when you exclude information
is when you make assumptions that are not scientifically based
when there is pressure to understand something and it contributes to bias
when you cannot accurately recall information
Inaccurate observations are
when you make assumptions that are not scientifically based
Selective observation is
when you are pressured to understand something and it contributes to bias
Illogical reasoning is when
you cannot accurately recall information
you are excluding information
there is pressure to understand something and it contributes to bias
you make assumptions that are not scientifically based
Pre-modern reality is
when it was what is was
when people have opinions but understand others
that there is not objective reality
Quantitative data includes all of these aspects except:
it's easier to compare
it understands specifics
catches complex social phenomena
Attributes are ___________ while variables are ____________.
grouping of variables, measurable concepts
characteristics of people/things, independent
grouping of variables, issues to the problem
characteristics of people/things, grouping of attributes
Independent variables are presumed to cause of determine a dependent variable.
Empirical support must correspond to what we observe.
A theory can be a philosophy or a beleif.
Physical Abuse affects a child's behaviour. The Abuse is the dependent variable and the child's behaviour is the independent variable.
All of these are true about induction except:
moving from specific to general
moving from general to specific
none of the above
Deductive focuses on testing theories or hypothesis while Induction focuses on creating theories or hypothesis.
Evidence-based program have gone under evaulation.
All of these are scientific constraints when conducting social research except:
What does the TCPS and REB stand for?
Tri-collective Party Statement and Research Ethics Board
Tri-council Policy Statement and Research Ethics Board
Tri-collective Party Statement and Respectful Ethics Board
Tri-council Policy Statement and Respectful Ethics Board
There are two new policy statements concerning quantitative research and research on the elderly population.
There are all guiding principles of the TCPS except:
Respect privacy & confidentiality
Respect vulnerable persons
Respect contact of person
Respect human dignity
Respect informed consent
Balancing harms & benefits
There are none to exclude
What are the six main components to conduct ethical research?
disclosure, voluntary participation, no harm, confidentiality, deception, analysis & reporting
voluntary participation, no harm, confidentiality, deception, analysis & reporting
disclosure, voluntary participation, no harm, confidentiality, deception
disclosure, voluntary participation, no harm, confidentiality, analysis & reporting
It is okay to have harm in research and still have it be considered ethical
When an individual can be identified from the released output of the results of the research this is known as
When an individual's confidential information is revealed and can be attributed to him/her is known as which kind of broken disclosure
When an individual's information is released and it can be combined to obtain confidential data, this is known as
Research is not intrusive by nature.
Voluntary participation involves a person to give permission to participate in the study.
It is not necessary to tell your participants about all the risks so you do not receive bias information.
You do not have to tell a client if a placebo is being used.
It is best to avoid vulnerable populations such as children, the homeless and victims of abuse.
Anonymity involves ___________ while confidentiality involves ___________.
no trace of information , keeping information private
keeping information private, on trace of information
Deception is important and used often to get better results
When you analyze and report your findings you should do all of these except:
show positive and negative results
be honest and open
include ideology that inhibit the findings
exercise care with vulnerable popoulations
benefits to scientific community must outweigh harm to subjects
_________ research involves becoming familiar with specific topics and examining a new interest or subject
___________ involves reporting on characteristics of a population, situation or event and involves asking what, when, where and how.
_________ involves answering why certain events happen and reports the relationships among different aspects of the phenomenon.
Idiographic model of explanation involves
enumeration of all the causes of an event
focusing on the significance
all of the above
An unit of analysis is what
a research explains and draws inferences about
a direct observation
is known as a timed dimension
An unit of observation
is a direct observation
can be the same of the unit of analysis
can be an individual person, group, organization or social artifact
An organization includes universities, church congregations and corporations.
A married couple is an individual unit of observation.
When studying riots that are occurring on the street you are focusing on which type of unit of observation
Ecological fallacy occurs when
assuming that something learned about an ecological unit says something about the individuals that make up the group
attributing something to a group based on the observed behaviour or characteristics of individuals
A cross sectional study is taken over a long period of time
A longitude study needs to have at least two waves of research conducted
These are all types of Longitude studies except
discussing central concepts of research & making them specific
defining all concepts in your research
performing a content analysis and applying the concepts
deciding on how you will measure concepts
A direct observables is
what is in history books and mediums
what is in front of us
A indirect observables is
a history book or medium
A constructs concept is
a direction observable
an indirect observable
neither a direct or indirect obsrvable
Concepts are building blocks for theories
making concepts specific
agreeing on concepts
having an indicator
various measures of the same concept on the same subjects
different indicators for one concept should generally behave the same way
A single indicator may misclassify an individual, while multiple indicator will offset this effect
This type of dimension is when you try to figure our the "essence of a phenomena" and tries to make a concept more specific
This type of dimension involves how a concept will be measured in research
NOIR stands for:
Nominal, Original, Interval, Ratio
Normal, Ordinal, Interval, Rational
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
Normal, Original, Interval, Ratio
The test-retest method suggests
that you should make the same measurement more than once
you should assign a set of measurements to half of your sample and another to the other half
subjects don't change over time so testing and retesting can occur far apart
Precision is _________ while accuracy is __________.
fineness between attributes composing a variable, reflective of measure of actual attribute of a variable
caution when researching, reflective of measure of actual attribute of a variable
fineness between attributes composing a variable, reflective of reliablity
These are all important criteria for measuring quality except
Precision & accuracy
You can have high reliability without vailidity
you can have validity with reliability