What is measured during a Rockwell Hardness Test?
Why do we ground both sides of the Magmeter?
To ensure equal voltage at both ends.
To eliminate zero shifts. (Charge)
It is industry standard
What is the difference between Coal and Methane (CH4) combustion?
One is a gas and one is a solid.
Methane does not require oxygen to burn
Methane combustions results in complete conversion to CO2.
Coal does not produce water.
What type of capacitance probe should be used in a conductive solution?
What is the maximum transmitter loop resistance (ohms)?
What is kinematic viscosity equal to?
Kinematic Viscosity = Dynamic Viscosity / Density
Kinematic Viscosity = csT X Density
Kinematic Viscosity = Density / Mass
Kinematic Viscosity = Viscosity X Velocity
What is the difference between 2-Wire and 4-Wire transmitters?
4 Wire contains additional information.
4 Wire has both a digital an analog signal.
4 Wire uses 2 Wires for power and 2 for transmitting.
2 Wire uses both wires for power and transmitting.
2 Wire is the only method capable of HART
What is K Factor?
The amount of pulses per minute. F = Hz * P
The amount of water able to mass through the meter in one minute. (GPM)
The vendor set standard for flow through the meter.
The amount of pulses per minute. Q = F * 60/K
How is turbidity measured?
Reflection from a UV Source.
Scattering of light in a solution.
Absorbtion of light.
Ultrasonic waves absorbed.
What is Opacity?
A measure of translucence.
Absorption of light in a solution.
The ability of a fluid to conduct light.
What is a communication standard?
All of the above
89. What’s the most accurate way of stating error?
% of reading.
% of span.
% of Upper Range Value.
What happens when an atom loses/gains an electron?
Loses an electron becomes positive+, oxidation occurs
Gains an electron becomes negative-, reduction occurs
Loses an electron becomes negative-, oxidation occurs
Gains an electron becomes positive+, reduction occurs
Loses an electron becomes positive+, reduction occurs
Gains an electron becomes negative-, oxidation occurs
Loses an electron becomes negative-, reduction occurs
Gains an electron becomes positive+, oxidation occurs
What is the resolution calculation for DAC/ADC?
Calibrated Range - Error / Step
Calibrated Range / Span
Step / Span
Span / Step
What does a catalyst do?
Speeds up a chemical reaction.
Stabilizes a chemical reaction.
Stops a chemical reaction.
Used to measure the energy released from a chemical reaction.
What are the states of PH?
Ph > 7 Basic
Ph < 7 Acidic
Ph = 7 Neutral
Ph > 7 Acidic
Ph < 7 Basic
Ph = 7 Neutral
Ph > 7 Basic
Ph < 7 Neutral
Ph = 7 Base
Ph > 7 Solvent
Ph < 7 Acidic
Ph = 7 Neutral
What is the easiest way to calibrate a nuclear meter?
Open Shutter for full level.
Close shutter for zero.
Open shutter for zero.
Close shutter for full level.
Close shutter for full level.
Guide source down the vessel wall between the detector and wall.
Nuclear meters do not require calibration.
How does ultrasonic level detection work?
A signal is transmitted down to the fluid and the amount of time it takes to return is inversely proportional to level.
The signal is transmitter across the tank and the reflection is inversely proportional to the level.
Multiple sensors are used to detect where the signal is strongest.
The amount of soundwave absorbed is proportional to the level in the tank.
What is doppler flow measurement?
Doppler is used to measure weather not flow.
The sensor emits sound @ a fequency. This is reflected back by matter in the stream.
Doppler works using radar to measure the flow profile from that we can infer the flow rate.
The sensor emits high frequency radiowaves based on the returned wavelengths we can determine flow.
What is the flow proportionality for Vortex meters?
The vorticies form is inversely proportional to the flow rate.
The vortex velocity is directly proportional to flow.
The vibrations on the sensor are directly proportional to the inlet flow rate.
The vorticies form is directly proportional to the flow rate.
What is included in regular Coriolis meter maintenance?
Meter should be returned to factory to be proven and refurbished.
Sensor replacement and a 3-point calibration.
Cleaning and a zero calibration.
All soft parts should be replaced and the meter should be spanned.
How does a DP Transmitter measure level?
Infers weight of water column
Directly measures weight of water column
Infers height of water column
Directly measures height of water column
What is solution concentration?
Mass / Volume = Concentration
Density / Volume = Mass
PPM= Volume / Particles
PPM = Particles / Mass
What is traceability?
The mark of an analyzer used to measure repeatability.
The ability to map measurement points.
Tracing a signal over a step change.
An unbroken chain of measurements.
What are the two most commonly monitored gases on a flue stack?
Water and Natural Gas burning is an example of....
A chemical reaction.
An Endothermic reaction
Different gains in a process means
The process is under upset conditions
What is molar mass?
The weight of one mole.
The mass of an object in a molar solution.
The mass of one mole.
The mass of a solution in it's molar state.
Where should a particulate filter be placed in a sample system?
At the Inlet.
Before the analyzer or other sensitive components.
Within the fast loop.
On the outlet.
The bluff body is directly proportional to
Why is pH hard to measure?
Measurement is calculated
Hard to control
pH is logarithmic.
Selective control is.....
is a process in which some condition is checked and a decision is made about whether a certain segment of the program code will execute.
is a process in which the FCE is only actuated when a number of criteria is met.
control that is based on a number of input variables.
The controller is selective of which responses are passed on to the loop.
A valve positioner can help provide important diagnostics like
The health of valve components
What is the standard calibration procedure?
Zero and Span.
Zero, Calibration Points, and Span.
Zero, Calibration Points, and Span. Repeat if necessary.
It depends on the instrument.
What is repeatability?
is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item, under the same conditions, and in a short period of time.
measuring the same value over and over to see if the error is growing.
the ability of an instrument to repeat it's signal.
is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item, under the same conditions, and in a long period of time.
What is Accuracy?
The difference between a true value and a measured value.
The measure of the difference between an input and output values.
The ability of the measurement to meet the input value.
The degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification conforms to the correct value or a standard.
What are the benefits of Insitu Vs Extractive sampling?
Insitu is cheaper and requires less sample conditioning.
There are no advantages each method is required in certain situations.
Insitu provides better measurement results and can help trend the process more quickly.
Extractive is actually the better method because it is cheaper and more accurate.
What is the formula for First order + Dead time?
KeF + (1-dts/T)
dts / ke(1+TSi)
Linearity of a Smart Tx is an example of....
A Tuning Option
Is not related to Smart Txs
Which is a Mechanical Property?
Which processes require an extended diaphragm?
Corrosives and slurries
Derivative response to changes in.....
SP and Load changes
The rate of the process change
The integral response.
Which locations are acceptable for orifice taps on steam service?
Any location where petrochemicals or natural gas may be present is?
A hazardous location
Class 1 Div 1
Class 1 Zone 2
A non-hazardous location
What is the best method for measuring pure water?
Which medium is used for Hydrostatic Pressure Tests>
Who is the Magnetic Law named after?
What is measured when you're using radar level?
The electromagnetic signal
The amount of wave length absorbed
How much signal is returned
O2 in a chemical is.....
The dominant reagent
An reducing agent
In a selective process reset windup happens....
Only to the slaves
To all controllers
Only to the master
To all components
What are the benefits of cascade control?
It helps optimize the inner loop and reduce manipulated variable variance.
It increases the speed of response.
It eliminates over and undershoot.
Cascade control is only for extremely complicated processes and the benefit is they allow for tight control in these difficult situations.
What is not a conductor?
Linear expansion is calculated with....
ΔL = T α (L2 - L1)
L = ΔL α (t2 - t1)
ΔL = L α (t2 - t1)
ΔL = L (t2 - t1)
In a closed loop Gain =
An Oxygen Analyzer detects a 20% increase in the fuel gas, what happens to the Air to Fuel ratio?
The Ratio increases and CO2 decreases
The Ratio decreases and CO increases
The Ratio increases and CO decreases
The Ratio decreases and CO2 increases
Manual bias is required for which controllers?
Proportional and Derivative
Proportional and Integral
Proportional, Integral, and Derivative
A self regulating process will....
Have built in controls
Correct the process variable without intervention
Does not exist in reality
Cannot be controlled
If an I/P responds to an increase in current with a reducing pressure this is an example of ......... control action
What is the sum of all errors?
All possible errors.
% Error * Span
Calculated Error + Real Error
The published error
What group is VIIA?
What is the normal state for group IIA?
Depends on the element
What organic compound does C=C-C represent?
What is the chemical formula for Calcium Chloride?
Which represents Benzene using Carbon Chains..
What type of controller does this graph represent?
For liquid flow processes what should the controller settings be?
TA= 0.5, 10
TA= 1, 5
TA= 1, 10
TA= 10, 100
With a 5% increase in CO and a 10% increase in PV, what is the gain?
What reaction will happen if Iron is left in H2O?
What is measured when analyzing pH or electrical conductivity?
Number of free ions
The activity of ions
What is annealing?
The removal of free ions from the metals surface
Relieves internal stress in metals
An inert sealing process
A blending of graded stainless steel
_C4H10 + _O2 >>>> _CO2 + _H2O
Please balance the equation.
1, 1, 1, 1
2, 13, 8, 10
1, 6.5, 4, 5
This equation cannot be balanced
What are the advantages of a grab sample?
Can be taken online
Is specified and maintained by industry standards
What are the disadvantages of grab samples?
Cannot be accurately verified
Is not representative of the process when taken.
Innacurate and a Bypass is required.
What are the two types of turbines?
Inductance and reluctance.
Forward and backward.
Positive and negative.
Conventional and Smart.
How do you determine derivative?
It is determined by the gain and integral of the controller.
It is the rate of change.
It is a measure of how a function changes as the input changes.
It is the value of overshoot to eliminate
What is a polar covalent bond?
Unequal donation of electrons.
Equal sharing of electrons.
Unequal sharing of electrons.
Equal donation of electrons.
What are the products of coal in complete combustion?
C + O2 > CO2
C + O2 > CO + O2
C + H2O > CO + H2O
C + O2 > CO + CO2 + O2
What type of process has gain changing at 3 points?
Linear, Multicapacity, Integrating
Linear, Single Capacity, Self Regulating
Non-Linear, Multicapacity, Integrating
Non-Linear, Single capacity, Integrating
What is Lag?
Error below the setpoint
The over or undershoot
The time it takes to stabilize the output
What is bias?
how the conotrller modulates gain
How the error is calculated in reference to the change in signal
The sum of errors over the step change
Output of the controller when no errors exist
What type of communication is used in a digital loop with a controller with continuous talking?
Peer to peer
Why is cabling shielding used?
To prevent electromagnetic interference
To prevent the cable from cracking during bending and coiling
To contain the heat and electricity traveling in the wire
Shielding is used to tell what gauge and specifications apply to the cable
Why does a transmitter require a minimum voltage?
Without power the display and signal emitter will not function.
The power is required to actuate the sensor
To accurately generate an analog signal
No transmitter can function without power
What is CV?
what is the principle of positive displacement meter?
Uses the displacement of a flapper element to correspond to the volumetric flow
Divides the flow media into fixed volumes and as it passes through the flow body the time taken corresponds to the exact flow.
Based on the velocity at the entry and exit sensor volumetric flow is calculated.
The size of the flow body will directly correlate to the volumetric flow.
What function does an I/P complete?
Converts voltage to pressure.
Converts pressure to current.
Converts current to volts.
Converts current to pressure.
Define a multi-capacity process.
A combination of dead time and first order
When multiple process interact and effect the overall control method
A process with multiple controlled variables.
A process with multiple controllers in a polling system to determine the final output.
Which is a measurement of a vibration cycle?
Peak to peak
Period of oscillation.
How does a Load Cell work?
Less resistance = Less Load
Less resistance = More Load
More resistance = Less Load
More resistance = More Load
Why is coal crushed for combustion?
Increased surface area will generate more heat.
If the coal is not crushed it will not combust. Must be a dust.
Crushed coal will have more efficient combustion and produce less CO.
It is easier to transport.
What functions do a sampling probe offer a Sample System?
Transmission & Separation
Dilution & Filtration
Isolation & Filtration
Pressure Reduction & Flow Rates
What is cascade control?
Uses a descending SP to slowly modulate the final control element
Uses a feed forward strategy to determine a new SP based on the last sent SP
Multiple controllers vote towards a master controller which will determine the final SP.
Uses output of the primrary controller to manipulate the SP of a secondary controller
In a H2O treatment facility, what is the best analyzer?
What does the distillation analyzer produce?
All other answers
What is a worldwide standardized analyzer?
Micro Gas Chromatograph
Dead Weight Tester
Oil in Water Analyzer
What does Phase Lag do in first order processes?
Phase Lag increases as Gain decreases
Phase Lag decreases as Gain increases
Phase Lag increases as SP decreases
Phase Lag increases as Integral decreases
If the voltage over a 250 Ohm resistor is 10VDC what is the current?
Which O2 Analyzer uses a bridge circuit?
What must remain constant with capacitance level measurement?
The SI unit for radiation dose equivalent is which of the following?
SCR is an acronym for.....
Self Contained Regulator - A regulator that is not pilot or instrument operated
Silicon Controlled Rectifier - a device which conducts in only 1 direction.
Scattered Control Region - When the controller outputs cannot be plotted using a line or wave
Strip Chart Recorder - A recording device used to record a measured signal over time.
What’s the best location of an analyzer used for process control?
As close to the process as possible.
In an heated maintained analyze shack.
The control room.
What happens to electrons when two nitrogen’s bond?
Gives Electrons, Ionic Bonding
Shares Electrons, Covalent Bonding.
Shares Electrons, Metallic Bonding.
Gives Electrons, Hydrogen Bonding
10. Given Vout = 24V Gain = 1000, R1 = 5 KOhm, Ro = 5 MOhm calculate Vin of an inverting op-amp, using: Vin=Vo/Av or Vo= (-Rf/Ri)*Vin?
In this circuit, what is the expression for the ratio of output voltage to input voltage (Vout/V1)?
In this circuit, you want a gain of ten. Actually, you are going to have to settle for a gain of -10 because you can't get rid of the minus sign. Still, if R1 is 5 kW, what is the value you need to use for R0? Give your answer in ohms.
In this circuit, you have it set up for a gain of -10. The input voltage is .24v. What is the output voltage?
In this circuit, you have it set up for a gain of -10. The input voltage is -.35v. What is the output voltage?
Assuming that you have an inverting amplifier with R1 = 10,000W, determine a value for Ro that will produce an amplifier with a gain of 3.3.
Assuming that you have an inverting amplifier with Ro = 4,700W, determine a value for R1 that will produce an amplifer with a gain of -5.
Polarographic cell is good for?
UEL level in an atmosphere
LEL level in an atmosphere
O2 content in a gas
How to measure moisture content in a sheet of paper where particle size does not matter?
4-20mA input and 10-bit output, calculate the number of mA per bit?
The MSB of an 8-bit system is?
1024/8 = 128
2^8 = 256/2 = 128
2^8 = 256
1024 * 8 = 8192
Method of density measurement using a sample gas column and an air column?
16. Faraday’s law states that a conductor moving through a magnetic field generates a?
17. Which of the following has the fastest response: Zener diode, Avalanche diode, Metal Oxide?
None of the above
Intrinisic Safety is what type of protection?
What is the purpose of a Transmitter?
To measure a process variable.
Provide a read out indication of a process variable.
Converts a measured process variable into a signal.
Depends on the transmitter configuration.
How many current loops are in a PID loop?
What is the formula for butane?
What is NH4CL?
Please balance _CH2 + _O2 --> _CO2 + 2H2O
2, 6, 2,
2, 4, 2
4, 12, 4
1, 1, 1
What is a property of Alkanes?
Saturated and don’t react readily with other hydrocarbons.
Does not react with any other substances.
Soluble in water.
Why is it hard to control PH?
The titration curve is non linear.
Very high resistance in probe.
Very small voltage change.
All of the above.
Given this chemical reaction in a boiler what are the products and reactants?
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
Products: CO2, H2O
Reactants: CH4, O2
Products: CH4, O2
Reactants: CO2, H2O
Products: CO2, O2
Reactants: CH4, H2O
Products: CH4, H2O
Reactants: CO2, O2
A smart valve senses what?
What is the purpose of the Teflon coating in a Magnetic Flow Meter?
Prevents corrosion of the meter and electrodes.
Prevents the generated signal from shorting to pipe.
The coating must be soft to create the right flow profile.
Without the coating the flanges will not be able to hold the meter in the correct position.
What is the material in an O2 analyzer membrane?
How do you measure flow in a trench? (Most Common Method)
When transistors are used in digital circuits they usually operate in the:
Saturation and Cutoff Regions
Three different Q points are shown on a dc load line. The upper Q point represents the:
Maximum Current Gain
Minimum Current Gain
Intermediate Current Gain
A current ratio of IC/IE is usually less than one and is called:
In a C-E configuration, an emitter resistor is used for:
AC Signal Bypass
With the positive probe on an NPN base, an ohmmeter reading between the other transistor terminals should be:
Voltage-divider bias provides:
A Q point that is stable and easily varies with changes in the transistor's current gain.
A Q point that easily varies with changes in the transistor's current gain.
A Stable Q point.
An unstable Q point,
To operate properly, a transistor’s base-emitter junction must be forward biased with reverse bias applied to which junction?
The C-B configuration is used to provide which type of gain?
The ends of a load line drawn on a family of curves determine:
The Operating Point
Saturation and Cutoff
The Amplification Factor
The Power Curve
Which is beta’s current ratio?
The Q point on a load line may be used to determine:
A transistor may be used as a switching device or as a:
When a silicon diode is forward biased, what is VBE for a C-E configuration?
With low-power transistor packages, the base terminal is usually the:
A collector characteristic curve is a graph showing:
Collector current (IC) versus collector-emitter voltage (VCE) with (VBB) base bias voltage held constant.
Emitter current (IE) versus collector-emitter voltage (VCE) with (VBB) base bias voltage held constant.
Collector current (IC) versus collector-emitter voltage (VC) with (VBB) base bias voltage held constant.
Collector current (IC) versus collector-emitter voltage (VCC) with (VBB) base bias voltage held constant.
What is the current gain for a common-base configuration where IE = 4.2 mA and IC = 4.0 mA?
If a 2 mV signal produces a 2 V output, what is the voltage gain?
With a PNP circuit, the most positive voltage is probably:
Most of the electrons in the base of an NPN transistor flow:
Into the base supply
Into the emitter
Into the collector
Out of the base lead
In a transistor, collector current is controlled by
All of the below.
What is the most reliable form of density measurement
Using Psychometric chart find dew point given dry air 20 Deg C, wet air 13 Deg C?
10 Deg C
8 Deg C
7.6 Deg C
7 Deg C
Integrating op-amp, what happens when Rf opens? Vo= (Rf/Ri) + 1*Vin
Whose law refers to flow head or head pressure?
Name a disadvantage of positive displacement meters?
Requires 20 upstream pipe diameters
Hard to calibrate
What is an example of a PD meter?
What’s the advantage of a turbine flow meter?
High Accuracy, Repeatibility
No Moving Parts
Never Requires Calibration
Provides cheap mass flow readout
How does the Magnetic Shuttle ball Vortex Shedding meter measure?
What type of flow has a Reynolds’s number of 10,000?
What form of excitation in a Magnetic Flowmeter performs zeroing?
What is a requirement for an ultrasonic Doppler flow meter?
Good Pipe Contact with Transducer
Suspended Solids or Bubbles
Using the HART communicator it must be in what with resistor?
It can be in any circuit
Most accurate form of temperature measurement?
RTD 3 Wire or 4 Wire
Advantage of a Pyrometer?
Allows for multiple temperature measurements at once
Never requires calibration
No moving parts and no physical contact
Can be used at a distance
What is a Pyrometer`s principle of operation?
Excitation of the laser frequency corresponds to temperature.
Hot objects radiation is compared to a tungsten lamp. Thermal radiation given off by an object is a function of its absolute temperature.
The change in temperature of the metal generates a voltage.
The change in tensile strength corresponds to the change in temperature.
Disadvantage of a thermistor?
High Negative Temperature Coefficient
Low Temperature Coefficient
A & C
Why does a Thermocouple have reference temperature compensation?
To generate voltage a neutral source is required.
To compensate for ambient temperature changes.
To compensate for the junction created at the transmitter terminals.
B & C
A Thermocouple measures
Temperature difference between measurement junction and reference junction
What are the benefits of using a Thermocouple?
Wide Temperature Range
Wide Temperature Range and Simple
A & B
What is a method of calibrating a Thermocouple?
Place the reference junction in an ice bath and measure ambient temperatures.
Measure ambient temperatures with reference tables.
They must be laboratory calibrated.
Thermocouples cannot be calibrated.
What is derivative?
Accounts for present values of errors.
Accounts for past errors and uses it to respond to new changes.
Rate of PV change over time, ΔPV/Δt. Rate of change of error/change in time, Δe/Δt.
A control method for rapidly changing processes.
Given PB=50%, Reverse acting, step Input of 5% increase, what is the open loop response?
Given 0-6mV input and 4-20mA output, what is the gain?
With a 250Ω resistor, with 4-20mA across, what is the voltage?
Why is an H2S or Ammonia detector not good in other toxic environments?
They are fine for all environments.
They can cause an explosion.
Other combustible gases can change the response of the detector.
Toxic environments will damage the sensor providing false readings.
Given 2% CH3 and the UEL of CH3 is 5.3%. What’s the LEL?
What are the most common components to monitor in stack gases?
Definition of Opacity?
The density of a solution.
Amount of light alternation due to absorption or reflection by a solution.
The viscosity of a solution.
None of the above.
What is the principle of operation of an ultrasonic level detector?
Time it takes for a sound pulse to travel from a sensor to reflecting surfaces & back to the sensor. Measured time for the sound to bounce and return.
How much sound is absorbed as it passes through the fluid.
The amount of vibration in the sensor based on the frequency of the fluid.
What are some good processes for ultrasonic level detection?
Corrosive or Reactive Fluids.
Hydrocarbon storage cavity, chip bin. Solids.
Interface and Multi-phase Solutions
With no current output in a loop, what is the first thing to check?
Given an alarm circuit diagram, if the Vsupply increases by 2V, what happens?
Low and high alarm set points increases.
High alarm set point increases.
Low and high alarm set points decreases.
Low set point decreases.
70. What is the accuracy of Draegar tubes?
What is sensed by lead acetate tape?
What is sour gas?
Highly Reactive Natural Gas
Down well CO2
What is the limitation of a Coriolis Mass flow meter?
6" Body Flanges.
Upstream/Downstream Pipe Diameters.
Both A & B.
Which is a type of gas density measurement?
Where to place a hydrogen detector in a compressor building?
Which of the following is being reduced in the following:
S + O2 ---> SO2
SO2 + H2O ---> H2SO3
SO2 + H2O ---> H2SO3
S + O2 ---> SO2
Neither is reduction.
Both are reduction.
Given H+ concentration = 7.2*10e-11 find PH?
Which is more basic?
Difference op-amp, given Vin = 1.2V what is Vout? Vo=(Vi2-Vi1)(Rf/Ri)
Purpose of a flame detector in a burner?
To give the flame profile.
To detect incomplete combustion.
A & D
To detect if the pilot goes out.
Explosimeter prevents fire during operation by?
Definition of Strauhal’s number? Or how does it relate to a Shedding Vortex Meter.
Used to determine the size and number of vortices in a flow profile.
Relates vortices to velocity.
6.022×10^23 Is used to determine the relationship between vortices and mass flow.
Where is the control loop shield attached?
At the instrument end only to prevent ground loops.
At the source end only to prevent ground loops.
To an IS barrier.
What are the benefits of a current limiting transmitter?
Protects all loop components.
Limits voltage to within operating tolerance.
Maintains loop resistance.
Process is at 200Hz, When should we take a sample?
Definition of CMRR in op-amps?
Common mode rejection ratio - the ability to reject noise.
Common meter rising resistance - the ability to modulate resistance based on the input current
Common mode resistance ratio - the ratio of resistors to voltages.
What type of op-amps acts as if it has two gains?