What does the number of mitochondria in a cell differ with?
What occurs in mitochondria?
What is the site of photosynthesis and found in the cytoplasm?
What does the nucleus contain?
What is the structure of DNA called?
What are the complementary base pairs?
What does the DNA base code control?
What does one gene =?
Why can't the DNA leave the nucleus and what happens because of this?
What happens when the mRNA passes through the ribosome?
What are many of the proteins made?
What is the production of proteins called?
Mitochondria use glucose for?
Who discovered DNAs structure and what 2 main pieces of data did they use?
Why is there often such a delay between the discovery and the Nobel prize?
What are the 4 types of proteins and an example?
Why does each protein have its own number and order of amino acids?
Enzymes are what type of catalyst?
What is the name of the part of the enzyme where a chemical reaction takes place?
What is the enzymes matching 'key'?
Explain the process of an enzyme catalysing a reaction
What happens if the enzyme's temperature is too low?
What happens if the enzyme's temperature is too high/if their pH is too low or too high?
How do you calculate how temperature alters the rate of reaction?
What happens if mutations occur?
Why are not all the same proteins made in every gene?
Why do gene mutations affect the production of proteins?
Why is respiration important?
What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
What is the symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Why do muscles have to use anaerobic respiration?
Where does aerobic and anaerobic respiration take place?
What are the 2 main disadvantages of anaerobic against aerobic?
What is the incomplete breakdown of glucose resulting in the build up of lactic acid called?
During recovery, why does your breathing rate and heart rate stay high?
What are the 2 ways that we can measure the rate of respiration?
How do we work out the respiratory quotient?
What is the metabolic rate and what does it mean if it is high?
What can also change the respiration rate and why?
What are the 3 advantages of being multicellular?
What are the 3 systems your body needs to be multicellular?
What is mitosis for?
What happens first in mitosis and how is this achieved?
What happens in mitosis after DNA replication?
What is a diploid cell?
What is the type of cell division that produces gametes?
Gametes are diploid/haploid
What does the fact that they are haploid ensure?
Describe the process of meiosis
How is a sperm cell adapted to its function?
What 5 important things does plasma transport around the body?
Name 4 ways in which a red blood cell has adapted
What are the blood vessels different jobs?
How are arteries adapted?
How are veins adapted?
How are capillaries adapted?
What type of blood do arteries carry and what is the exception?
What type of blood do veins carry and what is the exception?
In which vessels can a pulse be felt?
What happens to the speed of the blood as it flows through the capillaries and why?
Where do the left and right atria receive blood from?
Where do the left and right ventricles pump blood to?
What do the semilunar, tricuspid and bicuspid valves do?
What are the main veins that carry blood back to the heart?
What are the main arteries that carry blood away from the heart?
Why does the left ventricle have a thicker muscular wall then the right ventricle?
Why is it classed as a double circulatory system and what benefits does this have?
Which side deals with oxygenated/deoxygenated blood?
How do bacterial cells differ from plant and animal cells?
Where is the DNA found in a bacterial cell?
What are the two points of rapid growth in a human's life?
What is the best measure of growth?
Why don't we always measure things in wet mass?
Why don't they use dry mass to measure growth?
Why do different parts of the organism grow at different rates?
What are stem cells?
Where can stem cells be obtained from? Is one more used than the other and why?
Why are there issues with using embryonic stem cells?
What are the four differences between plant and animal growth?
What are the problems with selective breeding?
What does inbreeding cause?
What is an advantage of genetic engineering?
What is an disadvantage of genetic engineering?
Name 3 examples of organisms that have been genetically engineered
What are the ethical issues involved with genetic engineering?
What are the 4 steps involved in genetic engineering?
What is the process of using genetic engineering to change a person's genes and cure certain disorders?
What does gene therapy use?
Why is changing the genes in gametes more controversial than changing them in body cells?
What process was dolly the sheep involved in?
What does nuclear transfer involve?
Give 3 reasons why animals could be cloned
What are the ethical dilemmas concerning human cloning?
What are the 5 steps in cloning?
Why does cloning carry risks?
What are the 2 advantages of producing cloned plants?
What are the 2 disadvantages of producing cloned plants?
What are the 4 steps involved in tissue culture?
Why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?