensor fascia latae
Rectus abdominis and hip extensors
During the Thomas Test, you observe that when the client holds the back and sacrum flat,
the back of the lowered thigh touches the table, but the knee does not flex to 80 degrees.
What muscle(s) should you suspect of being tight?
Primary hip flexors
In your notes regarding a client performing the external and internal shoulder rotation
tests, you recorded that the client displayed potential tightness in the infraspinatus and
teres major. What might you have observed during the test that led to that conclusion?
Client externally rotated the forearms 90 degrees to touch the mat
Client displayed discrepancies between arms when externally rotating the
Client internally rotated the forearms 70 degrees toward the mat
Client displayed discrepancies between arms when internally rotating the
A male client performs the stork-stand balance test and is able to hold the position for 46
seconds. How would you rate this client’s performance?
Apley’s scratch test is usually performed in conjunction with which of the following pairs
Sharpened Romberg test and stork-stand balance test
Thomas test and passive straight-leg raise test
Shoulder flexion-extension test and internal-external rotation test of the humerus
Blood pressure cuff test and muscle-length test