Aristotle rejected Plato's theory of The Forms because he believed in what type of knowledge?
What according to Aristotle is something's 'Form'?
It's structure and characteristics
What colour it is
It's weight in kilograms
'Substance' in Aristotle's theory is what?
The material from which things are made
The number of materials that make something up
The texture of something
The size of the material that makes something up
Choose the correct meaning of 'prime matter'
Matter that has a particular form
Matter that is the most important in terms of what makes up our world
Matter that has no particular form or structure
Matter that makes up things in our world that have the most structure
What is Aristotle's theory of the Four Causes known as?
Theory of Causes
Theory of Empiricism
Theory of Causality
Theory of Aristotle
The first of Aristotle's causes, the Material Cause answers the question 'what is it made of?'. With this knowledge, what is the Material Cause of a statue?
The act of it being chiseled
It's purpose, to decorate
What question does the Efficient Cause attempt to answer?
What purpose does the thing have?
Who created the thing?
Why is it here?
How did it happen?
Aristotle's next cause that explains 'what are its characteristics?' is known as what?
The Form Cause
The Final Cause
The Extra Cause
The Formal Cause
Aristotle's 4th cause, the Final Cause explained what key idea of his?
It answers the question 'how long has it been here?' and tells us the age of the thing in question. Aristotle believed strongly in the importance of how old things are and believed we could learn a lot from this.
Aristotle believed in the idea that everything has a purpose and this cause therefore answers the question 'what is it for?', attempting to inform us of the ultimate reason for its existence.
He believed that the substance of things is very important in discovering more about the origins of the universe and so this cause answers what the thing is made up of.
The Final Cause answers the question of the objects Form and allows us to know this immediately.
Aristotle explained change within the world using the idea of potentiality and actuality. An objects potentiality is its first 'state' and its actuality what it will become/achieve. With this knowledge, select the correct actuality if the potentiality is a child.
Select the correct definition of 'eudomonia'
How an object will cease to be e.g. death
An object's final purpose
The 'form' of an object once it has reached it's telos
The explanation for how the object came into existence
'De Anima' is the work of Aristotle in which his ideas on the concept of the soul can be found. He believed in which of the following regarding the soul?
He did not believe in a soul
Aristotle believed that the body is the matter of a living thing and its 'form' is it's soul. It's soul being the function, sensation and movement of living things.
Aristotle believed that the nature of any soul depends on what the thing is and that these were organised in a hierarchy. Select the correct descriptions for a plant, animal and human soul,
Plants have no soul, animals have a soul with power to move and humans have an intellectual soul.
Plants and animals both have souls that give them desire and feelings and humans have this plus the power of reason.
Plants only have a soul once they've reached a certain age and animals and humans have identical souls in that they have feelings, desires and the power of reason.
Plants have a soul with the powers of reproduction, nutrition, growth. Animals have these things plus their soul allows them to move because they have desires and feelings as well. Humans have these things and the power of reason.
Aristotle believed that at death the soul lives on even though the physical body dies.
The Prime Mover is Aristotle's explanation for why the world is constantly changing and is based on the theory of cause and effect. Which of the four causes is the Prime Mover?
Select the correct qualities of the Prime Mover
Timeless, spaceless and eternal
Loving and caring
Object of love and desire
Which of the following explains correctly Aristotle's reasoning for the existence of the Prime Mover?
The world is constantly changing yet Aristotle did not believe that this movement/change can occur spontaneously but only as a result of an event or cause. Therefore there must be a chain of movement based on cause and effect, but this cannot simply be an infinite regress as this would mean something had caused itself which is a completely unreasonable idea, so came to the conclusion there must be an unmoved mover: the Prime Mover
Aristotle believed in a force that is personal and causes change and movement in the world but caring for and loving his creation, naming this the Prime Mover. He believed that this allowed change to happen because of people's worship and prayer.
The world is constantly changing because the Prime Mover uses peoples souls to control movement.
The Prime Mover forces things to move and change by using a reward and punishment system much alike to the Christian and Muslim god's.
The Prime Mover is like a giant magnet that causes movement by drawing things to it whilst itself remaining unmoved because it is the object of love and desire.
Select all the strengths of Aristotle's theory.
Aristotle's argument is based on cause and effect which can be tested and verified- cause and effect is a theory used in science and psychology everyday and empirical evidence can be gathered for this.
He creates a strong argument by providing a large amount of empirical evidence
His theory makes us think by attempting to answer 4 important questions about everything
Aristotle makes it clear how to identify when something has achieved its telos
One of the criticisms of Plato's theory is that there may be no Final Cause of purpose for the universe, we have no evidence for an ultimate reason for things existence.
Select another of the criticisms of Aristotle's theory
Aristotle relied on the idea that everything has a soul
Aristotle stole Plato's name 'forms'
Aristotle didn't define the difference between substance and matter clearly
Aristotle relied on the idea that everything has a final purpose when this may not be the case- we do not have empirical evidence for this
Another problem with Plato's theory is that there is no _____________ of the Prime Mover
The final criticism of the Prime Mover is that he failed to produce a clear link between its relationship to the universe.