time time between the entry of pathogens and when symptoms start to show
How does the infection cycle begin?
By the entry of pathogens
Once inside a cell what do the pathogens do?
After they enter the cell, they multiply, cause damage to the cells and release toxins
When will symptoms start to show? Examples of symptoms
Once the immune system starts to work. Examples include fever (deni), vomiting, rash
- whole cell
- can be harmful or beneficial (found in digestive system, yoghurt, beer)
-can be killed by antibiotics
-Not a whole cell
-cannot be cured by antibiotics
caused when our immune system overreacts to the wrong substance
If a person is going into anaphylactic shock they will need a pen
Methods of spread
air, water, food, contact and animals
Defence in lungs
Defence in stomach
What to white blood cells do?
1. Produce chemicals called antibodies which attach to microbes and destroy them
2. produce anti-toxins to neutralise toxins made by pathogens
3. Memory cells which remember antibodies used for a particular pathogen
giving a weakened form of the virus to the person. The person's immunity system is triggered to fight the weakened virus. The microbe cannot reproduce so it is destroyed quickly. Antibodies are produced. Memory cells remember the antibodies used. The body is now better prepared should the real disease enter.
One of the first vaccines was given by Dr. Jenner who inoculated his own son
When a large number of people are immunised so there is less change of an epidemic (outbreak) of a disease