, , , , and construct and define social problems.
Crime is a violation of and . Crime is a form of . Crime is a analogous to .
1. of that certain types of
2. and of
3. If detected, the of that .
Many criminologist believe that criminalization tends to maintain relationships between the and the .
Conduct norms are found where ever are formed.
Human rights include and rights essential to a .
Some human right violations have been interpreted to include , , , and
is any social behavior or social characteristic that departs from society’s norms.
Within the same society, what is deviant varies by , , and .
Goals of criminal law:
-To keep the public from and .
-To our society’s and .
-To the and of the citizens by protecting it from potential abuses of .
Criminal law regulates wrongs, while civil law regulates wrongs.
Possible outcome for criminal law is , while the possible outcome for civil law is .
is required to be found guilty of criminal law, but not civil law.
Standards of proof:
Criminal law is .
Civil law is .
law is very stringent, while law is less stringent.
American criminal law originated from .
, , the , of , in the with the intent to .
means evil in itself.
Mala in se are criminal acts that are considered .
means prohibited evil.
Mala prohibita is an act that is a crime merely because it is by .
means body of a crime.
means guilty act.
means guilty mind.
First degree murder is an example of a (i.e. having a ).
Second degree murder is an example of a (implies ).
Voluntary manslaughter and vehicular manslaughter are examples of a (acts of ).
Involuntary manslaughter is an example of a (act of ).
is duress or being deprived of free will.
is being in the wrong place at the wrong time.
General defects include , and .
The usual distinction between voluntary and involuntary manslaughter is that with involuntary the victims death is .
Manslaughter is the unlawful killing of a human being without .
The purpose of law is to create and to suppress what the state calls .
UCR stands for .
Law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represents percent of the total population.
Criminal , Forcible , Robbery, Aggravated , Burglary, Larceny-, Motor Vehicle , are all included as offenses.
Simple , and Counterfeiting, Fraud, Embezzlement, Stolen , Vandalism,Weapons, Prostitution and Commercialized Vice, Offenses, Abuse, Gambling, Liquor Laws, and Disorderly Conduct, Vagrancy and a few others are all offenses.
The US has the homicide rate of any Western democratic nation.
Clearance occurs when three specific conditions are met by at least one person:
, , and to the court for prosecution (whether following arrest, court summons, or police notice).
crimes have the highest clearing rates of all crimes.
NCVS stands for .
Major influencers in the classical school or criminology are and .
wrote Of Crimes and Punishment and believed that the legitimacy of criminal sanctions rests on the .
believed law should be based on “the greatest for the greatest .”
wrote Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation and believed in : the idea that humans make decisions on the basis of achieving and avoiding .
Bentham held the idea of : a theory that the aim of action should be the of over or the greatest of the greatest .
holds that individuals will engage in delinquent and criminal behavior after weighing the and of their actions.
refers to the idea that punishing one person for a crime will discourage others from committing similar acts.
refers to the idea that punishing the offender will discourage him/her from committing future criminal acts after experiencing the painfulness of punishment.
The school of criminology believes that the scientific method can be used to examine the causes of human behavior.
argued that there were differences between criminals and non-criminals.
proposed Phrenology, the idea that the section of the brain would be in criminals.
proposed Somatology, the idea that people’s body affect their personalities and the crimes they commit.
believed the three components of the personality were the , , and .