argued that our source of certainty lies in our awareness of ourselves as sentient, together with pre-existing thoughts.
argued that we cannot know what is real until we know with some certainty what it is that we can know.
knowledge is also known as , which is knowing THAT something is the case.
knowledge is also known as , which is knowing HOW to do something.
knowledge, supported by Descartes, is the idea that ideas/principles are pre-installed in the human mind by a God.
____________ is to rationalism as ______________ is to empiricism
are from the general to the specific
are from the specific to the general
Darwin had a view of the mind
can be defined as the descendent from a common evolutionary ancesor
Nature is to __________, and nurture is to _____________.
Declarative Knowledge/Hot & Procedural Knowledge/Cold
Declarative Knowledge/Cold & Procedural Knowledge/Hot
Procedural Knowledge/Hot & Declarative/Cold
Procedural Knowledge/Cold & Declarative Knowledge/Hot
Evolution can be defined as
Natural selection is a simple product of the concurrence of 3 requirements:
is when species stop evolving and the average value of traits remains the same. Evolution occurs under
The European Peppered Moth discussed in class is an example of rather than .
are the wellspring of evolutionary change.
Natural selection can only operate on .
Natural selection modifying existing attributes to do different things
is when two structures (such as a bat wing and a dragon fly wing) where they are alike, but not the same and do not share the same evolutionary history.
is a set of structures that are shared by a common ancestor (such as the flipper or a walrus and the wing of a bat).
Why can no adaptation ever be perfect?
Environmental conditions are not fixed and change over time
Mutations are the wellspring of evolution
Natural selection can only act on what exists
All of the above
Environmental conditions are not fixed & natural selection can only act on what exists
, is the emergence of a new species
is speciation that follows from a population of animals being separated spatially.
As was the case with Darwin's finches, appearance is helpful in identifying species, but it does not define the species: the adherence to this definition is
Homoplasy( Hybridization, Allopatric speciation, Divergent evolution, Homoplasy ) is when the population may re-join without speciation taking place and the 2 gene pools effectively merge
To understand the historical or evolutionary context in which specific characteristics arise or disappear, we need to be able to identify the taxa using a
Skeletal material and behaviour are both
A trait that is shared by 2 or more species, but is not present in the common ancestor because it has evolved more recently. This provides a more accurate picture of relatedness, called synapmorphies
analogy( synapmorphies, apomorphies, homoplasy, homology, analogy )
or is when a trait can carry or disappear within a clade independently of a common ancestor.
A is a set of adjacent alleles or DNA sequences that is inherited together
Looking at the graph of oil-droplet evolution in vervetes,
Label 1. Which TWO species evolved independently from one another since the time of separation from the common ancestor
and 2. Which vision was the common ancestor for the bottom group?
and 3.What principle is graph illustrating?
The problem with is that we cannot extract useable genetic material from fossils, and gene clocks may not be properly calibrated. Thus, we must combine phenotypic phylogenies and genotypic phylogenies.
Darwin promoted the when he pointed to baboons as a source of information
Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than they (chimpanzees) are related to gorillas.
The good thing about gene-based phylogenies is that the number of mutations that have occurred within and across clades can also serve as a molecular clock for dating.
operate on the assumption that spontaneous errors in nucleotide sequences during replication (mutations) happen at a fixed average rate.
For a gene/molecular clock to be calibrated, a is conducted
The hominoidea group does not include apes and is solely consisting of all homosapians (living and extinct)
Hominoids are characterized by 3 distinct modes of locomotion.... which ones?
Humans are alone among the living primates in habitually walking bipedally. It is a feature only of the hominid lineage.
Bipedalism evolved from a knuckle walking
quadrapedal( knuckle walking, brachiating, swimming, quadrapedal ) ancestor
The good thing about gene-based phylogenies:
Operate on the assumption that spontaneous errors in nucleotide sequences during replication (mutations) happen at a fixed average rate, reflecting amount of time has passed since they split off from a common ancestor. Calibrated using a fossil record [how they found dogs were wolves]
They are unbiased and scientifically accurate.
Helps identify possible selection pressures.
Allows us to infer WHEN attributes first emerged as well as it's functional significance.
They tell us not only WHEN something happened, but also WHERE it did.
Anapomorphy( Founder effects, Allopatric speciation, Synapomorphy, Anapomorphy ) can be defined as the loss of genetic variability, through chance alone, that occurs when a small subset of a larger population is reproductively isolated and thus shifts the gene pool accordingly
is a major problem in the construction of phylogenies. But, if we can identify it as such, it can be valuable in the comparative method.
is an expression of the same trait by different members of a clade only because it has been carried and hasn't come under selection pressure (if it ain't broke - don't fix it!)
Even though we have equal numbers of living arboreal and terrestrial species, there is no evidence that the group size of each is a consequence of its ecological niche [analyze by interdependent contrasts]
is a good example of descent with modification in hominin communities.
Catarrhini( Platyrrhini, Strepsirihini, Haporhini, Catarrhini ) primates are broad nosed. Their nostrils are far apart and generally open to the side. These are the New World Monkeys [confined to Central and South America] and are typically diurnal.
Strepsirhini( Catarrhini, Platyrrihini, Haplorhini, Strepsirhini ) primates are narrow nosed that are flat and downwards. This includes humans and the old world monkeys/apes [Africa/Asia]
Catarrhini( Strepsirhini, Haplorhini, Platyrrihni, Catarrhini ) primates have a bent, inwardly turned nose, and typically wet dog-like noses and are mostly nocturnal.
Catarrhini( Haplorhini, Strepsirhini, Platyrrihni, Catarrhini ) primates have simple noses are have 2 subtypes within this group.
We humans, and other apes of the Platyrrihini, are apart of the Hominoidea group.
Hominoidea [we + apes of the catarrhine] belong to this group. Phylogenetically, the apes are characterized by the absence of a tail and are generally divided into 2 groups:
Hylobatidae [lesser apes]
Hominidae [great apes]
Hylobatidae [great apes]
Hominidae [lesser apes]
The few living apes that were around during the miocene area occupied a variety of ecological niches and probably displayed physical and behavioural diversity that we now associate with the Old World Monkeys that replaced them [baboons, vervet monkeys]
Not all living apes are ripe fruit eaters.
The era in which mammals first appeared, or the 'age of the reptiles'.
Which 3 clades made it through the cretacious period when dinosaurs died?
There was a lineage splitting and this diversification is linked to the occupation of different and recently vacated ecological niches. It's likely that the diversification was underpinned by 3 apomorphic adaptations...
Sensitive hearing made possible by the evolutionary emergence of the detached middle ear from the mandible
The evolution of tribosphenic molars
The emergence of the capacity to regulate body temperature using metabolic heat or shivering
The evolution of bipedalism to maximize transportation efficiency through running
The evolution of speech
As a general rule, the most important thing to be able to do while up a tree is to avoid predation.
What 3 adaptations made the ability to move from one food source to another possible?
The evolution of primate grasp: the power grip, and the precision grip
The evolution of binocular vision to aid stereopsis
The emergence of only having 1 offspring at a time as opposed to a litter
The emergence of language
Speed increased by past experience with predators
Which 3 things were sacrificed for the adaptations to live in the trees?
australopiths chewed their way out of trouble. Their teeth are large, grinding molars that allowed them to process hard foods. australopiths had teeth that were less committed to a particular ecological view.
The first identified member of our species was either or
was the first hominin to leave Africa
was a hominin with small stature and small brain size
The emergence of the hominids is associated with:
living in the trees
competition with apes living alongside humans
the cooling down and drying out of Africa
predation driving hominids to expand across the world
The problems posed by savanna woodlands are of 2 kinds
Those associated with getting enough food and water
Those associated with increased risk of predation
Those associated with staying cool
Those associated with needing to communicate
Primates have a specialized cooling system to cool their brains.
Our inheritance of small incisors means that we were not dentally pre-adapted to meat eating.
Lucy, an australopithecus afarensis
homo florensiensis( australopithecus afarensis, homo erectus, homo habilis, homo ergaster, neanderthal, homo florensiensis ), was readily bipedal. Unlike chimps and more like us, her arms are shortened relative to her legs and her spine is curved and her tarsal bones are less manoeuvrable.
We see in hominids a reduction in size of incisors and canine teeth and a substantial increase in the size of the molars. We also find an increase in the robustness of the lower jaw.
Skeletal fossils allow us to infer not only the overall size of an extinct animal but also how it moved.
Living in a more open country places a premium on the need for locomotion to be energetically efficient
self-defence against predation
trees to sprout up to live in
stereopsis vision for finding food( locomotion to be energetically efficient, self-defence against predation, trees to sprout up to live in, stereopsis vision for finding food ).
Running is more energetically demanding than running.
The smaller you are, it makes no difference in efficiency for walking vs running. If you are bigger, running has more energy costs.
Chimp walking is very inefficient compared to the cost expected for a quadrupedal mammal of the same weight. Chimpanzees are more efficient when they run.
Modern humans have an extraordinary capacity for long-distance running. Humans have a suite of adaptation that make the costs of endurance running tolerable....
Adaptations that minimize energy demand [balanced head, swivelling neck, long achilles tendons that soak up energy for free, large gluteus maximus for balance]
Humans have become taller and leaner [reduces the surface area exposed to direct sunlight and allows us to benefit from laminar air flow & alters body volume/surface ratio to ease heat loss]
Stereopsis vision [color vision, binocular vision, precision]
The is the collision of competing locomotory and reproductive selection pressures.
Primate fetuses grow faster than those of average mammals.
Human gestation is evolutionarily conserved.
If it weren't for our , we would all arrive in the world without any real complications.
In order to deal with the problems of large heads in humans, (2 things):
We are born earlier than we should be
Natural selection has produced very elastic neonatal skulls that can deform in response to the pressures imposed by a rigid pelvis
We have adapted to sweat in order to 'cool our brains'
Natural selection has provided us with language