Which of the following best describes DNA?
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, and contains all of the genetic information required for features of our bodies
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, and sends messages to our brain about how to control our bodily movements
DNA is an inherited script, based upon our environmental interactions early on in life
DNA is something that we all carry, but only utilise it in conscious situations
If a father's sperm contains an X chromosome, when paired with a mother's egg, the resulting child:
Will not have its sex determined until after 8 weeks gestation
Will be male
Will inherit both male and female characteristics
Will be female
To be expressed, a dominant gene:
Must have its pair in order to be expressed
Will be expressed regardless if a recessive gene is present
Will not be expressed if a recessive gene is present
Is expressed in combination with the recessive gene
If blue eye color is a recessive gene, then in order for a person to have a phenotype of blue eyes:
Two blue eye genes must be present
As long as one blue eye gene is present, the trait will be expressed in the phenotype
Blue eye color is expressed randomly, there is no genetic pattern
Blue eye recessive genes will dominate over dominant genes of, for example, brown eyes
A gene showing co-dominance:
Has one allele that is dominant to the other
Has two alleles that are equal in dominance
Has alleles linked tightly on the same chromosome
Has alleles which are recessive to each other
Identify the differences between a genotype and phenotype:
A genotype is the genes carried by a person; the phenotype is the observable expression of the genes
A phenotype is the genes carried by a person; the genotype is the observable expression of the genes
A genotype carries all of the genes from your mother; A phenotype carries all of the genes from your father
A genotype is the observable expression of the genes; A phenotype is all of the alleles that you carry
Place the three phases of prenatal development in the correct procedural order:
Germinal, foetal, embryonic
Germinal, embryonic, foetal
Embryonic, germinal, foetal
Embryonic, foetal, germinal
Which of the following correctly matches the layers of the embryonic disc with the structures that they form, with ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm respectively?
the nervous system, skin and hair; muscles, bones, circulatory system and other internal organs; the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands
the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands; muscles, bones, circulatory system and other internal organs; the nervous system, skin and hair
muscles, bones, circulatory system and other internal organs; the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands; the nervous system, skin and hair
the nervous system, skin and hair; the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands; muscles, bones, circulatory system and other internal organs
Which of the following occur during the embryonic period?
All basic organs of the body are formed, and the embryo begins to respond to direct stimulation
Organs take on their final form and begin to function
An inner membrane, called the amnion, forms a watertight sac with amniotic fluid to protect the developing organism
During which trimester does the foetus begin to move and kick, as well as develop the sucking and swallowing complexes?
Within two weeks of birth
During which trimester does the foetus respond reflexively to touch on the face?
Between trimester 2 and 3
During which trimester does the brain indicate periods of sleep and wakefulness?
Which of the following is NOT true regarding teratogens?
A teratogen is an agent which can cause birth defects
A teratogen causes speedier and healthier development
Some common teratogens include alcohol, tobacco, some STIs, illicit and prescribed drugs
Teratogens are usually something in the environment that the mother is exposed to during pregnancy
Which of the following is an example of how environmental influences can impact on our genetics?
A child grows to be very tall, like his mother and father
A boy learns to play the guitar from his father
A neglected child still creates meaningful attachments later in life
A neglected and malnourished child does not grow to be very tall, despite having tall parents
The frontal lobe of the brain is the last to develop, and often does not reach maturity until early adulthood. Which of the following are functions of the frontal lobes?
Reasoning, decision making, and executive functioning
Imagining, memory, and risk taking
Taste, touch, smell, hearing and sight
Emotional reactions to fear-inducing stimuli
Which of the following is true of Erikson's psychosocial stage 'Trust V Mistrust'?
Occurs from birth-18 moths; a key event during this period is exploration. To resolve this crisis, the child must be able to safely explore and engage with their environment.
Occurs from 2-3 years old; a key event during this period is feeding. Trust is developed when caregivers consistently meet the child's needs.
Occurs from 2-3 years; a key event during this period is exploration. To resolve this crisis, the child must be able to safely explore and engage with their environment.
Occurs from birth-18 months; a key event during this period is feeding. Trust is developed when caregivers consistently meet the child's needs.
Which of the following is true of Erikson's psychosocial stage 'Autonomy V Shame and Doubt'?
Occurs at 2-3 years of age; a key event during this period is toilet training. Autonomy is achieved when children can develop a sense of personal control over physical skills.
Occurs at 6-11 years of age; a key event during this period is feeding. To achieve autonomy, the child must be able to source their own food and necessary supplies.
Occurs at birth-18 months; a key event during this period is toilet training. Autonomy is achieved when children can develop a sense of personal control over physical skills.
Occurs at 6-11 years of age; a key event during this period is friendships. To achieve autonomy, a child must be able to make friendships without parental assistance.
Which of the following is true of Erikson's psychosocial stage 'Intiative V Guilt'?
Occurs from 3-5 years; a key event during this period is exploration. Children need to establish power and control over their environment, leading them to a sense of purpose.
Occurs from 3-5 years; a key event during this period is pre-school. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands.
Occurs from 6-11 years; a key event during this period is school. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands.
Occurs from 2-3 years; a key event during this period is exploration. Children need to establish power and control over their environment, leading them to a sense of purpose.
Which of the following is true of Erikson's psychosocial stage 'Industry V Inferiority'?
Occurs from 6-11 years; a key event during this period is schooling. Industry is achieved when the child is able to cope with the new social and academic demands.
Occurs from 3-5 years; a key event during this period is schooling. Industry is achieved when the child is able to cope with the new social and academic demands.
Occurs from 6-11 years; a key event during this period is social relationships. Success is achieved when children feel valued and useful within their friendship groups.
Occurs from 3-5 years; a key event during this period is social relationships. Success is achieved when children feel valued and useful within their friendship groups.
Which of the following is true of Erikson's psychosocial stage 'Identity V Role Confusion'?
Occurs from 12-18 years; a key event during this period is social relationships. Success in this stage leads to a formed ability to develop a sense of self and stay to true to oneself.
Occurs from 6-11 years; a key event during this period is social relationships. Success in this stage leads to a formed ability to develop a sense of self and stay to true to oneself.
Occurs from 12-18 years; a key event during this period is intimate relationships. Success in this stage is achieved when individuals are able to develop an identity in combination with their partner.
Occurs from 19-40 years; a key event during this period is intimate relationships. Success in this stage is achieved when individuals are able to develop an identity in combination with their partner.
Which of the following is true of Erikson's psychosocial stage 'Intimacy V Isolation'?
Occurs from 19-40 years; a key event during this period is relationships. Intimacy is achieved when the individual can form intimate, loving relationships with others.
Occurs from 12-18 years; a key event during this period is relationships. Intimacy is achieved when the individual can form intimate, loving relationships with others.
Occurs from 19-40 years; a key event during this period is relationships. Success in this stage is achieved when the individual is able to interact with people in passing.
Occurs from 12-18 years; a key event during this period is relationships. Intimacy is achieved when the individual engages in sexual activity.
Which of the following statements accurately describes the most sophisticated self-theory seen during late adolescence?
"I am a boy, I am five, and I like playing sport"
"I am a feminist, I am creative, and I support the Labor party"
"I am a feminist, I am creative, and I support the Labor party. I am happy and extroverted with friends, but sad and quiet at home"
"I am a female, and I am usually happy, and I am in high school"
Which of the following statements accurately describes identity diffusion?
I haven't really thought about who I am, or who I am going to be yet.
My parents are Catholic, so I am going to be Catholic.
I have considered many religions, including Catholicism, which I was raised as. I have decided to convert to Buddhism.
I was brought up being taught how to run the family farm, but I am considering other career options currently.
Which of the following statements accurately describes identity foreclosure?
My parents were doctors, so I will be too.
I have not thought about who I am, or what I want to be.
I believe I want to be a doctor, I am just making my final decisions about it now.
My parents were doctors, but I am looking into being a vet.
Which of the following statements accurately describes identity moratorium?
I have been brought up Christian, but am currently looking into Catholicism.
My parents were Christian, therefore I will be too.
I haven't given any thought as to who I am or who I want to be.
I have considered many options, and have decided to practice Buddhism.
Which of the following statements accurately describes identity achievement?
I have considered many different career options, and I have decided that I am going to be a doctor.
My parents were doctors so I am going to be a doctor also.
Because my parents were doctors and unhappy, I am going to do something other than be a doctor.
My parents were doctors, but I am looking into some career options of my own.
Which of the following do NOT have a major influence on identify formation?
Cognitive development and scholastic opportunities
Parental relationships and influence
At what age does gender constancy occur?
At what age does gender-typed behaviour begin?
During which period are racial and prejudicial attitudes influenced by parents most strongly?
At 3 years
At 7 years
The child may be engaged in seemingly random movements, with no clear objective. This best describes which type of play?
The child plays alone with different toys or other objects, and with no direct or indirect awareness of or involvement with other children, even if nearby. This best describes which type of play?
The child watches others play without actually entering into the activities. The child is clearly involved with what is happening, and is usually within speaking distance of the participants. This best describes which type of play?
Involves two or more children playing side-by-side in close proximity and with an awareness of each other's presence, often with the same toy or enjoying similar activity, but do not share toys, talk, or interact except in very minimal ways. This best describes which type of play?
Children engage in a common activity and talk about it with each other, but do not assign tasks or roles to particular individuals and are not very clear about common goals. This describes best which type of play?
Children consciously form into groups to make something, attain a goal, or dramatise a situation. One or two members organise and direct the activity with children assuming different roles and responsibilities. Which type of play does this most accurately describe?
Identify the categories of Grussec and Lytton's play typology:
Functional, constructive, pretend, and games with rules
Onlooker, parallel, associative, and cooperative play
Solitary, onlooker, parallel, and cooperative
Functional, fine motor, pretend, and gross motor
What emotions are present from birth?
Interest, disgust, and contentment
Disgust, contentment, and discomfort
Anger, sadness, and joy
Surprise, joy, and anger
What emotions appear in the 2-7 month period in infants?
Anger, sadness, joy, and surprise
Embarassment, shame, and guilt
Envy, pride, and happiness
Self-conscious emotions (including embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, and pride), are called so because:
Each involves some damage or enhancement to our sense of self
Each is detrimental to our sense of self
Each improves our sense of self
Each requires self-recognition and an understanding of rules or standards for evaluating one's conduct
Self-evaluative emotions, including shame, guilt and pride, are called so because:
They either enhance or are detrimental to our sense of self
They are detrimental to our sense of self
They enhance our sense of self
They require self-recognition and an understanding of rules or standards for evaluating one's conduct
Regarding emotional display rules, which of the following is FALSE:
Emotional display rules vary across cultures
Every culture has similar or the same emotional display rules
A child who feigns pleasure at a displeasing present has mastered Westernised emotional display rules
At age 3, children can begin to disguise, suppress, and replace emotions
Social referencing beings to occur at 7-10 months. This refers to:
Using others' emotional expressions to infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations
If other people are happy, the infant will display this emotion also
Infants learn facial expressions and emotions from others, and put these into use at a later date
Children learn emotional display rules from social referencing
The 3 components of emotional competence include:
Competent emotional expressivity, competent emotional regulation, and competent emotional knowledge
Competent in being quiet and still, competent behavioural skills, and competent communication of emotions
Competent emotional expressivity, competent in raising the moods of others, and competent social referencing
Competent in maintaining positive moods, competent communication skills, and competent emotional knowledge
There are six dimensions to temperaments. Identify which of the following is NOT one of these core dimensions:
Desire for social engagement
Thomas and Chess' notion of 'goodness of fit' refers to:
Development being optimised when parents' child rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child's temperamental characteristics
Development being delayed when parents' child rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child's temperamental characteristics
Development being optimised when parents' child rearing practices are standardised regardless of temperament
Development is delayed if parents do not adjust their lives properly around their children
Identify the correct order in which the phases of attachment occur:
Social phase, the phase of indiscriminate attachments, the specific attachment phase, and the phase of multiple attachments
The phase of indiscriminate attachments, the specific attachment phase, the phase of multiple attachments, and the social phase
Social phase, the specific attachment phase, the phase of indiscriminate attachments, and the phase of multiple attachments
The phase of multiple attachments, the specific attachment phase, the phase of indiscriminate attachments, and the social phase,
"To love you, I must know you will always be there". This statement refers most closely to which of the following theories of attachment?
Cognitive developmental theory
Stranger anxiety occurs at _____, and is _______________:
7-9 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infant is approached by an unfamiliar person
9-18 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infant is approached by an unfamiliar person
7-9 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infant is separated from the person(s) to whom they are securely attached
9-18 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infant is separated from the person(s) to whom they are securely attached
Separation anxiety occurs at _____, and is ____________:
6-9 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infants are separated from the person(s) to whom they are securely attached
9-18 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infants are separated from the person(s) to whom they are securely attached
6-9 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infants are approached by a stranger
9-18 months; a wary or fretful reaction when infants are separated from their home environment
Four types of attachment types have been proposed. These include __________,__________, __________, and __________. The most common type of attachment is __________.
Secure, resistant, avoidant, and disorganised; secure
Secure, resistant, avoidant, and disorganised; disorganised
Secure, wary, infactuated, and disorganised; secure
Secure, wary, infactuated, and disorganised; infactuated
A child who has a secure attachment has most likely experienced:
Positive attitudes from parents, and parents are sensitive to infant's needs
Mostly positive attitudes from parents, but the parents often have bursts of anger
Parents are inflexible in their schedules, only providing care for the child at specific times
Positive attitudes from strangers, and strangers are sensitive to infant's needs
A child who has a positive model of themselves, but a negative model of others (according to the 'working models' theory), most likely has which attachment type:
A child has only ever known their family dog-a small chihuahua. Upon seeing a large Labrador, his mother explains that this is also a dog. The child therefore adds this image to his existing schema of dogs. This is a process best known as:
Identify the correct ordering of the 6 substages of Piaget's sensorimotor period:
Simple reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination of secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular motions, and beginnings of thought.
Simple reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, coordination of secondary reactions, and beginnings of thought.
Beginnings of thought, simple reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, and coordination of secondary reactions.
Beginnings of thought, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, coordination of secondary reactions, and simple reflexes.
Which of the following is NOT a limitation of children's thinking during Piaget's preoperational stage?
Lack of knowledge regarding conservation
The concrete operational stage refers to the ability to solve problems regarding:
Theorising cause and effect
Which of the following is NOT something a child learns to do in the formal operational stage:
Solve abstract problems
Use hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Apply logic to situations
Understand knowledge of conservation
When a child is aggressive, but their main goal is to gain access to objects, space, or privileges, this aggression is best described as:
The stages of the social information-processing theory of aggression are: encode, interpret, ________, generate possible strategies, __________, and ___________.
Formulate a goal; evaluate which strategy to employ; enact response
Evaluate which strategy to employ; enact response, evaluate enacted strategy
Formulate a goal; enact first response; enact scond response
Evaluate which strategy to employ; enact first response; enact scond response
Which of the following is NOT shown to be common in the nature of bullies:
May have been bullied themselves
Have high self esteem
Have low self esteem
View aggression positively
Which one of the following is NOT a stage in Piaget's theory of moral development?
If someone said that they would cheat if they knew that they would not get caught, then they would be considered to be in the ________ level of morality, in stage __.
If an individual said that they would let you copy their homework, if they could also copy yours from another subject, then this individual would be placed in the ____ level of morality, in stage __.
If an individual decided not to do something to someone, because they want to be liked by them, then this individual would be considered to be in the _____ level of morality, in stage __.
If a child says "you can't do that, because the teacher said not to!", you can assume that they are in the ____ level of morality, in stage __.
In Kohlberg's scenario of the man stealing the medicine for his wife because he couldn't afford it, if an individual stated that this may have been a case where the rule needed breaking, you could assume that they are in ______ level of morality, and in stage __.
If an individual is acting consistently in such a way that they believe is right, regardless of punishment, or laws, this person is probably in the ______ level of morality, in stage __.
The basic units of sound refers to:
The word 'elephant' is an example of a ____ morpheme, whereas '-s' is an example of a _____ morpheme.
Rules that specify how words are to be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences refers to:
The suggestion that language is learned by imitation (of adults) and reinforcement, is most strongly correlated with the _______________ theory of language development.
At what ages does 'cooing' begin (e.g. 'ooh' and 'aaah')?
At what age does babbling (consonants added to speech, although words do not convey meaning) occur?
At what age do infants begin to reserve certain sounds for certain situations (for example, 'mm' when making requests, thus indicating knowledge of meaning)?
At what age do gestures and non-verbal responses tend to begin?
Pointing at something to draw attention to it is an example of a(n) ________ gesture, whereas by tugging on a caregiver's leg, indicating that they want to be picked up, is a(n) ________ gesture.
Using one word to represent a sentence (e.g. 'ball', to represent 'I want the ball'), is an example of a:
Comprehension via the process of fast-mapping occurs at ______, but is not expressive until ______.
13-15 months; 24-30 months
15-18 months; 18-24 months
12-14 months; 18-24 months
12-24 months; 24-36 months
When a child speaks using only critical words to a sentence, for example, 'kitty go, ' this is an example of:
When a child says 'I runned' instead of 'I ran', this is an example of:
At what age can children understand illocutionary intent (underlying meaning)?
Which of the following is NOT part of criteria A for ASD?
Persistent deficits in social communication and social interactions across multiple contexts
Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviours used for social interaction
Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships
Restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities
Which of the following are NOT part of criteria B for ASD? Restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interest, or activities over at least two of the following:
Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements
Use of objects or speech
Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus
Insistence on different routines every day
In higher functioning individuals with ASD, what is the male:female ratio of prevalence?
Which of the following is NOT a proposed causal factor of ASD?
Weaker central coherence
Extreme male brain
Extreme female brain
Executive functioning disabilities
Under the DSM-V criteria, the prevalence for ADHD is said to be __. The concordance rate between monozygotic twins is up to __.
Which of the following is NOT an explanation used to explain why ASD is less prevalent in females?
Females may have innately better social skills
Diagnoses may not recognize female manifestations of ASD
Females may have a larger innate desire to socialise
Females possess the Y chromosome, thus exposing them less to the disorder
Which of the following is NOT a presentation of ADHD?
ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation
ADHD predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation
ADHD combined presentation
ADHD attention-deficit presentation
Which of the following is NOT required for a diagnosis of ADHD?
If the individual is <17, 6 diagnostic criteria must be present
If the individual is >17, 5 diagnostic criteria must be present
Symptoms must be present before 12 years of age
The individual must have a co-existing psychotic disorder
There is no evidence to suggest that ADHD is a brain-based dysfunction
Which of the following is the most effective treatment for ADHD?
Stimulants such as Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Amphetamines
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in combination with stimulants such as Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Amphetamines
This disorder resolves with age and maturity
Which of the following is not a risk factor for Schizophrenia?
Living within a functional family environment
The average age of onset for Schizophrenia is __ in men, and __ in women.
Schizophrenia tends to affect ___ more predominantly, with a(n) ______ onset, and generally more severe symptoms
(RE Schizophrenia) In 10 years post-diagnosis, ___ of patients completely recover, and ___ are much improved
One in 3 individuals diagnosed
Violence towards others is a symptom of Schizophrenia
Which of the following is NOT part of the neurobiological explanation for schizophrenia?
Imbalances of dopamine and glutamate exist
Ventricles in the brain are larger
There tends to be less grey matter in the brain
There tends to be more white matter in the brain
Which of the following is a negative symptom of Schizophrenia?
Eating disorders affect approximately __ of the Australian population
Which of the following is NOT a long-term consequence of eating disorders?
Increased social support
Which of the following distinguishes Bulimia from Binge-Eating disorder?
Bulimia does not involve compensatory behaviours for binge eating, whereas binge-eating disorder does
Bulimia involves compensatory behaviours for binge eating, whereas binge-eating disorder does not
Bulimia does not involve binge eating, whereas binge-eating disorder does
Bulimia compensatory behaviours include only exercise, whereas binge-eating disorder compensatory behaviours include laxative and enema abuse.
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for developing an eating disorder?
Having an obsession with food and dieting
Going to a public high school
Living in Westernised cultures
Which of the following is true of the proximodistal principle?
Controlling your hand before your arm
Controlling your fingers before your hand
Controlling your foot before your toes
Controlling your toes before your foot
Which of the following is true of the cephalocaudal principle?
Controlling your torso before your legs
Controlling your legs before your torso
Controlling your legs before your arms
Controlling your feet before your hands
At what age are children considered to be at the 'schematic' stage of drawing?
Which of the following is NOT a proposed effect of sport in child development?
Poorer academic grades
Improved heart and lung function
Lower obesity rates
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of dyspraxia?
Deficits in memory
Deficits in attention
Which of the following is not a suggested treatment for dyspraxia?
Providing scaffolding and practice for the child
Adapting the environment to the child's needs
Engaging specific training
Routing the child to achieve milestones earlier than their peers
Which of the following are NOT factors that may impair motor development?
Muscle tone and strength
Which of the following is not an example of a teratogen in pregnant women?
The information coded in genes that is then copied onto Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Comprised of Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
The biological structure underpinning every human attribute and trait
The unchangeable, static biological blueprint we all possess
When we inherit characteristics from our parents, the form of genetic transmission is via:
Dominant alleles and recessive alleles
Dominant alleles, but not recessive alleles
Dominant, recessive and co-dominant alleles
If I have two blue-eyed parents and I have brown eyes, I can say that my brown eyes are:
An indication that I was probably adopted
A phenotypic manifestation of my genotype
A genotypic manifestation of my phenotype
Unrelated to my genetic inheritance
Organogenesis occurs during the:
Foetal gestational period
A synapse is
A connection between neurons
Empty spaces between neurons
The fatty sheath covering neurons
The last part of the brain to develop
During brain development in adolescence:
The neurons are stripped of their myelin to facilitate quicker transmission between neurons
The brain has already reached full maturity and only changes when we learn skills
Synapses are pruned and myelin developed
More synapses are created rapidly to deal with larger amounts of information processing
Bones and other internal organs develop from
Children’s tendency to associate with same-sex playmates and to think of the other sex as an out-group is known as:
Which of the following is true of Stereotypes?
They are widely shared knowledge structures that are learnt through socialization
They are always based on facts
They are distinct cognitive structures
They are widely shared knowledge structures that are learnt through socialization, AND They are distinct cognitive structures
Children involved in a game of ‘tag’ are demonstrating which type of play?
According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages of development, children aged 6-11 years are typically dealing with which basic conflict?
initiative versus guilt
initiative versus industry
industry versus inferiority
industry versus guilt
Children generally demonstrate self recognition using the rouge test at approximately
18-24 months of age
15-17 months of age
12-15 months of age
None of the above
Which of the following have been identified as attachment-related fears in infancy:
Separation Anxiety AND Stranger anxiety
Infants who construct a positive working model of both themselves and their caregivers can be expected to develop which type of attachment style to their caregiver:
An infant who shows little distress when their mother leaves the room and seems to ignore her upon her return is likely to have which type of attachment:
The notion that the type of attachment that an infant develops with a caregiver depends primarily on the kind of caregiving the child received from that person is known as:
The Attachment hypothesis
The Caregiving hypothesis
The Emotional support hypothesis
A child whose behaviour is somewhat inactive and somewhat moody, and is slow to adapt to new persons and situations could be described as having which type of temperament?
Slow-to-warm up temperament
Social learning approaches to aggression contend that aggression is based on:
Observation and learning
All answers provided
Which of the following statements best summarises Dodge’s social information-processing theory of aggression?
Aggressive behaviour is the result of inferring hostile intent in others and reacting angrily.
Aggressive behaviour is the result of receiving a (often inadvertent) reward for aggression.
Aggressive behaviour depends on the social information provided to the child by the primary caregiver.
Aggression develops as a result of biological and cognitive maturation.
Boys are more physically and verbally aggressive on average than girls. This is most likely due to:
Higher testosterone levels in boys.
Parents react more negatively to aggressive behaviours from girls than boys.
Parents play rougher with boys than girls.
Maggie is supervising a play date between her daughter, Isla, and Isla’s friend Lily when she sees Isla kick Lily in an effort to avoid sharing the puzzle she is working on. Lily starts to cry. If Maggie wishes to foster compassion and altruism in Isla, the most appropriate response to Isla’s behaviour would be
To walk away from the situation to avoid inadvertently rewarding Isla for her aggressive behaviour.
To smack Isla on the bottom immediately, so that Isla makes the connection between her aggressive actions, and the punitive consequence.
To immediately yell at Isla and remove her from the situation.
To explain to Isla the harm and distress she has caused to Lily
You are administering Piaget’s moral-decisions exercise on Laurie. You read two stories to Laurie. In story A, Bob is trying to make a surprise breakfast in bed for his mum when he accidently knocks over four glasses, breaking them. In story B, while his mother isn’t looking, Jeff tries to steal a muffin from the kitchen bench when he knocks over one glass and breaks it. After the stories, you ask Laurie which child is naughtier, Bob or Jeff. Laurie says Jeff is the naughtier child because he was trying to do something naughty. How would you classify Laurie’s stage of moral development?
Egocentrism may best be defined as:
A desire to play alone rather than with others
A lack of empathy
The realization that others have internal states such as emotions and desires
Thinking that is dominated by an infant’s own experiences, perceptions and position in space
A child who picks up a stick and plays with it pretending it is a sword is demonstrating which of the following:
Achievement of Formal Operations
Engagement in cooperative play
None of the answers provided
When children answer incorrectly in Piaget’s classic Conservation Task experiments, what cognitive developmental characteristic are they proposed to have demonstrated?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Concrete Operational Thought?
The ability to conserve across a wide range of conservation tasks
The ability to manipulate mental representations about the outside to solve problems
The ability to reason about immediate reality
The ability to reason about abstract possibilities
The ability to create and test hypotheses through systematic observation is called:
A child who utters the sentence “ Home Daddy come” has not yet mastered the rules of
When a child says ' I runned home' they demonstrate
Exposure to poor adult language models
According to the interactionist perspective, language development is influenced by
Children’s cognitive development and modified language used by family members
An innate ‘learning activation device’ that is programmed to acquire language
Differential reinforcement from family as words are acquired and used
Appropriate exposure to language during a sensitive period of development
What is the rate of prevalence of autism in boys compared to girls?
Boys are twice more likely to be diagnosed with autism than girls
Boys are half as likely to be diagnosed with autism as girls
The prevalence is the same
Boys are 3-5 times more likely to be diagnosed with autism than girls
Given recent revisions in the diagnostic criteria for ASD, it is expected that prevalence rates will likely
decrease because fewer children will be diagnosed
decrease because fewer children will develop ASD
remain stable because there have been no changes to diagnostic criteria
increase because practitioners are more aware of the condition
What are the main symptoms of ADHD?
Inattention, recklessness and hyperactivity
Impulsivity and low concentration
Fidgeting, inattention and hyperactivity
Hyperactivity and inattention
ADHD is thought to develop due to
failure of carers to set appropriate expectations and boundaries
failure of carers to set appropriate expectations and boundaries AND poor diet
Children with ADHD respond best to treatments involving
Sedatives and behavioural modification
Cognitive behavioural therapy and stimulants
A good smack
Behavioursal modification and stimulants
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is primarily characterized by:
An intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight
A lack of appetite which leads to subsequent weight loss
Repetitive, constant exercise with a view to losing weight
Episodes of purging and laxative use with a view to losing weight
Bulimia Nervosa is primarily characterized by
Recurrent episodes of binge eating and a sense of a lack of control over the binges followed by compensatory behaviour
Recurrent episodes of binge eating and a sense of a lack of control over the binges
Current estimates are that approximately
1% adolescent girls develop anorexia
Approximately 15% children with anorexia are male
40% of those with anorexia are at risk of developing bulimia
40% of those with anorexia are at risk of developing bulimia AND 1% adolescent girls develop anorexia
People with schizophrenia are at high risk of
having a split personality
People with schizophrenia tend to have brains that
are larger than most people
have larger fluid-filled cavities in them than most people
have less white matter and more grey matter than most people
are more active than most people
Which of the following statements about reflexes is true?
Reflexes are critical diagnostic indicators during infancy as they indicate neurological integrity.
While reflexes once held survival value to human infants, they are no longer relevant indicators of healthy development.
Reflexes are critical diagnostic indicators during infancy as they indicate muscular integrity.
Reflexes are critical diagnostic indicators during infancy as they indicate social development.
The impact of environment on motor development may best be summed up by saying:
Environment and practice are useful tools for the development of motor skills, but are not necessary.
Environmental factors can account for all the motor development observed in infants and children.
The environment is not a sufficient condition for the acquisition of motor skills but plays an important role in timing of skill acquisition.
Practice makes perfect – the more children practice motor skills, the faster they acquire them!
Sophie is about to turn 4 years old. Assuming she is on a normal developmental trajectory, what motor skills would her parents expect her to develop in the coming year?
Gross motor skills such as throwing and catching.
Fine motor skills such as cursive writing.
Fine motor skills such as drawing.
Fine motor skills such as drawing AND Gross motor skills such as throwing and catching.
Three - four year old children around the world typically draw people as ‘tadpole figures’ with a large head and no body. It is not until age 5 or 6 that most children draw human forms with a differentiated head and body. What is the most likely reason for this?
Because very young children are still developing the ability to interpret and understand sensory input.
Because older children have the ability to attend to a task for a longer period of time.
Because including a body with attached arms and legs requires fine motor skills which very young children are unlikely to possess.
Because including a body with attached arms and legs requires fine motor skills which very young children are unlikely to possess, AND Because very young children are still developing the ability to interpret and understand sensory input.
According to the dynamic systems theory, a child’s motor skills are:
Genetically programmed responses that emerge as dictated by maturation.
Genetically programmed responses that emerge as dictated by maturation and opportunities to practice.
Increasingly complex systems of action that represents the most effective way of achieving some objective using the limited capabilities the child may have.
Are dependent on a dynamic vicarious learning relationship between the child and the primary caregiver
Which of the following statements is true?
Chromosomes are made up of DNA
Genes are part of chromosomes
Genes are made up of DNA
All of the answers provided
With respect to hair colour, ____ is a genotype and ____ is a phenotype:
AO, group A
The dominant allele of a gene, the recessive allele of a gene
Brunette hair, brunette hair gene
Brunette hair gene, brunette hair
In blood groups, the A allele is dominant over the O allele. Therefore, if a father’s blood
type is AO, and a mother’s is OO, their child:
Will have blood group A
Will have blood group OO.
Has a 50/50 chance of having either blood group AO or OO.
Has a one in three chance of having each of blood groups A, AO or OO
Which of the following is not a period within prenatal development?
Myelination refers to the
Gradual pruning of synapses
The ‘use it or lose it’ concept in neural development
The insulation of brain synapses
The insulation of mature brain cells
Which of the following is not true of the development of emotional expressions:
Adults can identify both positive and negative emotions equally well
Adults find it easy to identify baby’s positive emotions from facial expressions
Babies communicate their feelings through their facial expressions
Emotional expressions become easier to identify as children get older
Expression of self-evaluative emotions requires:
An understanding of the rules or standards for evaluating one’s conducts
An understanding of the rules or standards for evaluating one’s conducts AND self recognition
Acquisition of all five basic emotions
Emotional display rules:
Are culturally defined
Emerge around 2 years of age
Are a set of emotions present at birth
Only apply to self-conscious emotions
Activity level, irritability/negative emotionality, attention span, fearfulness and sociability
(or positive affect) have been identified as important components of:
‘Goodness of fit’ is the term used to describe:
The notion that a child’s development is likely to be optimized when a parent’s
child rearing practices match the child’s temperament
A slow to warm up temperament, where a child may be slow to adapt to new
people or situations
An easy temperament, where a child is easy going and typically in a positive
A tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people or situations
If a child displays tendencies to prefer same-sex activities over those typically linked with
the opposite sex, the child is displaying
gender-typed patterns of behaviour
Which of the following is an example of identity diffusion:
‘I’ve not really thought much about my career, I don’t know exactly what I want
‘My parents are teachers and so I’ll be a teacher’
‘I’m trying to decide if I should pursue a degree in law or psychology next year
'I have finally found the right job for me’
Which of the following is not one of the four factors thought to influence an adolescents
Relationship with parents
According to Parten’s play typology, a group of children engaging in a game of tag is an
Pursuant to Grusec and Lytton’s play typology, a child digging a hole in a sandpit is an
Cognitive Development may best be defined as:
The changes that take place in cognitive processes from birth until the beginning of
The changes that take place in cognitive processes over the lifespan
The changes in ways of thinking in a society over time
Which of the following is not one of the assumptions of Piaget’s theory of Cognitive
All stages are universal in that they describe the pattern of development in all
The framework is domain-general
All children pass through the stages in the same order and no stage can be skipped
The process of incorporating a new experience into an existing scheme is known as:
During what age period does Object Permanence typically emerge in children?
Birth – 1 month
1 – 4 months
4 – 7 months
8 – 12 months
Children in the Preoperational Period of cognitive development would have difficulty
The point of view of others
According to Dodge’s social information processing theory of aggression, after a child
encodes social cues, the next step they engage in is:
interpret the social cues
respond without adequate thought about the consequences.
formulate social goals
consider strategies to deal with the social situation.
According to the social learning approach to aggression, children may behave aggressively
it is an inherent component of their personality
aggression acts as a release of stress hormone, cortisol.
of their environmental conditions.
of social frustration.
Children’s aggression is likely to be exacerbated by parental conflict when:
the child is exposed to the conflict on numerous occasions
the conflict is intensive and high stress.
parents withdraw and become emotionally unavailable.
all of the above are likely to exacerbate aggression.
According to Piaget’s theory of moral development, a child who sees the rules of authority
figures as sacred and unalterable is likely to be in the:
‘Good boy’ or ‘good girl’ orientation
social-order maintaining morality
The Heinz dilemma is posed to a child who responds as follows:
‘Well, stealing is wrong, but you need to consider the whole situation. Heinz knows that
there is no legal grounds for him to steal the drug. But he’s in a very difficult situation and
anybody in that situation would think it was reasonable to steal the drug”
According to Kohlberg’s levels and stages, what is the most appropriate classification
of this response?
Level 3, post-conventional morality, stage 5.
Level 1, pre-conventional morality, stage 2
Level 2, conventional morality, stage 3.
Level 2, conventional morality, stage 4
What are the main symptoms of autism?
Hyperactivity, and impaired social interaction
Low energy and impaired communication
Impaired social communication and interaction, and restricted interests
The recent revision of the DSM and consequent changes to the diagnostic criteria for
Autism spectrum disorders caused some problems including:
increasing the sensitivity of the assessment so that individuals who may not
previously have been diagnosed with ASD now may be.
improving the specificity but reducing the sensitivity of the assessment so higher
functioning individuals may not receive the diagnosis.
limiting the applicability of the diagnosis to females.
limiting the cultural sensitivity of the assessment.
The theory that attempts to explain autism in terms of an inability to understand another’s
knowledge and beliefs is
The theory of mind
The theory of poor executive functioning
The weak central coherence hypothesis
The mirror neuron theory
The three subtypes of ADHD are:
hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive.
early onset, late onset and mixed onset.
onset before 12 years, 12-16, or over 17 years old.
predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, and combined.
Currently, the most effective form of treatment for ADHD is:
stimulants such as Ritalin
psychological treatments such as CBT
neuro-biological treatments such as ECT
stimulants such as Ritalin AND psychological treatments such as CBT
Which of the following is not a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Poverty of speech
Disorganized speech and thought
In terms of the prevalence and onset of schizophrenia, which of the following statements is
Schizophrenia tends to develop in early adulthood, with the average age of onset 18
years old in men, and 25 years old in women.
Schizophrenia typically begins in childhood but is usually left undiagnosed until later
On most occasions, schizophrenia emerges in middle adulthood, the average age of
onset (for both sexes) is 42 years.
Schizophrenia tends to develop in early adulthood, with the average age of onset 18
years old in women, and 25 years old in men.
Current prevalence estimates of anorexia are that, at some point during the lifespan,
Approximately 15% of women will experience the condition
Approximately 1% of women will experience the condition
Approximately 10% of women will experience the condition
Approximately 5% of women will experience the condition
The most important/influential risk factor for developing an eating disorder is:
Exposure to body-typed images in the media.
A history of dieting
Which of the following is not an example of a survival reflex that is present at birth?
Closing both eyes when a puff of air reaches the eye
Turning head towards touch and opening mouth when stroked on the cheek
The ‘pincer grasp’ to grip things placed in hand
Arching back and extending arms when a sudden loud sound is heard.
Evidence on sex difference in infant motor development:
suggests that boys tend to reach motor development milestones slightly earlier
suggests that Boys tend to excel at gross motor movement while girls excel at fine
suggests that there is no difference in the development or use of motor skills by
male and female infants
is inconsistent and inconclusive.
Symptoms of dyspraxia include:
significant delay in reaching motor milestones
delays or ‘slowness’ of speech.
Twelve year old Carmen is determined to beat her personal best time for 50metres
freestyle in the swimming. This is an example of:
the benefits of sport
We would expect a child to walk unassisted at approximately
6 months old
12 months old
18 months old
24 months old.
The meaning of words and utterances is termed
The smallest unit of meaning in a language is a ________.
Which theorist proposed the 'language acquisition device' (LAD)?
Infants first use gestures as a form of communication at what age?
8 to 10 months
12 to 18 months