RAE

Question 1 of 93

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1. The following are important considerations when implementing evidence based practice:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Best research evidence

  • b) Patient values

  • c) Patient circumstances

  • d) Clinical expertise

  • e) All of the above

Question 2 of 93

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2. The third component of the 5-step evidence based practice process relates to:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Clinical reasoning

  • b) Accessing information

  • c) Asking a question

  • d) Application of the information found

  • e) None of the above

Question 3 of 93

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3. Evidence based practice (EBP) can be practiced by anyone:

Select one of the following:

  • a) TRUE

  • b) FALSE

Question 4 of 93

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4. As an evidence based practitioner, the evidence which would be most indicative of the effectiveness of treatment would be that:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Experienced colleagues were supportive

  • b) Everyone has the right to make their own decisions

  • c) The improvements detected in participants after intervention were better than those of equivalent participants who received a different intervention

  • d) Participants were willing to pay money to receive the intervention

  • e) Participants were paid to be part of the intervention

Question 5 of 93

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5. The purpose of evidence based practice is to:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Use research to guide clinical decision-making

  • b) Apply a surcharge to patient/client treatment

  • c) Rely solely on advice from senior practitioners to make decisions about treatment or interventions

  • d) Make better use of the findings from Google searches

  • e) All of the above

Question 6 of 93

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6. A published review of the evidence in an area of practice is considered a form of primary research

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 7 of 93

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7. As a health professional, the need to engage in evidence based practice for life is important because:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Many of us do not retain the research knowledge we learnt as students

  • b) We can’t believe everything we read

  • c) It will improve the care provided to our patients/clients

  • d) It maintains our currency of knowledge

  • e) All of the above 

Question 8 of 93

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8. The PICO mnemonic is a concept that is used in:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Citing evidence

  • b) Critically appraising evidence

  • c) Developing a practice-related question

  • d) Evaluating whether or not evidence is applicable in practice

  • e) Determining the progress of a given intervention

Question 9 of 93

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9. In the PICO mnemonic, the P is used to represent the:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Problem

  • b) Patient

  • c) Population

  • d) Client

  • e) All of the above

Question 10 of 93

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10. When using the truncation symbol “ * ” the word inflam* will search for articles containing the keywords:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Unhappy, unimpressed

  • b) Inflammation, inflamed, inflammatory

  • c) Joint, elderly

  • d) Elderly, shocked, appalled

  • e) Disgruntled, disgusted, flammable

Question 11 of 93

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2. The following is an example of a background question:

Select one of the following:

  • a) What causes sore joints?

  • b) Is bed rest more effective than exercise in improving the mobility of an adult who had a stroke?

  • c) Are mini-strokes in older adults a risk factor for more severe stroke in future?

  • d) Does reducing high blood pressure to normal levels prevent strokes in adults?

  • e) Is vision therapy more effective than wearing glasses in children?

Question 12 of 93

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3. This practice-related question contains all of the 4 PICO elements:
“Does eating chocolate reduce stress levels?”

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 13 of 93

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4. Developing PICO questions from scenarios is a critical skill to learn. Using the PICO process is of use in searching for evidence because it:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Creates efficiency in the search process

  • b) Indicates which database you should use to search

  • c) Turns a clinical scenario into an unanswerable question

  • d) Does not allow for comparisons to be made

  • e) None of the above

Question 14 of 93

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5. A good PICO question is one where:

Select one of the following:

  • a) All elements are included all the time

  • b) Each element is clearly written

  • c) The question is answerable some of the time

  • d) Ambiguous terms are included

  • e) None of the above

Question 15 of 93

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6. The Boolean operator OR is used to combine the following:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Truncations

  • b) Wildcards

  • c) Synonyms

  • d) Databases

  • e) Articles

Question 16 of 93

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7. The wildcard symbol # is used in searching Medline. Below is an example of its proper use:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Specialisation#

  • b) H#emoglobin

  • c) Organi#ation

  • d) #Kardashian

  • e) None of the above

Question 17 of 93

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8. The wildcard symbol ? is used in searching CINAHL. Below is an example of its proper use:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Speciali?ation

  • b) H?emoglobin

  • c) P?ediatric

  • d) ?Kardashian

  • e) None of the above

Question 18 of 93

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9. Quotation marks are used in database searching. Below is an example of their proper use:

Select one of the following:

  • a) “TBI”

  • b) “Traumatic Brain Injury”

  • c) Traumatic “brain” injury

  • d) Traumatic brain “injury”

  • e) “Traumatic” brain injury

Question 19 of 93

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10. Truncation in keyword searching is used to retrieve multiple terms. Below is an example of its use for the term bruise:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Bruis*ng

  • b) Br*ised

  • c) Bruised*

  • d) Bruis*

  • e) *Bruises*

Question 20 of 93

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1. The community health centre where you work produces a monthly newsletter and it’s your turn to write the next feature article. With the incidence of obesity in children increasing in your region, you think an article on the risk factors for this condition would be a good focus. Before writing, you need to do a literature search to find the best evidence. What main concepts (for P) are best to start with for your search strategy?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Evidence, risk factors, fast food

  • b) Risk factors, obesity

  • c) Children, child, obesity

  • d) Evidence, diabetes, children

  • e) Children, fast food, sedentary lifestyle, risk factors

Question 21 of 93

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2. The hypothesis can be described as a statement:

Select one of the following:

  • a) That is an “educated guess” about what an investigation might find

  • b) Include a proposed cause and a proposed outcome

  • c) Which cannot be tested

  • d) a) & b)

  • e) a) & c)

Question 22 of 93

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3. When constructing a search strategy it is important to identify alternative terms and synonyms (e.g. self-management or self-care) because this approach:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Identifies other words used to describe a single concept

  • b) Increases the number of articles retrieved in a search result

  • c) Helps to search for phrases in a specific order

  • d) a) & b)

  • e) b) & c)

Question 23 of 93

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4. A peer-reviewed or refereed journal is most appropriately described as a journal that publishes articles:

Select one of the following:

  • a) That have been appraised by other experts in the field

  • b) In an open-access format for everyone to freely access

  • c) Which have a reference list to show the peer input included in the piece

  • d) That have more than one author

  • e) None of the above

Question 24 of 93

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5. Which one of the following citations refers to a journal article?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Farnsworth, E. R., & Champagne, C. (2010). Production of probiotic cultures and their incorporation into foods. In R. R. Watson & V. R. Preedy (Eds.). Bioactive foods in promoting health: Probiotics and prebiotics (pp. 3-18). Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier.

  • b) Janssen, M., Vincken, K., Kemp, B., Obradov, M., de Kleuver, M., & Viergever, M. (2010). Pre-existent vertebral rotation in the human spine is influenced by body position. European Spine Journal, 19(10), 1728-1734. doi: 10.1007/s00586-010-1400

  • c) Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. (2013). The Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. Retrieved from http://www.climatechange.gov.au.

  • d) Cancer Council Australia. (2010). Stop smoking [fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org.au/file/HealthProfessionals/Factsheets/FS_StopSmoking.pdf

  • e) Smith (1997)

Question 25 of 93

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6. From the list below, choose the section of the journal article that details the literature of the topic under investigation:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Key words

  • b) Methods

  • c) Introduction

  • d) Results

  • e) Acknowledgement

Question 26 of 93

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7. If you wanted to undertake a study investigating the relationship between sleep deprivation and weight gain, your hypothesis could be stated as such:

Select one of the following:

  • a) That sleep deprivation might cause weight gain

  • b) That sleep deprivation causes weight gain in some people and not others

  • c) That sleep deprivation causes weight gain

  • d) That sleep deprivation and weight gain co-exist

  • e) That sleep deprivation causes people to eat larger quantities

Question 27 of 93

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8. If a study is said to be “replicable” this means that:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Enough detail is provided so another researcher can attempt to conduct the study using the same methods

  • b) Reptiles were used as participants

  • c) The investigator/s were biased in their approach

  • d) The data appears in different formats – e.g., as a table and a graph

  • e) None of the above

Question 28 of 93

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9. The “Method” section of a research article will give information about the following

Select one of the following:

  • a) Materials, participants, procedure

  • b) The PICO concept map

  • c) Study findings

  • d) Whether the hypothesis was supported

  • e) Why the study is important

Question 29 of 93

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10. Quantitative research studies use a research design that puts emphasis on:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Flexible designs and subjective methods

  • b) Using statistical software packages to analyse the data

  • c) Testing hypothesis/es about whether predicted results cause predicted effects

  • d) Solely using questionnaires to collect data from human participants

  • e) The “O” in the PICO concept map

Question 30 of 93

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1. In quantitative research, assessing the reliability of measurements might include looking at the:

Select one of the following:

  • a) agreement of measurements

  • b) consistency of measurements

  • c) dependability of measurements

  • d) a) & b)

  • e) b) & c)

Question 31 of 93

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2. In quantitative research, validity is concerned with the:

Select one of the following:

  • a) date the research was published

  • b) the impact factor of the journal it is published in

  • c) integrity of the research findings from a given study

  • d) number of authors involved with the study

  • e) None of the above

Question 32 of 93

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3. You would expect that given IQ is a relatively stable characteristic, an IQ test should provide similar results on two separate occasions. This is an example of:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Test-retest reliability

  • b) Repeat-rater reliability

  • c) Repeated measures reliability

  • d) Inter-rater reliability

  • e) Testing reliability

Question 33 of 93

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4. You recently read an article comparing the accuracy of new x-ray body scanners used at airport screening checkpoints with the current best practice body scanners. This article is reporting on which type of validity?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Content

  • b) Construct

  • c) Criterion

  • d) Face

  • e) Note-taking

Question 34 of 93

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5. In a research study two judges were asked to independently listen to 10 speech samples and measure how many syllables were spoken in each. Their measurements were then compared. This is an example of:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Intra-rater reliability

  • b) Informed-rater reliability

  • c) Inter-rater reliability

  • d) Repeated-rater reliability

  • e) Independent-rater reliability

Question 35 of 93

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6. When assessing a study’s internal validity, we are seeking to understand whether the:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Independent and dependent variable/s have been defined

  • b) Ethics committee approved the study

  • c) Results are generalisable to other similar situations

  • d) Dependent variable was measured using a ratio scale

  • e) Study shows there is a casual relationship between the independent and dependant variables

Question 36 of 93

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7. A threat to a study’s internal validity can be brought about by a number of measures. These can include:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Bias in allocating participants to groups

  • b) Differences in testing conditions between or within groups

  • c) Participant expectation of outcomes

  • d) Researcher/experimenter expectation of outcomes

  • e) All of the above

Question 37 of 93

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8. External validity refers to whether a study’s findings are:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Trustworthy

  • b) Valid in external environments

  • c) Generalisable

  • d) Consistent

  • e) Statistically significant

Question 38 of 93

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9. If you were to undertake a study investigating how stress affects heart rate, your independent variable would be:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Heart rate

  • b) Stress

  • c) Exercise

  • d) Heart rate & stress

  • e) None of the above

Question 39 of 93

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10. If you undertook a study which looked at the effects of different blood alcohol levels on ability to walk in a straight line, your dependent variable would be:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Vodka

  • b) Distance walked in a straight line

  • c) Alcohol and walking in a straight line

  • d) Adult

  • e) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)

Question 40 of 93

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1. Journal articles are comprised of various sections. The correct sequence of the sections is:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Title, abstract, keywords, acknowledgement

  • b) Abstract, keywords, introduction

  • c) Methods, results, discussion

  • d) a) & b)

  • e) b) & c)

Question 41 of 93

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2. Qualitative research produces findings that:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Are arrived at through the combination of statistical research and non-statistical information

  • b) Are reached via non-statistical approaches

  • c) Apply to non-clinical research

  • d) Have only analysed matters of quality

  • e) None of the above

Question 42 of 93

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3. Qualitative research is appropriate to undertake when:

Select one of the following:

  • a) You seek to explore an event in detail and depth

  • b) There is no research question to answer

  • c) Statistical analysis is required

  • d) Data measurement is structured and precise

  • e) All of the above 

Question 43 of 93

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4. Suitable data collection methods when undertaking qualitative research include:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Note-taking

  • b) Photographs

  • c) Unstructured discussions

  • d) Telephone interviews

  • e) All of the above

Question 44 of 93

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5. It would be correct to say that qualitative research:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Is less rigorous than quantitative research

  • b) Cannot be undertaken alongside quantitative research

  • c) Would include a randomised control trial

  • d) Can discover motivations behind certain behaviours

  • e) Requires a very large population size to enable the study to be generalizable

Question 45 of 93

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6. Undertaking a qualitative research study is appropriate when:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Rich detail is not sought about the topic

  • b) Little is known about the area being explored

  • c) There is no interest in the lived experience

  • d) The hypothesis is narrow and specific

  • e) Statistical analysis is required

Question 46 of 93

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7. Select the reference in APA 6th format from those below:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Smith, K., Dean, D., Ronald, N. (2014). A qualitative study in emotional break-ups. Investigative Science, 16(5), 739-749.

  • b) Smith, K., Dean, D., & Ronald, N. (2014). A qualitative study in emotional break-ups. Investigative Science (italicised), 16(5), 739-749.

  • c) Smith, K., Dean, D., Ronald, N. (2014). A qualitative study in emotional break-ups. Investigative Science, 16(5), 739-749.

  • d) Smith, K., and Dean, D., and Ronald, N. (2014). A qualitative study in emotional break-ups. Investigative Science, 16(5), 739-749.

  • e) Smith, K., Dean, D., Ronald, N. (2014). A qualitative study in emotional break-ups. Investigative Science, 16(5), 739-749.

Question 47 of 93

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8. Phenomenological research focuses on:

Select one of the following:

  • a) The researcher spending considerable time observing a group of people, their cultures and rituals

  • b) Prolonged observation of a group

  • c) Reporting statistical outcomes

  • d) The collection of visual materials such as photographs

  • e) The meaning of the lived experience in those being assessed

Question 48 of 93

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9. The purpose of a descriptive study is to:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Conduct a true experiment

  • b) Identify a cause and effect relationship

  • c) Eliminate multiple explanations of a phenomenon

  • d) Explain the statistical patterns related to the phenomenon in question

  • e) Document and describe the population or phenomenon of interest

Question 49 of 93

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10. Traditional approaches to qualitative research do not include:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Ethnography

  • b) Visual ethnography

  • c) Narrative enquiry

  • d) Randomised Control Trials (RCTs)

  • e) Phenomenology

Question 50 of 93

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1. You may find it useful to apply a different critiquing framework to qualitative research from that used for quantitative research for which of the following reasons?

Select one of the following:

  • a) It provides variety when critiquing research articles, especially in assignments.

  • b) It develops your skill in critiquing different types of research.

  • c) Qualitative research is so different from quantitative research that it is difficult to apply the same criteria for judging the quality of each type of study.

  • d) It illustrates your ability to use more than one framework.

  • e) All of the above

Question 51 of 93

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2. Assessing the quality of qualitative research is referred to as assessing the study’s……….

Select one of the following:

  • a) Trustworthiness

  • b) Reliability

  • c) Appropriateness

  • d) Integrity

  • e) Both a) and b)

Question 52 of 93

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3. In the eResource, Ruddock-Hudson (2012) discusses her research about exploring AFL players’ psychological response to injury. She notes that she increased the credibility of her work by:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Administering an IQ test to all players in the study prior to selection

  • b) Only including players with multiple leg injuries

  • c) In randomly selected cases, sending a copy of the transcript from the semi-structured interview to the same interviewed player so that they could check that the interview accurately reflected what they had said

  • d) Selecting players who received family support during their recovery stage, so that the family could also be interviewed

  • e) Buddying injured players up with another injured player so that all injured players at the club felt supported and this would normalise their psychological response to injury and increase accuracy

Question 53 of 93

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4. In the eResource, Ruddock-Hudson (2012) discusses her research about exploring AFL players’ psychological response to injury. In her work, she discusses how the results have limited transferability because the:

Select one of the following:

  • a) AFL players were male

  • b) Data had been acquired from many Victorian clubs, but not interstate ones

  • c) Semi-structured interviews were not an appropriate method of collecting data – in retrospect, they should have chosen to undertake focus-groups

  • d) Players had received payment for their interview time with the researcher

  • e) Players had been interviewed from one club only

Question 54 of 93

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5. To enhance confirmability in qualitative research, the following approach could be included in the study design:

Select one of the following:

  • a) The researcher should already have established their own opinion about how the data will appear before the data is acquired

  • b) An independent audit of the original transcripts and the thematic analysis undertaken, to determine whether any discrepancies exist between the auditor and investigator

  • c) When focus groups are used, the interviewer should strongly steer the discussion in a particular direction, so as to “confirm” their own beliefs

  • d) a) & c)

  • e) b) & c)

Question 55 of 93

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6. Which of the following are terms often associated with qualitative research:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Reliability

  • b) Measurement

  • c) Bias

  • d) Internal validity

  • e) None of the above

Question 56 of 93

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7. The type of qualitative research that describes the culture of a group of people is called ____.

Select one of the following:

  • a) Phenomenology

  • b) Ethnography

  • c) Scientology

  • d) Case study

  • e) Grounded theory

Question 57 of 93

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8. In a study, observers collected, coded and interpreted data from observations, questionnaires and focus groups. When compared, the results presented similar conclusions about the data. This is an example of:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Triangulation

  • b) Test-retest reliability

  • c) Generalisability

  • d) Prolonged observation

  • e) Peer support mechanisms

Question 58 of 93

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9. In qualitative research, the components of trustworthiness are:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Credibility

  • b) Transferability

  • c) Dependability

  • d) Confirmability

  • e) All of the above

Question 59 of 93

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10. A researcher would use the term ‘interpretive rigour’ to refer to the:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Amount of literature used to guide the development of the research question

  • b) Diagnostic accuracy of the technique used to analyse the data

  • c) Methodological approach that guided the interpretation of the data

  • d) Population group studied

  • e) Type of referencing system used in the publication of the research

Question 60 of 93

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1. The internal validity of a study relates to the degree to which:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Cause and effect can be accurately ascertained

  • b) Random error is minimised

  • c) The study's results can be generalised

  • d) The study shows a clinically or practically important effect

  • e) All of the above

Question 61 of 93

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2. External validity relates to:

Select one of the following:

  • a) The validity of the study design

  • b) The generalisability of findings

  • c) How consistent measurement was

  • d) The degree of influence of fixed factors

  • e) None of the above

Question 62 of 93

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3. In a research study, the impact of bias can result in:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Reduced internal validity

  • b) Reduced consistency

  • c) Reduced efficiency

  • d) Reduced continuity

  • e) All of the above

Question 63 of 93

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Which of the following is a measure of the consistency of ratings from two independent raters:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Intra-rater reliability

  • b) Test-retest reliability

  • c) Criterion validity

  • d) Content validity

  • e) Inter-rater reliability

Question 64 of 93

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Which of the following statements is true regarding quantitative and qualitative research?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Only a qualitative approach can assess quality of life

  • b) Quantitative data is concerned with the measurement of numbers and values

  • c) It is always preferable for researchers to use a quantitative approach

  • d) Quantitative data mainly consists of words spoken by participants

  • e) Qualitative research is more valid than quantitative research

Question 65 of 93

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6. Which of the following is not a general feature that characterizes most qualitative research?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Inflexible design

  • b) Naturalistic inquiry

  • c) Flexible design

  • d) Holistic perspective

  • e) Personal contact and insight

Question 66 of 93

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7. Mixed-method designs:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Are almost impossible to carry out

  • b) Are a quantitative research design

  • c) Combine quantitative and qualitative methods

  • d) Are philosophically unjustified

  • e) Result in contradictory findings

Question 67 of 93

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8. Researchers study just one individual, classroom, school, or program in which approach to qualitative research?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Case study

  • b) Case control study

  • c) Ethnography

  • d) Biography

  • e) Phenomenology

Question 68 of 93

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9. When a qualitative researcher attempts to ensure the neutrality and objectivity of the data, she/he is enhancing:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Credibility

  • b) Transferability

  • c) Dependability

  • d) Confirmability

  • e) Reliability

Question 69 of 93

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10. Which of the following is a characteristic of qualitative research?

Select one of the following:

  • a) Generalization to the population

  • b) Random sampling

  • c) Measurement

  • d) Standardized tests and measures

  • e) None of the above

Question 70 of 93

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1. Below is a ladder of the top 5 Australian Football Leagues. This would be an example of the following type of measurement scale:

Position Club
1 Sydney Swans
2 Hawthorn
3 Geelong Cats
4 Freemantle
5 Port Adelaide

Select one of the following:

  • a) Nominal

  • b) Ordinal

  • c) Ratio

  • d) Interval

  • e) Categorical

Question 71 of 93

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8. In the eResource, Professor Geoff Cumming talks about the frequency distribution. In relation to the number of bins you should choose when constructing your frequency histogram, he recommends that the number is:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Dependent upon your judgement

  • b) The result of a formula you use to calculate it

  • c) The maximum number of bins the graphing software allows you to use

  • d) The minimum number of bins the graphing software allows you to use

  • e) 2

Question 72 of 93

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9. When considering a set of data that has a low standard deviation (SD), it would be true to say that the data :

Select one of the following:

  • a) Are spread very far from the mean

  • b) Has not been collected appropriately

  • c) Has not been analysed correctly

  • d) Are very close to the mean

  • e) None of the above

Question 73 of 93

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10. In the eResource, Professor Geoff Cumming talks about descriptive statistics. When describing the data in a frequency distribution, he noted that:

Select one of the following:

  • a) The data is always positively skewed

  • b) Most of the data typically lie within 2 standard deviations above and below the mean

  • c) The mode is the most important measure of central tendency when describing the data you see

  • d) Nominal data are best displayed on a frequency histogram

  • e) The frequency distribution should not be used if there are outliers in the data

Question 74 of 93

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1. When analysing data, we can take a sample of the population. The sample is:

Select one of the following:

  • a. An exact replica of the population being studied

  • b. Best if it is small in size compared with the size of the population

  • c. A selection or a subset of individuals from within a statistical population

  • d. Equivalent to the mode of the population

  • e. Not required for analysis, because large population sizes are generally easy to recruit and analyse

Question 75 of 93

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2. A La Trobe based researcher investigating student perceptions of teamwork in a learning context used a sample of La Trobe students as her participants. The sample is considered to be:

Select one of the following:

  • a. One which produces results which are highly generalisable to the population

  • b. Non-biased

  • c. Convenient

  • d. Randomly selected

  • e. Equivalent to the wider population

Question 76 of 93

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3. When using inferential statistics, what are we aiming to do? (Choose the MOST correct definition)

Select one of the following:

  • a. Measure some variables to see what happens

  • b. Measure as many people as possible

  • c. Prove our experimental hypothesis right

  • d. Measure a sample to understand the population

  • e. Directly measure a population

Question 77 of 93

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4. Professor Cumming recommends that when deciding whether our results have supported the research hypothesis, we should examine what to help us make this decision?

Select one of the following:

  • a. The sample Means

  • b. The Standard Deviation in the sample

  • c. The Margin of Error

  • d. Whether the sample was big enough

  • e. How many papers report the same result

Question 78 of 93

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5. You are considering how large a sample to use in your experiment. In general, a large N is likely to:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Increase the margin of error of your results

  • b. Decrease the precision of your estimates

  • c. Decrease the margin of error of your estimates

  • d. Decrease the testing time for each participant

  • e. Improve the matching between groups

Question 79 of 93

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6. The Null Hypothesis is supported when ________, the Alternative Hypothesis is supported when _____________.

Select one of the following:

  • a. An effect was observed, no effect was observed

  • b. No effect was observed, an effect was observed

  • c. The correlation coefficient is positive, the correlation coefficient is negative

  • d. The correlation coefficient is negative, the correlation coefficient is positive

  • e. The first experiment failed, the second experiment was successful

Question 80 of 93

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7. In Null Hypothesis Significance Testing, what p value boundary is most commonly used as the criteria for determining support for the Alternative, experimental hypothesis (H1)?

Select one of the following:

  • a. p < .05

  • b. p < .50

  • c. p > .05

  • d. p < .005

  • e. p < .10

Question 81 of 93

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8. According to Cohen’s rule of thumb, a correlation coefficient of .34 could be considered to be a _________, _________ relationship:

Select one of the following:

  • a) medium, negative relationship

  • b) medium, positive relationship

  • c) strong, positive relationship

  • d) weak, positive relationship

  • e) weak, negative relationship

Question 82 of 93

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9. A researcher examining the relationship between hours spent practicing progressive relaxation and anxiety levels reported the following finding:

Correlation analysis for a sample of 100 participants revealed a significant relationship between hours spent practicing relaxation and anxiety levels, r = -.46, p = .004.

This means that:

Select one of the following:

  • a) The Null hypothesis was supported

  • b) There was a positive relationship between training and anxiety, as the time spent practicing relaxation increased, anxiety levels increased

  • c) Progressive relaxation causes anxiety to decrease

  • d) There was a negative relationship between training and anxiety, as the time spent practicing relaxation increased, anxiety levels decreased

  • e) There is not enough information to interpret this finding

Question 83 of 93

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10. The type of Figure traditionally used to represent a correlation analysis of the relationship between 2 variables is called a______ and usually contains ___________:

Select one of the following:

  • a) Scatterplot; a Line of Best Fit

  • b) Pie chart; mean percentages for scores

  • c) Bar graph; Means with Standard Deviation bars

  • d) Boxplot; a measure of interquartile ranges

  • e) Relationships between variables cannot be represented graphically

Question 84 of 93

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1. What type of distribution is observed when most of the scores cluster around the lower end of the scale?

Select one of the following:

  • a. Bimodal distribution

  • b. Positively skewed distribution

  • c. Negatively skewed distribution

  • d. Cannot be defined

  • e. None of the above

Question 85 of 93

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2. Descriptive statistics __________.

Select one of the following:

  • a. represent conventions for summarizing and organizing data

  • b. are based on the principles of probability

  • c. represent conventions for planning research

  • d. are essential for analysing both qualitative and quantitative data

  • e. tell us whether our hypothesis is supported

Question 86 of 93

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3. In Independent group designs, the simplest way to make groups statistically equivalent is to:

Select one of the following:

  • a. randomly assign treatments to groups

  • b. pre-test participants in each group

  • c. start with a larger sample and remove the extremes

  • d. randomly assign participants to groups

  • e. find the most convenient sample of participants

Question 87 of 93

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4. A Type 1 Error is:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Improper measurement techniques on the part of the researcher

  • b. The result of a small sample size

  • c. Failing to reject the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true

  • d. Incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis

  • e. Incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis

Question 88 of 93

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5. In his eResource video, Professor Geoff Cummings tells us about a statistic that provides a “rule of thumb” to help us roughly know where 95% of measurements fall on either side of the mean. He is referring to what piece of statistical information?

Select one of the following:

  • a. The t value

  • b. The p value

  • c. The standard deviation

  • d. The correlation coefficient

  • e. The standard error of the mean

Question 89 of 93

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6. The outcome of a statistical analysis is found to be p = .02. This means that:

Select one of the following:

  • a. the alternative hypothesis was directional

  • b. we can reject H0 at α < .05

  • c. we must conclude that the alternative hypothesis is true

  • d. we had a big effect in our study

  • e. all of the above

Question 90 of 93

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7. Statistical tests are used:

Select one of the following:

  • a. only in experimental designs

  • b. to increase the internal validity of experiments

  • c. to prove your research question is correct

  • d. to establish the probability of the outcome of an investigation being due to chance alone

  • e. to torture students who never wanted to do math again

Question 91 of 93

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8. The 95% confidence interval for the sample mean is best defined as:

Select one of the following:

  • a. Describing the spread of the data points in your sample

  • b. Having a total width approximately 2 x SE

  • c. Having a total width equal to the margin of error (MOE)

  • d. Telling us a range of plausible values for the population mean

  • e. None of the above

Question 92 of 93

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9. A researcher examining the effect of memory training on the recall abilities of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) reported the following result:

Independent Groups t-test analysis revealed a significant difference between the recall abilities of MCI patients who participated in memory training compared to patients who did not participate in training, t(98) = 23.86, p = .012.

This means that:

Select one of the following:

  • a. The Null hypothesis was supported

  • b. Patients who received training appeared to perform better on recall tasks in comparison to patients who had not received training

  • c. There was no difference in the recall abilities between groups of patients, irrespective of whether they had training or not

  • d. There is a significant correlation between memory training and recall ability

  • e. There is not enough information to interpret this finding

Question 93 of 93

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10. If you read this statement in a research article: “Recovery times were faster for patients who received treatment than those who did not (p = 0.07).” It would mean that there is a:

Select one of the following:

  • a. 70% chance that the observed difference would be due to chance

  • b. 7% chance that other researchers would find the same result

  • c. 7% chance that the observed difference would be due to chance

  • d. 7% difference between groups/observations

  • e. 7% difference between groups/observation

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Tirzah Janssen
Quiz by , created about 1 year ago

Multiple choice quiz for research

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Tirzah Janssen
Created by Tirzah Janssen about 1 year ago
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