The idea that individuals are protected from discrimination on the basis of race, national origin, religion, and sex is called
Individual attributes such as race, national origin, religion,
and sex are called
civil rights categories.
Laws that required the strict separation of racial groups, with
whites and “nonwhites” attending separate schools, working
in different jobs, and using segregated public accommodations
such as transportation and restaurants are called
Fred Samuels laws.
Sally Hemmings laws.
Jim Crow laws.
Abraham Lincoln laws.
An election in which a party’s nominees were chosen but in
which only white people were allowed to vote is called
a general election.
a run-off primary.
an uncontested primary.
a white primary.
A mechanism that exempted individuals from conditions
on voting (such as poll taxes or literacy tests) if they or their
ancestors had been eligible to vote before 1870 is called
a poll tax.
the grandfather clause.
a literacy test.
Unlike sex-based discrimination, race-based discrimination
must pass the
heightened scrutiny test.
ordinary scrutiny test.
strict scrutiny test.
ultimate scrutiny test.
Initially the courts interpreted which amendment in such a
way that women were told they were citizens but that they
had no constitutional right to vote?
What right does Title IX protect for women?
equal access to credit
equal access to educational opportunities
equal access to employment opportunities
In what decade was the ERA ratified and added to the U.S.
It has not been ratified and added to the U.S. Constitution.
Today, citizens of what descent experience the highest
educational and income level compared with the nation
as a whole?
was the period between 1866 and 1877 when the institutions and infrastructure of the South were rebuilt after the Civil War.
The legal right to bring lawsuits in court is called .
To pass the strict scrutiny test, differential treatment must be for the government to achieve a public interest.
During World War II, the federal government relocated citizens of descent to internment camps.
The ADA is the .
The public’s expressed views about an issue at a specific point in time are called
time frame analysis.
time tracked sample.
Agents of socialization do not include
A majority of which of the following demographic groups did not support Barack Obama’s candidacy for the presidency?
The influence of an important external event in shaping the views of a generation is called
a. the age-cohort effect.
b. the generational effect.
c. the lifetime effect.
d. both (a) and (b).
5. A poll conducted in an unscientific manner, used to predict election outcomes, is called
a. an exit poll.
b. a tracking poll.
c. a push poll.
d. a straw poll.
6. In a poll, the group of people whose opinions are of interest and/or about whom information is desired is called the
a. quota sample.
b. target sample.
d. bull’s-eye group.
7. A method by which pollsters structure a sample so that it is representative of the characteristics of the target population is called a
8. Polls that measure changes in public opinion over the course of days, weeks, or months by repeatedly asking respondents the same questions and measuring changes in their responses are called
a. exit polls.
b. tracking polls.
c. push polls.
d. straw polls.
9. A special type of poll that both provides information to campaigns about candidate strengths and weaknesses and attempts to skew public opinion about a candidate is called
10. Polls conducted at polling places on Election Day to determine the winner of an election before the polls close are called
11. The process by which we develop our political values and opinions throughout our lives is called .
12. The measurable difference in the way women and men vote for candidates and in the way they view political issues is called the .
13. A survey of a given population’s opinion on an issue or a candidate at a particular point in time is called a .
14. A scientific method of selection for a poll in which each member of the population has an equal chance at being included in the sample is called .
15. A process of random sampling in which the national population is divided into fourths and certain areas within these regions are selected as representative of the national population is called .
1. The idea that a group of wealthy, educated individuals wields most political power is called
a. pluralist theory.
b. elite theory.
c. rational choice theory.
d. democratic theory.
2. The motivation to join an interest group based on a belief in the group’s cause from an ideological standpoint is called a(n)
a. solidary incentive.
b. purposive incentive.
c. economic incentive.
d. organizational incentive.
3. A restaurant owner who joins a trade association interest group because it advocates for wage policies that would benefit the business is an example of someone motivated by
a. solidary incentives.
b. purposive incentives.
c. economic incentives.
d. organizational incentives.
4. A group that raises and spends money to influence the outcome of an election is called
a. an interest group.
b. a bundling organization.
c. a political action committee.
d. a social compact.
5. The phenomenon of someone deriving benefit from others’ actions is called
a. the problem of collective action.
b. the bundling problem.
c. the free rider problem.
d. the slacker problem.
6. A direct strategy to advance the interest of an interest group is
b. public outreach.
d. contributing to political parties.
7. The fluid web of connections among those concerned about a policy and those who create and administer the policy is called
a. a political action committee.
b. a congressional quorum.
c. an issue network.
d. a social network.
8. The interaction of mutual interests among members of Congress, executive agencies, and organized interests during policy making is called
a. a social network.
b. an iron triangle.
c. a square cube.
d. an issue network.
9. The practice of using public outreach to build a favorable public opinion of the organization is called
a. climate control.
b. interest outreach.
c. agenda setting.
d. maximizing spin.
10. Working to influence the election of candidates who support the organization’s issues is called
a. interest group bias.
b. incumbency advantage.
11. To social scientists, the ways in which our lives are improved by social connections is called .
12. The motivation to join an interest group based on the companionship and the satisfaction derived from socializing with others is called .
13. A group that represents collective groups of industries or corporations is called a(n) .
14. Outcomes shared by the general public are called .
15. The idea that it is not economically rational for people to participate in collective action when the resultant collective good could be realized without participating is the essence of .
1. The formal statement of a party’s principles and policy objectives is called a
a. policy memo.
b. policy manifesto.
d. mission statement.
2. Individuals who identify with or tend to support a party are called the
a. the party in the electorate.
b. the party organization.
c. the party in government.
d. responsible party members.
3. The formal party apparatus, including committees, party leaders, conventions, and workers, is called
4. The situation that exists when Congress is controlled by one party and the presidency by the other is called
a. party disorganization.
b. bipartisan camaraderie.
c. divided government.
d. executive/legislative split.
5. A philosophy supporting the rights and empowerment of the masses as opposed to elites is called
c. New Deal philosophy.
6. A significant shift in party allegiances or electoral support is called
7. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s broad social welfare program in which the government would bear the responsibility of providing a safety net to protect the weakest members of society was called
a. the New Deal.
b. the Grand Formula.
c. the War on Poverty.
d. the Social Contract.
8. The situation in which voters vote for candidates from more than one party is called
d. ticket splitting.
9. An election structure in which political parties win the number of parliamentary seats equal to the percentage of the vote the party receives is called
a. a first-past-the-post system.
b. a winner-take-all system.
c. a proportional representation system.
d. a two-party system.
10. An election in which voters choose the party’s candidates who will run in the later general election is called a
a. primary election.
b. recall election.
c. general election.
d. referendum election.
11. A new, grassroots, conservative protest movement that opposed recent government actions, including economic stimulus spending and health care reform, is called the
12. Political scientists’ view that a function of a party is to offer a clear choice to voters by establishing priorities or policy stances that differ from those of rival parties is called the .
13. The role that the party out of power plays, highlighting its objections to policies and priorities of the government in power, is called the .
14. Organizations that candidates form to support their individual election are called .
15. A campaign in which an individual seeking election, rather than an entire party slate, is the focus in a .