What is the function of insulin?
crucial to maintaining salt levels at appropriate levels
crucial to maintaining blood sugar at appropriate levels
One of the key properties of proteins are?
Proteins are perpendicular polymers composed of amino acids
proteins have a wide variety of functional groups
Proteins can not interact with one another and other macromolecules to form complexes
All proteins are rigid and flexible
A primary structure is ?
Chains of amino acids in a specific sequence
Entire chains fold into well defined structures
Amino acids close to one another within a sequence can fold into regular structures
Composed of multiple polypeptide chains called subunits
Alpha helix and beta strands are examples of secondary structures formed by adjacent alpha strands
Globular proteins such as myoglobin is an example of primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure?
Hemoglobin is an example of a quaternary structure
What are the functions of enzymes?
Myofibrils is an example of a protein
Four classes of amino acids are as followed: amino acids, amino acids, charged amino acids, and charged amino acids
What are the components of an amino acid?
Only the R isomer is found in proteins
At neutral pH amino acids primarily exist in the form
Which amino acid is a hydrophobic amino acid?
Positively charged amino acids are
Polar amino acids are
Negatively charged amino acids consist of acid and Acid
Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, and Methionine are examples of what amino acid?
Glycine, alanine, proline, valine and serine are examples of hydrophobic amino acids
Peptide bonds are planar
Amino acids are linked by
peptide bonds to form Polypeptide chains
Most proteins consist of to amino acids
Polypeptide chain can be cross-linked by sulfide bonds
Polypeptide chains that fold into regular structures such as alpha helix, and beta sheet
Alpha helix are
Coiled structures stabilized by intracain hydrogen bonds
Stabilized by hydrogen bonds between polypeptide strands
Not as rod like, fully extended not tightly coiled
Defect in collagen, Brittle bone disease occurs if a mutation results in the substitution of another amino acid in place of glycine
lack of vitamin C preventing hydroxylation of collagen leading to abnormalities in collagen
absence of vitamin K leading to proteins not being carboxylated
Refers to spatial arrangement of amino acids that are far apart in the primary structure and to the pattern of disulfide bond formation
Can be as simple as two identical polypeptide chains or as complex as dozens of different polypeptide chains
Three-dimensional structure formed by hydrogen bonds between peptide NH and CO groups of amino acids that near one another in the primary structure
Keratin and collagen are examples of fibrous proteins
Myoglobin is found within your and on your muscle
Spatial arrangement of subunits and their nature of their interaction
Spatial arrangement of amino acids that are far apart in the primary structure
Structure assemble with other chains to form arrays such as the complex of six insulin molecules
Hemoglobin is an example of tertiary structure?
Proteins can be denatured by any treatment that disrupts the weak bonds stabilizing tertiary structure such as
Scurvy is an example of a disease that results from dysfunctional protein modification and is due to?
Lack of vitamin D which prevents hydroxylation of collagen
Lack of vitamin C which prevents hydroxylation of collagen leading to abnormalities in collagen
due to absence of vitamin K leading to clotting proteins not being carboxylated
Hemorrhaging is due to the absence of vitamin K
Amyloidoses plaques cause disease such as
The function of a promoter is to initiate process or transcription