What is the order of the chain of infection, starting at the infectious agent?
What are the two ways in which the immune system protect us?
What two other functions does the immune system have?
What are the two main immune system components?
What are leukocytes?
What two types of cells do leukocytes differentiate into?
Where do immune system proteins originate?
Name three types of immune system proteins
What percentage of the blood is plasma and what does it contain?
What can red blood cells be used for?
What are white blood cells beneficial for?
What are platelets beneficial for?
What type of cell is a blood cell derived from? And what blood cells can it differentiate into?
What two types of white blood cells does a hematopoietic stem cell differentiate into?
Which branch of the immune system is also known as non-specific, and natural?
Which branch of the immune system is also known as specific, and acquired?
What are the two main branches of the adaptive immune system?
What branch of the immune system is passive immunity derived from?
Where does natural passive immunity come from?
What is passive immunity?
What is a disease treated with artificial passive immunity?
When does artificial passive immunity start working? When does it stop working?
What type of immunity is automatically present in infants?
What type of immunity is developing when an infant is born?
Which type of immunity is the "first line of defence against a pathogen"?
What are the 4 properties of the innate immune system?
Does the innate immune system have memory?
Is the innate immune system acquired?
When does the innate immune system begin fighting a pathogen?
How often is the innate immune system initiated?
What are the two DEFENCES of the innate immune system?
Name four points of pathogenic entry in the body.
What are the two most common points for pathogenic entry?
What are the three components that make up skin cells, and make them barriers to pathogens?
Why do people with cystic fibrosis commonly develop respiratory infections?
Which cells are responsible for mucus-secretion?
What role do cilia have in the innate immune system?
Which part of the immune system involves cilia?
In which case are epithelial cells not an effective barrier of the innate immune system?
What are the 4 main properties of epithelial cells?
What are defensins?
What type of cells secrete anti-microbial peptides and defensins?
How do defensins work?
What organisms have defensins?
Have microbes ever evolved to outsmart defensins?
What do mechanical barriers do to stop pathogens?
Name some examples of mechanical barriers of the innate immune system.
Name some chemical barriers of the innate immune system.
Name some microbiological barriers of the innate immune system
What is another name for normal flora?
How do microbiota/normal flora act as a microbiological barrier of the innate immune system?
Where are microbiota most commonly found?
What two places are microbiota acquired from?
What location has the MOST microbiota?
Why is it important that you don't overdose on antibiotics?
What is an example of an opportunistic parasite?
Why is normal flora considered an "opportunistic parasite"?
Give an example of when normal flora/microbiota become opportunistic parasites.
How does Crohn's disease cause gastrointestinal bleeding?
As soon as pathogens invade the epithelial layer, which branch of the immune system is activated?
Name three pathogens that can DIRECTLY INVADE the epithelial cell layer.
What defines an intracellular pathogen?
What defines an extracellular pathogen?
Can pathogens have an intracellular and extracellular phase?
What are the three phagocytes of the innate immune system?
What branch of the immune system are phagocytes from?
What lymphocyte is part of the innate immune system?
What type of white blood cell is a natural killer cell?
What type of pathogens do phagocytes kill?
What type of pathogens do lymphocytes of the innate immune system kill?
What is a phagosome?
What is a phagolysosome?
Name the three enzymes of the phagolysosome.
How does NADPH oxidase work?
What does superoxide produce?
What is nitric oxide synthase?
What do defensins do in the phagolysosome?
Where are the two main locations that defensins are found?
What happens if you lack NADPH oxidase?
What type of cells have PRRs?
What type of cells have PAMPs?
What does PRR stand for?
What does PAMP stand for?
Where are PRRs expressed on a phagocyte?
Why can't the innate immune system cause autoimmune diseases?
What triggers phagocytosis?
Does PRR-PAMP binding occur for intracellular or extracellular pathogens?
Can a PRR bind more than one PAMP?
How many PRRs are there?
How many pathogens can a phagocyte phagocytose at once?
Why are the two reasons for why PAMPs have a low mutation rate?
What are the three properties of PAMPs?
What are three things that make PRRs and PAMPs important?
Do microbiota have PAMPs?
Which type of leukocyte is the most abundant?
What portion of leukocytes are neutrophils?
Where are neutophils found in the body?
What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?
What do neutrophils differentiate from?
What causes neutropenia?
What are the symptoms of neutropenia?
Where are macrophages located?
A certain type of cell exits the blood stream, entering the tissue and differentiating into a macrophage... what type of cell is it?
Can macrophages initiate adaptive immunity?
What two cells arise from monocytes that migrate from the blood to the tissue?
Where do immature dendritic cells reside?
Where are DCs located in the peripheral tissue?
What branch of the immune system includes mature DCs?
Where in the body are natural kills cells found?
What type of pathogens do NK cells kill?
Which cells are usually responsible for destroying cancer cells and viruses?
Which type of innate cell kills pathogens by apoptosis?
In one word, how do NK cells kill pathogens?
Explain the process by which NK cells kill pathogens.
What two enzymes do NK cells have?
What enzymes do DCs, neutrophils, and macrophages have?
What do NK cells usually fail at?
Name two diseases where the intracellular bacteria replicates in the phagosome.
What are intracellular bacteria?
How do intracellular bacteria come to be?
When do intracellular bacteria trigger T-cell mediated, adaptive immunity?
Intracellular bacterial escape from the phagosome initiates what type of immunity?
Name the two main proteins of the innate immune system.
What are the three types of cytokines?
What are the three types of pro-inflammatory cytokines?
What is the acute phase protein that we studied?
What are the two requirements for a cell to release cytokines?
What type of protein is known as a "messenger" protein?
How does a cell communicate with itself, and with other cells?
What can cytokines control?
Which branch of the immune system involves cytokines?
How do cells all get the same message?
How do cytokines work?
What three cytokines have a key role in INNATE immunity?
What three cytokines have a key role in HEMATOPOIESIS?
What are these three cytokines involved in?1. Anti-inflammatory cytokines
2. Growth factors
3. Colony stimulating factors
How does a hematopoietic cell know what to differentiate into?
Can a cell secrete more than one cytokine simultaneously?
What two events does PRR-PAMP binding of a phagocyte and extracellular pathogen result in?
What cytokines are produced in a PRR-PAMP binding event?
The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a phagocytosis event is important in which phagocytes?
What is the role of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6?
What happens when TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 activate endothelial cells?
What causes an increase in permeability of endothelial cells?
In one word, what do pro-inflammatory cytokines cause?
What is the point of vasodilation?
Where do cells migrate out of epithelial tissues?
What three cells exit vasodilated endothelial cells?
How do blood cells exiting vasodilated veins know where the infected tissue is?
What physical symptoms does vasodilation cause?
What causes inflammation, heat and redness in infected tissue?
What causes pain in infected or injured tissues?
What do inflammatory mediators do after being released from inflammatory cells?
What type of cell and what type of protein are key in inflammation?
How is a fever triggered?
What role does the hypothalamus have in fever?
What is a physical, early innate response to infection?
In which two ways does fever kill pathogens?
What does a prostaglandin cause?
How is the release of APPs (CP3) mediated?
What type of cell secretes APPs?
Where are hepatocytes found?
What type of APP is easy to test for clinically?
What is a soluble PRR that binds to PAMPs on extracellular pathogens?
How do APPs/opsonins work?
Do phagocytes have APP receptors?
What is an example of an APP?
What happens to C3 in the presence of a pathogen?
Which half of C3 is an opsonin?
What is the opsonin receptor for C3b?
On what type of cell is CR1 found?
What is the main role of opsonins?
What is the role of C3a?
Which protein is especially important for maintaining inflammation?
What proteins increase vascular permeability?
What two proteins attract phagocytes to the site of infection?
What are IFN-a and IFN-b important in?
What are IFNs?
What secretes IFNs, and how quickly are they secreted?
What attracts NK cells to virus-infected cells?
What type of pathogen does an NK cell destroy?
In a cell infected by an intracellular virus, what is the PAMP?
What interaction triggers the release of type 1 IFNs?
How does an NK cell kill an intracellular virus?
How long does it take a cell to begin secreting IFN after becoming infected by a virus?
Does type 1 IFN kill intracellular bacteria?
What is important for the destruction of intracellular bacteria?
There are two functions of Type I IFN, what are they?
What type of cells have IFN receptors?
What medical application does Type 1 IFN have?
What happens if the virus blocks PRR binding, inhibiting IFN?
What type of pathogens does B-Cell immunity target?
What type of pathogens does T-Cell immunity target?
What do B and T-cells differentiate from?
What is a CD4 cell?
What is a CD8 cell?