The name of the key cell in the brain that eventually gives rise to it's complexity and ability to regulate behaviour is the
The neuron also has a supporting cast of cells, the cells
The approximate number of neurons in the NEOCORTEX alone is
Glial cells potentially play a role in facilitating neural transmission.
Brain cells responsible for nutritional and scavenger functions
Another major type of cells are oligodendroglia, which also form , the white fatty substance of sheaths.
There are more neurons in the brain than glial cells.
At the tips of an axon are that produce and house neurotransmitters.
- an increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by high-frequency activity of that input.
Programmed cell death is called .
The hindbrain (, and ), the midbrain, and the forebrain (divided into the telencephalon and )
Division of the brain shown here are are , and respectively
Within the brain are four fluid filled chambers, or , through which fluid flows.
Cerebrospinal fluid also flows through the space
The amygdala is located in front of the tip of the horn of the lateral ventricle and the is located along the floor of the temporal horn
Cerebrospinal fluid in produced within the
In disorders that involve brain degeneration the ventricle enlarge in size to fill the void
How blood flow responds to the brain as is engages a particular function is the basis of
The is the lowest section of the brainstem.
The hindbrain is the sight which (select ALL correct) functions.
control of blood pressure
Running through the centre of the brainstem and up towards the forebrain structures from the spinal cord is the formation. Lesions to this structure are often related to sleep disturbance, coma and alertness.
Name each brain region
The cerebellum (also) has a number of NON-motor functions, and cerebellar lesions are known to affect abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, attention, speed of information processing and emotional modulation.
The substantia nigra is located within the
Label each brain section
Sensory nuclei in the serve as the major relay and processing centres for all senses except smell and project to the primary sensory cortices.
Korsakoff's syndrome can involve which of the following symptoms
anterograde amnesia alone
retrograde amnesia alone
both retrograde and anterograde amnesia
Korsakoff's syndrome does typically not involve memory loss
The hypothalamus is located below
beside( below, above, beside ) the thalamus
Label each section
Damage to the basal ganglia can result in (choose best)
motor function disturbance
The term neostriatum refers to which cluster of nuclei? (choose all correct)
the grey matter bands (striations) connecting the caudate to the putamen
The limbic system includes the
cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus
The cingulate gyrus is located (choose ALL correct)
within the medial aspects of the cortex
superior to the corpus collosum
Inferior to the corpus collosum
posterior to the central sulcus
Association( Commissural, Association ) fibers connect between hemispheres, whereas association
commissural( association, commissural ) fibers involve connections within a hemisphere
The is the big band of commissural fibers connecting the two hemispheres
The lateral plane refers to the and sides of the brain, on either side of the fissure.
The anterior and posterior sections of the brain are separated by the sulcus
Demiplegia( Hemiplegia, Paraplegia, Semiplegia, Demiplegia ) refers to paralysis on one side of the body
All auditory fibers project to the collateral primary auditory cortex.
A point to point relationship between sense receptors and cortical cells is laid out on the primary auditory cortex, with cortical representation arranged according to pitch
amplitude( pitch, volume, noise, amplitude ).
Within the visual system, a ventral
dorsal( ventral, dorsal ) what system is specialized for object recognition and a ventral
dorsal( ventral, dorsal ) where system is specialized for spatial and movement percetiion.
Areas of the cortex involved in motor and sensory function can be loosely divided into three key groups, primary, secondary and tertiary areas. Primary areas involve the initial vague representation of the action or sense, which in turn are elaborated in secondary areas before being integrated holistically with other movements or senses in tertiary areas.
A lesion to an association area would typically not result in specific sensory or motor deficits. Rather, the behavioral difficulties would more likely appear as various higher order deficits involving the integration, recognition and fine tuning of primary information.
right( left, right ) side of the brain is more specialized in language and for processing verbally coded information.
left( right, left ) side of the brain typically processes nonverbal information such as complex visual patterns or auditory signals that are not coded for in verbal form.
left( right, left ) hemisphere contributes to appreciation of the context (body language, irony) of verbal information and thereby, to the accuracy and appropriateness of language usage.
In keeping with the principles of hemispheric specialisation the most obvious cognitive deficit with left
right( left, right ) hemisphere damage is aphasia.
Holistic, Synthesising, Pictorial and Intuitive. These features are generally characteristic of which brain hemisphere?
The left-right dichotomies in hemispheric lateralization should be taken as useful concepts and not iron-clad facts. Normal healthy behaviour is a function of the whole brain working together, with important contributions from both hemispheres entering into virtually every activity.
Aphasia( Dysarthria, Aphasia ) is a condition in which problems effectively occur with the muscles that help produce speech, often making it very difficult to pronounce words. It is unrelated to any problem with understanding cognitive language.
A patient who has had lesions exclusively in one hemisphere and appears to have difficulties making sense out of complex stimuli, and difficulties in comprehending speech intonation (prosody). The same patient may also experiences the following deficits (choose the most likely answer):
Impaired verbal memory, loss of basic mathematical concepts and difficulties with verbal fluency.
Inattention in the left visual field, copying of visual designs and loss of spatial orientation even in familiar surroundings.
Patients with right hemisphere lesions: (choose the best)
Typically have an impaired appreciation of emotionally charged stimuli due to a fundamental deficit in emotional processing.
Are more emotional because left sided regions responsible for the modulation of emotion are no longer inhibited by right sided regions
Typically have an impaired appreciation of emotionally charged stimuli. However it is not clear whether this is a fundamental deficit, or that is could be that emotional experience would not be impaired if the patient could properly apprehend emotional stimuli (such as emotive facial expression or tone of voice).
Patients with left
right( left, right ) sided lesions tend to be overly sensitive to their disabilities. However many patients ultimately compensate for them well enough to make a satisfactory adaptation to their disabilities.
Patients whose injuries involve right
left( right, left ) sided lesions are less likely to be dissatisfied with themselves or their disabilities and are less likely to be aware of their mistakes. Consequently, those patients with such reduced insights tend to make poorer
better( poorer, better ) adjustments to their circumstances.
Right( Left, Right ) hemisphere damaged patients tend depression as result of the ability to conceive of their deficits, and thus is directly reactive to the injury and more prevalent during the acute
long term( acute, long term ) phases of recovery.
In patients with right
left( right, left ) hemisphere damage, depression is often due to the secondary consequences brought on by a lack of self awareness or insight. As such these patients tend to set unrealistic goals and may be unpleasant socially, leading to isolation from friends and family. Thus depression is more likely to develop slowly as a reaction to these secondary consequences.
A clinician can accurately make diagnoses about the lateralisation of injury based on patient behaviour alone.
Which of the following best describes the lateral characteristics of a healthy brain:
The healthy brain is markedly lateralized such that holistic, nonverbal and intuitive thinking is predominantly mediated by the right hemisphere.
The healthy brain is markedly lateralized such that holistic, nonverbal and intuitive thinking is predominantly mediated by the left hemisphere.
Conscious activity is typically a unified and coherent bilateral process that spans both hemispheres through the commissural tracts.
Conscious activity is typically a unified and coherent bilateral process that spans both hemispheres through the association tracts.
Very few tasks rely exclusively on a single hemisphere
Superior memorization tends to occur when: (choose the BEST answer)
Information is encoded using a linguistic representation
Information is encoded using a non-verbal representation
Information is encoded using simultaneous verbal and non-verbal representations
The external surface of the cerebral cortex is wrinkled into a complex of ridges called gyri
sulci( gyri, sulci ), and fissures called gyri
sulci( gyri, sulci )
The central sulcus
lateral sulcus( central sulcus, central gyrus, medial sulcus, lateral sulcus ) divides the cerebral hemisphere into anterior and posterior regions.
Immediately in front of the central sulcus lies the precentral
postcentral( precentral, postcentral ) gyrus which contains much of the primary motor
auditory( motor, sensory, visual, auditory ) area.
The bulk of the primary somatosensory area is located in the gyrus
sulcus( gyrus, sulcus ) just behind the central sulcus
gyrus( sulcus, gyrus ) called the postcentral gyrus
precentral sulcus( postcentral gyrus, postcentral sulcus, precentral gyrus, precentral sulcus ).
Anatomical areas of the cortex are largely defined according to:
physical characteristics, appearance and location.
function, and connectivity
In general the anterior regions of the cortex tend to be dedicated input systems, dealing largely with sensation and perception.
The primary auditory cortex is located:
Along the upper most edge of the temporal lobe, below the somatosensory area.
In the parietal lobe, immediately anterior to the somatosensory area
In the anterior temporal lobe, immediately ventral to Broca's area.
Above the lateral sulcus, immediately below the somatosensory area.
Lesions to the primary visual cortex
can result in discrete blind spots in corresponding parts of the visual field.
usually result in total blindness
most commonly result in difficulties recognizing objects or describing their location in space
reduced vision or blindness over one side of the visual field
multiple blind spots across both sides of the visual field
total cortical blindness
Anopsia( Agnosia, Aphasia, Anopsia ) is the inability to process sensory information.
Aphasia( Anopsia, Agnosia, Aphasia ) refers to any defect in the visual field
aphasia( agnosia, anopia, aphasia ) is an impairment in recognition of visually presented objects. It is not due to a deficit in vision (acuity, visual field, and scanning), language, memory, or low intellect
Visual agnosia may be related to damage to which areas of the cortex? (choose all correct)
Visual association areas
Prosopanopsia( Prosopagnosia, Prosopaphasia, Prosopanopsia ) refers to an inability to recognize faces
Apperceptive( Associative, Apperceptive ) agnosia refers to a failure of recognition due to defective retrieval of knowledge pertinent to a given stimulus. The problem is due to faulty sensory-specific memory; the patient is unable to recognize the object despite being able to perceive it normally. Apperceptive
Associative( Apperceptive, Associative ) agnosia refers to a defective integration of otherwise normally perceived components of a stimulus. The problem is more a failure of perception; these patients fail to recognize a stimulus because they cannot integrate the perceptual elements of the stimulus.
The distinction involves whether the disturbance is primarily a failure of memory, or of perception.
Apperceptive( Associative, Apperceptive ) visual agnosia is strongly associated with bilateral damage to higher order association cortices in the ventral and medial occipitotemporal areas, whereas apperceptive
associative( apperceptive, associative ) visual agnosia is more closely associated with damage to earlier, more primary visual cortices.
If a patient has trouble naming an object that they are capable of perceiving, but are able to recall its meaning (function, features, characteristics) it is MOST likely that they have associative visual agnosia.
Simultanagnosia involves the inability to perceive more than one object or point in space at a time.
Anomia involves a difficulty in retrieving names
numeric information( names, meaning, spatial information, numeric information )
Acalculia( Pure alexia, Dyslexia, Anomia, Acalculia ) is a reading problem that stems from defects in visual recognition, organization and scanning rather than from defective comprehension of written material.
The two-streams hypothesis argues that humans possess two distinct visual systems. As visual information exits the occipital lobe, it follows two main pathways, or "streams". The ventral
lateral( ventral, dorsal, medial, lateral ) stream (also known as the "what
how( what, where, who, how ) pathway") travels to the temporal lobe and is involved with object identification and recognition. The dorsal
lateral( dorsal, ventral, medial, lateral ) stream (or, "where
how( where, what, who, how ) pathway") terminates in the parietal lobe and is involved with processing object spatial location and position.
object identification and recognition.
facial recognition( object spatial location and position., object identification and recognition., object naming., facial recognition )
The parietal-temporo-occipital (PTO) association area is primarily involved in:
integration of sensory and perceptual information
higher visual function alone
higher auditory function alone
Patients with lesions in their PTO frequently demonstrate construction difficulties. Such as the ability to construct two or three dimensional objects from one or two dimensional units. Left
Right( Left, Right ) sided lesions are apt to disrupt the programming or ordering of movements necessary for constructional activity. On the other hand, patients with right
left( right, left ) sided lesions tend to demonstrate difficulties with spatial imagery or the understanding of spatial relationships, in particularly these patients have difficulties with diagonality in a design.
Although lesions to either hemisphere may conduct visuospatial construction. It is likely that lesions to the right hemisphere
hippocampus( right hemisphere, left hemisphere, frontal lobe, hippocampus ) is probably more likely to produce visuoconstruction defects than an equal contralateral lesion.
Laterality effects also occur in the perception of auditory stimuli such that left temporal
frontal( temporal, ocipital, frontal ) lobe damage impairs temporal processing (sound duration)
spectral processing (pitch, harmony)( temporal processing (sound duration), spectral processing (pitch, harmony) ), whereas right temporal
frontal( temporal, occipital, frontal ) damage impairs spectral processing (pitch, harmony).
temporal processing (sound duration)( spectral processing (pitch, harmony)., temporal processing (sound duration) )
Aphasia( Apraxia, Agnosia, Aphasia ) is a disorder of motor coordination and planning, whereas Agnosia
Aphasia( Agnosia, Apraxia, Aphasia ) refers to a deficit in processing sensory information.
parietal lobe damage significantly slows the disengagement of attention, with the greatest slowing occurring when the lesion is on the right.
name this subsection of the parietal lobe
Lesions to the inferior parietal lobule are typically related to deficits in short- term (or working)
proceedural( short- term (or working), long term, autobiographical, proceedural ) memory.
Name these areas of the cortex
The inferior parietal lobule is composed of the supramarginal gyrus
primary auditory area( supramarginal gyrus, Wernicke's area, primary auditory area ) and the angular gyrus
temporal lobe( angular gyrus, Broca's area, temporal lobe ). Wernicke's area is located ventrally to the supramarginal gyrus
primary auditory area( supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, primary auditory area ) and immediately caudal to the primary auditory cortex
angular gyrus( primary auditory cortex, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus ).
Label the diagram
Which arteries supply each of the regions below?
(hint: include the word artery)
Which of the following best represents the relationship between language and mathematics in functional neuroanatomy:
Language and mathematics ability appear to be related to the left temporal lobe, and thus are always observed concurrently.
Language and mathematics occupy equal but contral lateral portions of the left and right temporal lobes respectively.
Language and mathematics deficits often accompany one another, however some patients will develop one or the other separately.
Neglect is more common on the left
right( left, right ) side of personal and extrapersonal space.
An unawareness to one side of personal and extrapersonal space is known as
the temporoparietal cortex is most usually associated with a chronic left sided-inattention known as
Severe hemispatial inattention is very much a "right
left( right, left ) hemisphere phenomenon" just as aphasia is a "left
right( left, right ) sided phenomenon"
Inattention (neglect) is only diagnosed when all five sensory modalities are affected
Neglect is most closely associated with which of the following cortical areas
left temporal lobe
right parietal lobe
left occipital lobe
Deficits with visuospatial construction, left side attention, or organization of discrete features into a whole are consistent with which brain area. (choose BEST option)
right ocipital lobe
Patients with "cortical deafness" can often retain near normal sensory hearing capacity.
Pure word deafness
Agraphia( Pure word deafness, Dyslexia, Alexia, Agraphia ), which occurs mostly with left temporal
left occipital( left temporal, right temporal, right parietal, left occipital ) lesions, is an inability to comprehend spoken words despite intact hearing, speech production, reading ability and recognition of non-linguistic sounds.
Pure word deafness
Auditory acalculia( Auditory agnosia, Pure word deafness, Auditory aphasia, Auditory acalculia ) may refer to an inability to recognize auditorily presented environmental sounds. When confined to nonspeech sounds (e.g telephone ringing) it is most frequently associated with right sided posterior temporal
thalamatic( posterior temporal, mediofrontal, occipital, thalamatic ) lesions.
Anomic( Wernicke's aphasia, Broca's aphasia, Richards aphasia, Anomic ) patients may speak in fluent and syntactically correct sentences that has no semantic meaning. This condition is most commonly associated with left temporal
left parietal( left temporal, right temporal, right frontal, left parietal ) damage.
is a disorder related to the retrieval of words which may disrupt fluent speech.
right temporal lesions are rarely associated with language deficits, however difficulties naming and recognizing facial expressions
animals( facial expressions, tools, animals ) have been reported.
Relative cortical specializations relating to type for different categories of common nouns have been identified. For example some regions have been associated with animal names, whereas others have been associated with the names of tools.
Damage to the right temporal lobe may result in which of the following symptoms? Choose ALL correct
Deficits in spatial, non-verbal and abstract reasoning.
A primary function of the temporal lobes
central sulcus( temporal lobes, occipital lobes, brain stem, central sulcus ) is memory
lateral( medial, ventral, caudal, lateral ) temporal lobe contains several structures critical for memory including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus.
Damage to the hippocampus
internal capsule( hippocampus, amygdala, putamen, internal capsule ) and adjacent areas of the temporal lobe is responsible for the memory impairment that emerges in early Alzheimer's disease.
emotional disturbances are associated with lesions involving the hippocampus as well as the amygdala
medulla oblongata( amygdala, optic chiasm, medulla oblongata ) and the uncus
corpus callosum( uncus, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum ).
Many patients with focal damage to the can still recognize single faces, words, objects etc as well as cognitively intact persons. Memory requiring relationships between single stimuli requires the . This division of labor explains the severity of memory disorder resulting from these lesions. Even when amnesic patients retain some new learning ability, this new information lack superordinate organizing context.
Which type of memory is the hippocampus MOST CLOSELY associated with
Older autobiographical memories
Recently aqcuired declarative information
Old declariative memories
Recently aquired procedural memory
Which is true of older memories:
Whilst the hippocampus probably plays a role in the recollection of old memories. Old memories are most likely largely distributed throughout the cerebral cortex, and do not rely on the hippocampus in the same way as newly acquired information.
Old (declarative) memories are primarily stored in the hippocampus.
Whilst the hippocampus probably plays a role in the recollection of old memories. Old memories are most likely largely stored in the basal ganglia, and do not rely on the hippocampus in the same way as newly acquired information.
Damage to the left hippocampus would mostly like disturb the learning of what type of information?
Learning information such as names, new words and verbal facts.
Learning informations such as new faces, geographical routes and musical melodies.
In a famous study, London cab drivers showed an enlargement of certain brain area after acquiring "the knowledge". Considering what you know which region of the brain was likely enlarged.
Anterior horn of the lateral ventricle
The hippocampus is not involved in learning non-declarative information such as motor skills.
The medial temporal lobes are not involved in working memory, nor are they involved in maintaining or processing information over very short intervals.
Retrieval of information involving a single sensory modality appears to be most strongly associated with the associated cortex adjacent to the primary sense area. For example, retrieval of visual information is impaired by lesions of the visual association cortex of the occipital lobe.
pons( amygdala, pons ) is involved in processing emotional stimuli from all major sensory modalities.
Lesions to the premotor division
primary motor cortex
prefrontal portion( premotor division, primary motor cortex, prefrontal portion ) of the frontal lobe do not result in loss of the ability to move, but rather disrupt the integration of the motor components of complex acts, producing discontinuous, uncoordinated or impaired motor skills.
Language deficit following damage to the left premotor area most likely do no involve comprehension but rather the ability to organise and produce speech sounds. This is known as oral .
Damage to Broca's area results in
Lesions to the area of the right hemisphere, in the equivalent but contralateral to Broca's area may result in flat monotonic speech and difficulties with involving fluent prosody.
parietal( prefrontal, temporal, primary motor, parietal ) lobes are where already correlated incoming information from all sources, external and internal, conscious and unconscious, memory storage and visceral arousal centres is integrated and enters ongoing activity
superior medial( ventromedial, dorsolateral, parietal, superior medial ) prefrontal cortex plays a key role in impulse control and in regulation and maintenance of set and ongoing behaviour.
Behavioural problems with starting, stopping or switching tasks, deficits in self awareness, and a concrete attitude are associated with damage to which major area of the brain?