, refers to seeing a ‘similar other’ perform the behaviour and one’s own performance against the performance of that similar other. is learning by observing someone else doing it. If they can do it, I think I can do it too.
Modelling/vicarious experience -
•posits that human behaviour is the product of the dynamic interplay of personal, and environmental influences.
•emphasizes that learning occurs in a social context and that much of what is learned is gained through .
Why do we learn from others?
For most activities, there are no absolute measures of adequacy.
Therefore, people must in relation to the attainment of others.
4 processes in observational learning:
Investigation( Attentional processes, Behavioural processes, Parental processes, Investigation ): exploring and deciding what behaviour we are going to model and from whom/where.
Activation( Retention, Assumption, Clarification, Activation ): the active process of transforming and restructuring information about events for memory representation in the form of rules and conceptions. Cognitive rehearsal of the coded information.
Self-motivation( Production, Interpretation, Instigation, Self-motivation ): conceptions are translated into appropriate courses of action.
Imitation( Motivational processes, Integration processes, Creating advantage, Imitation ): experiencing a gain from the modelled behaviour, which makes the effort required worthwhile.
Festinger is credited with which theory, connected to modelling/vicarious experience?
Social Cognitive Theory
Protection Motivation Theory
Social Comparison Theory
Social Theory centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate .
The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to
If people want to achieve something, they model themselves on people who do it a little better.
Following the initial theory, research began to focus on social comparison as a way of self-.
Comparing ourselves to others is, for many activities, the only way to ‘know’ whether we are good at the activity.
Modelling/vicarious experience - central element
Not imitation, but through and social comparison processes - not just doing what others are doing - process of appraisal of other’s behaviour, social comparison.
Central elements - modelling/vicarious experience
Model needs to be chosen and portrayed in such a way as to provide information that can be used for appraisal and effect on self-efficacy
model needs to show what steps they took to master the behaviour, how they struggled and overcame challenges
Model must demonstrate mastery of sub-skills that are needed in a step-by-step process toward performing and maintaining the behavior.
There needs to be a clear reward for the behaviour.
The model should be similar to the target in characteristics.
Model should be inspirational with excellent mastery of the behaviour.
Degree of model's success in target behaviour should be extensive, so as to surprise and intimidate target group
Short-term success in changing of behaviour will be sufficient reward for target group
Model should show no vulnerability or weakness in attempts to achieve target behaviour
modelling efforts must focus on imitation of behaviour, discouraging participants from considering their own interpretation of behaviour
Choosing to use modelling/vicarious experience
According to Bandura, observational learning/modeling is the second most important source of information (after enactive mastery)
In order for modelling/vicarious experience methods to be effective, the target group should be . The method will not work with as they are unable to self-appraise.
The method should be used for people who need to improve their self-efficacy.
Evidence for use - modelling/vicarious experience
For physical activity
fruit and vegetable intake( physical activity, stopping smoking, fruit and vegetable intake ) a meta analysis showed that interventions that used vicarious experience and feedback on past performance
enactive mastery( feedback on past performance, coping planning, enactive mastery ) produced significantly higher levels of physical activity
fruit and veg intake
dental hygiene( physical activity, fruit and veg intake, dental hygiene ) self-efficacy than interventions that did not include these techniques.
Modelling/vicarious experience - there are strict parameters of use. Select the correct ones from the list below.
Model has to be attractive to target group
Model should share similar personal characteristics as target group
Model should perform slightly better on target behaviour
Model should display total mastery of the behaviour
Model should appear to have made no conscious effort to master the behaviour
Model should demonstrate steps taken to achieve success in the behaviour
Model should display coping - struggled and succeeded, with detailed steps along the route to success
Model should not appear to have experienced significant change in life circumstances because of behaviour change success
Model should show visible positive results from success in the behaviour
Example - use of modelling/vicarious experience
intervention for smoking cessation in which the role models were ex-smokers who had the same as the participants. The people in the intervention group were asked to select one out of six role models (all ex-smokers) from whom they would receive . The role models were discussing issues they had found difficult and they used to remain smoke-free. Participants could ask for on demand.
Examples - use of modelling/vicarious experience
The North Project is long-term project in to reduce and other chronic diseases. It conducted mass media campaigns featuring peer modeling in a format: people in North Karelia were followed in news and public affairs programming as they to quit smoking, lose or maintain weight and control hypertension. Interpersonal communication networks were organized to provide and social reinforcement for new behaviours and advocacy of environmental changes such as smoking-free environments and higher cigarette taxes. Over these activities led to changes in behaviour that translated into a , 65% reduction in lung cancer and longer life expectancy.