advanced in the clarification that Trinitarianism dealt with the relationship between the persons of the singular essence; that is, that the terms “Father, Son and Spirit” denote relationships (not essence or action).
was taught by Basil of Caesarea, his brother. His major gift to the trinitarian debate was that he was able to defend it from a biblical-philosophical viewpoint (On the Holy Trinity, On Not Three Gods).
Questioned the Trinity and the substitutionary.
founded by two men who claimed to be the two witnesses of Rev. 11:3-6. They denied the Trinity and condemned preaching and prayer. They continued until the nineteenth century.
religious ceremony or act of Christian Church regarded as an outward and visible sign of inward and spiritual divine grace
rite of admission to the Church, “a sign which pledges us to the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Mature years centered around 3 controversies. His life as a Christian writer can be segmented into 3 periods.
In the first, he was mainly concerned with attacking and refuting the Manichees.
During the second, he was preoccupied with the Donatist schismatics
While in the third, he was concerned with the Pelagians.”
Baptized Augustine in 387 ad.
Secretary to a pope, monastic.
Popularized monasticism, monkhood. Monasticism: Dwelling alone.
No one can harm the man who does himself no wrong.
Slander is worse than cannibalism.
A comprehended god is no god.
Probably a teacher of Nestorius
Recognized that Paul used the word “allegory”, but denied that he approved of the practice of allegorical exegesis as the Alexandrian tradition would understand it.
Ecclesiastical History, The Chronicle.
Told us about Quadratus, the oldest apologist.
Lived during the “Period of Completion”
Eusebius (263–340) wrote of the emerging recognition of the canon (Ecclesiastical History, 3, 3, 1): There is but one Epistle of Peter agreed upon, that called his first; and the ancient presbyters used it as unquestioned in their own writings.
Nestorius attacked Cyril of Alexandria’s teaching concerning Mary as Theotokos (“God bearer” or “mother of God”).
Wrote Catechetical Lectures (ca. 350). Being attracted to this pastor’s writings, I quote them in a summarial for him.
“The process [of translating the Septuagint from the Hebrew text] was no invention of words and contrivance of human wisdom. On the contrary, the translation was effected by the Holy Spirit, by whom the Divine Scriptures were spoken of.”
nomad, bedouin, dessert-dweller
Born ca. 570 to Abd allah and Amina
Shepherd for 40 yrs, traveled with an uncle (Abu Talib) to Palestine and Syria
Later was an agent for a wealthy business women in Mecca, Khadijah
Married Khadijah (two sons, four daughters). Had 11 marriages
Called by Angel Gabriel @ a meditative retreat; those revelations became the Koran.
Koranic teaching - denial that Christ died on a cross or that he claimed to be God. It also claims Christians assert that Mary was a sister of Aaron and Moses and Mary was part of the Trinity.
Fled from Mecca (claims Jewish resistance) to Medina in 622 (16 July) (the Hijrah, or Emigration). (**T-13)
630 - He conquered Mecca.
632 - His death (June 8).
submission to God.
practice > knowledge; duty > belief.
assertion of monotheism (belief that there is only one God) and the prophetic prominence of Mohammed.
disavow the use of analogy or consensus [Hadith].
affirm a second source of conduct and are repped by four schools of law from 18th & 19th century [Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanboli] differing widely in details of teaching
indicates that Islamic military success was due to the foreign policy of Byzantium toward the tribes between Medina and Syria [cutting off of subsidies] and their cruel treatment of the Copts of Egypt, Jacobites in Syria, and Jews in Palestine.
was often benevolent, but calculated [refusal to build or renew churches, non-conversion pact, could not bear arms, could not intermarry though Muslims could, could not build houses over Muslim homes].