What is a naïve cell?
Why is the adaptive immune system considered "adaptive"?
How long can it take for B and T-cell to develop?
Does the adaptive immune system respond to every pathogen that enters the body?
When does a primary response occur?
What is a secondary/subsequent response also known as with regards to adaptive immunity?
What are the two important features of the adaptive immune system?
Where do B and T-cell meet pathogens?
Where are B-cells produced?
Where are T-cells produced?
Where are lymphoid progenitor cells?
When (in a lifetime) is the thymus the largest?
Do B and T-cells meet pathogens in the spleen?
Do B and T-cells meet pathogens in the bloodstream?
Do B and T cells meet pathogens in the lymph nodes?
Do B and T-cells meet pathogens in the MALT tissues?
What are MALT tissues, and what are some examples of them?
What is the function of the lymph node in regards to what it filters?
Where do B and T-cells meet lymph-borne pathogens?
If there is an infection in the finger, which lymph nodes will filter the infected lymph?
Where is plasma located? How does it become lymph?
What does lymph transfer, and where does it transfer things from?
What is an intradermal vaccine, and where does it take the pathogen?
Where do B and T-cells meet blood-borne pathogens?
Where do B and T-cells meet mucosal pathogens?
What is an intravenous vaccine, and where does the pathogen meet B and T-cells?
What is the importance of the adenoids and tonsils being in the mouth?
What kind of molecule is a BCR?
What two chains make up a BCR?
What two chains make up the TCR?
What type types of cells have antigen-binding regions?
Does a pathogen express one antigen, or many?
Does one pathogen express one PAMP, or many?
Does an antigen have one epitope or many?
In the case of H1N1, are H1 and N1 epitopes, or antigens?
What is BCR and TCR binding based on?
Is the bottom section of a BCR or TCR constant or variable?
How are variable, antigen-binding regions assembled?
How many epitopes can a single naïve BCR or TCR bind?
Why can't you contract an autoimmune disease from the innate immune system?
How can you contract an autoimmune disease from the adaptive immune system?
What is blood transfusion compatibility based on?
What antigens does AB+ have?
What antigens does O- have?
What structural changes occur during isotype switching? What stays the same?
What is the lifespan of a naïve B-cell?
What is a soluble BCR referred to as?
How do isotypes differ from one another?
Do antibodies produced by daughter cells of the same naïve B-cells have the same specificity? (ex. isotypes)
What type of isotype does a naïve B-cell have while in circulation?
What two things can BCRs bind to? Which of these can a T-cell respond to?
What type of response occurs when a B-cell binds to a soluble protein?
What type of response occurs when a B-cell binds to a protein antigen?
What do BCRs most commonly bind to?
Does isotype switching occur when a B-cell binds to a soluble protein
What types of antibodies are produced in response to a soluble protein?
How does a Tfh know when a B-cell has binded an antigen and needs to undergo clonal expansion?
When isotype switching occurs, what isotypes are produced?
Where does isotype switching occur?
What does a naïve B-cell differentiate into?
What is the lifespan of a short-lived plasma cell?
Which type of antibodies does a short-lived plasma B-cell secrete?
What do germinal centre daughter B-cells differentiate into?
What isotypes do IgM secreting B-cells switch to?
Where are long-lived plasma cells found?
What is the lifespan of a long-lived plasma cell?
What is the lifespan of a memory B cell?
Where do memory B-cells reside?
When do Tfh cells binds to B-cells?
What isotypes can become memory cells and long-lived plasma cells?
Which antibody is always secreted first? What type of cell secretes it?
When is IgD first found?
Where is IgD found?
What is the function of the IgD antibody?
Where is the IgM Ab found?
What is the structure of IgM?
Which cells secrete IgM?
What is the first antibody isotype that a newborn produces?
What is the structure of IgA?
Which antibody is most abundant in secretions?
Where is IgA found?
Which antibody is involved in passive immunity through breast milk?
What is the main function of the IgM antibodies in eliminating a pathogen?
What is the main function of the IgA antibodies in eliminating a pathogen?
Why does Ab IgM have a neutralization role?
Why does Ab IgA have a neutralization role?
Which type of infections are IgM antibodies important for?
What is the shape of Ab IgG?
Where is Ab IgG found?
When does an infant begin accumulating IgA?
When does an infant begin accumulating IgG?
Which two antibodies are involved in natural passive immunity to infants?
What is the main function of IgG in eliminating a pathogen?
Name two opsonins.
Which antibody enters the tissue via inflammation?
What is the main function of isotype switching?
What is the opsonin receptor for IgG?
What three different binding interactions (that were covered in this class) make phagocytosis an efficient process?
Which antibodies are important in reducing the spread of intracellular pathogens and viruses?
Which antibody is often used for cancer treatment?
Where are IgE Abs found?
What two functions are IgE Abs involved in?
Which isotype is involved in anaphylaxis?
Which antibody is involved in anti-parasitic immunity?
When is an infant most susceptible to infection?
Why do IgG and IgA antibodies take longer to accumulate in infants?
Although a baby has an accumulation of IgM at 6 months, why is it still especially susceptible to infection?
At birth, which antibody is in the highest concentration in a newborn?
When does an infant no longer have the mother's IgG passive antibodies?
If a baby is exposed to a distant family friend who passes on a pathogen, what action will help combat the baby from getting sick?
How does a memory B-cell respond to a pathogen in comparison to a naïve cell?
What types of pathogens do antibodies attack, and what are the two methods by which they attack them?
In a secondary antibody response, which isotypes are released?
Where does IgM come from in a secondary antibody response?
What makes a memory B cell response more effective?
Why does a secondary B-cell response have a shorter response time?
In a primary response, how long does Ab production take?
In a secondary response, how long does Ab production take?
In a primary response, what Ab isotypes are produced?
In a secondary response, what Ab isotypes are produced?
When a soluble protein/polysaccharide, etc. binds to a B-cell, what isotypes are produced?
When a B-cell binds to something other than a protein antigen, why can't a secondary response occur?
What is a symptom of agammoglobulinemia?
What causes agammaglobulinemia?
When does agammaglobulinemia begin to appear?
How is agammaglobulinemia treated?
What is gamma globulin, and how often does it have to be administered?
What type of immunity does gamma globulin treatment involve?
Can a T-cell respond to non-antigenic proteins?
A T-cell binds to the antigenic epitope on a B-cell..... what molecule actually holds the epitope on the B-cell?
Which MHC class does a CD8 cell bind to?
Which MHC class does a CD4 cell bind to?
What MHC class does a helper T cell bind to?
Which MHC class does a cytotoxic T-cell bind to?
Which type of peptide does an MHC class I molecule bind?
Which type of peptide does an MHC class II molecule bind?
What type of pathogen is an endogenous peptide derived from?
What type of pathogen is an exogenous peptide derived from?
Is a PAMP an antigen?
Is an antigen a PAMP?
How are endogenous peptides derived?
What types of cells have MHC class I molecules?
How are exogenous peptides derived in macrophages and immature dendritic cells?
Which cells have MHC class I molecules? Which cells have MHC class II molecules?
WhIch cells are antigen-presenting cells? i.e. have MHC class II molecules.
Why isn't a neutrophil an APC?
What is the main role of an immature DC?
What is the main role of a mature DC?
Which APCs are phagocytes? Which is not?
Through what process does a B-cell become an APC?
How does receptor-mediated endocytosis make a B-cell into an APC?
What is the receptor in receptor-mediated endocytosis?
Which innate cells link to adaptive immunity?
Which classes of MHC molecules do APCs have?
What is a peptide derived from a protein antigen?
Where does an endogenous peptide have to be replicating to be presented on an MHC class I molecule?
What does clonal expansion of a naïve T-cell result in?
How many cells have the ability to activate naïve T-cells?
Can macrophages and B-cells activate naïve T-cells?
Where does naïve CTL and Th cell binding to DCs occur?
What binding interaction results in T-cell clonal expansion?
Where do naïve T-cells meet DCs?
Where do mature DCs reside?
What is the role of a mature DC residing in the lymph node?
What are the two subsets of helper T cells, and how are they defined?
What type of pathogen does a Th1 cell attack?
Where do immature DCs reside?
What is required for immature dendritic cells to mature?
Hint: there are two possibilities
Where does an immature DC mature?
What process must occur for a DC to be mature?
How long does it typically take for an immature dendritic cell to mature?
Can a macrophage initially activate the adaptive immune system?
Why does a maturing DC cell migrate to the secondary lymphoid tissue?
Which type of T-cells have the ability to circulate?
Can naïve T-cells circulate?
Can mature T-cells circulate?
What do helper T-cells "help with"
What is the function of an effector Th1 cell?
Which type of cells do effect Th1 cells help?
A macrophage has intracellular bacteria replicating in it's phagosome, which cell will likely help it?
What two things does a Th1 cell do to help a macrophage infected by intracellular bacteria?
How does a naïve T-cell know which type of effector T-cell to differentiate into?
How effective are granulomas, and why?
How do Th1 cells enhance phagocytic function?
What do effector Tfh cells respond to?
What is the function of Tfh cells?
Why are effector T-cells required for B-cell immunity to occur?
By what process does a CTL kill a cell infected by an intracellular pathogen?
Which enzymes do CTLs have?
CTLs act in the exact same as which type of innate cell?
What are the lymphocytes discussed in this class?
Can a CTL act on more than one infected cell?
Order these processes from first to last, based on time; action of NK cells, release of type 1 IFN, action of CTLs.
How may a virus evade CTL response?
What happens if a virus evades presentation on an MHC molecule?
Why is it problematic if a DC cell does not become intracellularly infected by a virus?
Which MHC classes do DCs present exogenous viral peptides on?
What is the function of cross-presenting DCs?
How does a granuloma work?