was a patient who had his hippocampus removed in a surgery, after which he experience retrograde and anterograde amnesia. His case helped scientists to better understand memory.
lost his memory due to a virus attacking his brain. He experienced total retrograde amnesia, and anterograde amnesia. He is still able to play the piano, and perform other learned skills, and he is able to recognize his wife even when he cannot recognize anyone else.
experienced an injury to his primary visual cortex at the back of the brain causing him to have a condition called blindsight. He is unable to see visual stimuli is they are motionless, but if they are moved, he is able to determine the direction of movement. He is able to tell which direction a light moves, and say if a ball is tossed upwards, but he would not be able to see the ball itself.
suffered bilateral damage along the ventral stream of visual processing causing her to be able to interact with objects, but being unable to verbally describe the object or what she was doing. If asked to line up a card horizontally to a slot, she would struggle, but if you asked her to place mail into the mailslot, she would be able to do this, but be unable to describe it.
Freud suggested that the unconscious mind is a part of the mind that is inaccessible to humans, but it acts as the primary source of human behavior. Feelings, motives, and decisions are all influenced by past experienced and stored in the unconscious. (i.e. repressed feelings, and primal urges are stuck in the unconscious). How does Freud's theory of the unconscious mind differ from the cognitive unconscious theory?
The Cognitive Unconscious Theory states that the unconscious mind is separated into three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. Each of these parts controls human behavior, and is separate from Freud's idea of feelings, motives, and decisions affect behavior.
The Cognitive Unconscious Theory states that people primarily use their conscious minds to complete tasks, but they can access the unconscious on command as sort of a databank, which differs from Freud's idea that the unconscious is completely inaccessible.
The Cognitive Unconscious Theory states that the unconscious mind acts as the body's autopilot (handles tasks such as breathing, heart rate, immune system...), and protects the body by allowing for quick, accurate responses to stimuli (allows you to catch an object suddenly thrown at you), whereas Freud believed that the unconscious was simply primitive urges.
The Cognitive Unconscious Theory states that unconsciousness only occurs during nighttime hours when a person is asleep. It is in control of dreams, and responses to any outside stimuli that occur while asleep. This differs from Freud's theory because Freud believed unconsciousness could be accessed during the daytime as well.
1. is the process in which a perceived item or stimulus of interest is converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short or long term memory.
2. refers to the process of placing newly acquired information into memory.
3. refers to the re-accessing of events or information from the past. It is the access of memories.
4. is the limitation of working memory to only hold 5 to 9 pieces of information at one time.
5. is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in the mind that is readily available for a short period of time.
6. is the amount of time information can be readily held in the mind, lasting approximately 18 to 30 seconds.
7. is memories that have been successfully encoded and stored in the mind that can be retrieved for a perceived indefinite amount of time.
8. is the briefest form of memory, it is the ability to retain impressions of a stimulus after it has been removed.
9. is the process of repetition in which repeating newly acquired information in order to process it and store it as a memory.
10. is the tendency to recall the first item seen on a list.
11. is the phenomenon in which a person is most likely to recall the first and last object when presented a list of objects to memorize.
12. is the tendency to recall the last piece of information presented on a list.
13. is a process in which short-term memories gradually turn into long-term memories, and it is thought that this process mainly occurs while a person sleeps.
14. memory refers to general world knowledge that we have accumulated throughout our lives. Facts are an example of this.
15. suggests that there is no clear distinction between long and short term memories, but rather, memories that have more meaning to them are better recalled than those that lack meaning.
16. is an idea that memory is most effective when information at encoding is also available at retrieval.
17. Memory is the memory of autobiographical events and is a collection of memories that occurred in a person's personal past made up of the who, what, when, where, why questions. A memory that occurs at a particular place and time.
18. is the partial or total loss of memory.
19. is the partial or total loss of your past memories. (Typically presented in soap operas where some missing character may have been found with no memories of who he is.)
20. is the partial or total loss of the ability to create new memories. (Consider the movie 50 First Dates with Drew Barrymore and Adam Sandler.)
21. suggests that people forget because memories fade with time.
22. memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. (Remembering to go to an appointment, or intentionally remember a childhood event.)
23. memory is the type of memory in which previous experiences aids in the performance of a task with no conscious awareness.
24. suggests that when a person forgets, it is due to their older information being pushed out by new information.
25. suggests that we forget when previous information or future information disrupts our memories.
26. memory is a memory that is very vivid and often autobiographical. It may be shared amongst a generation. (For example, many people today can recall exactly what they were doing when they heard about 9/11).
, sometimes called Pavlovian Conditioning,is a learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus.
There is a certain tutor who want to help her students learn about Pavlovian Conditioning. One day, she notices that her students' mouths would start watering whenever they smelled vanilla (the library staff had taken to baking cookies in an easy-bake oven near to the studying group). To prove that the Pavlovian Conditioning worked, the tutor began to bring a bottle of vanilla to each study session. During the study session, the tutor would crack open the bottle of vanilla and say "Pavlovian Conditioning" just as the students' mouths began to water. Eventually, just by saying "Pavlovian Conditioning" the students' mouths would water.
In this scenario the:
-Scent of vanilla is
-Mouths watering at the scent of vanilla is
-The tutor saying "Pavlovian Conditioning" is
-Mouths watering to the words "Pavlovian Conditioning" is
is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
A tutor is working with four students, Perry, Poppy, Nery, and Neptune, each of which are supposed to be studying for a Psychology Exam in their spare time. Of course, that doesn't always happen. Luckily, Perry and Nery both studied before coming to class. The tutor rewards Perry by giving him a freshly baked cookie. Unfortunately, the tutor only had one cookie, so the tutor rewarded Nery by taking away the remedial work he was supposed to turn into the tutor for tomorrow. Poor Poppy and Neptune forgot to study, and had to face the tutor's wrath. The tutor gave Poppy an extra five pages of practice problems to finish for the next day, and took away Neptune's break time for the day.
In this situation:
-Giving Perry a cookie is an example of
-Taking away Nery's remedial work is an example of
-Giving Poppy 5 extra pages of practice problems is an example of
-Taking away Neptune's break is an example of
1. is the diminishing of a psychological or an emotional reaction to a frequently repeated stimulus.
2. is the disappearance of any learned behavior due to the behavior no longer being reinforced.
3. is a "fine" or "toll" imposed for a bad behavior. For example, if a child misbehaves, you may remove a sticker from their 'Good Child' chart.
4. is a phenomenon in which a fake treatment may be presented to a patient, and the patient's condition will improve by simply expecting the treatment to help.
5. is a biological process that completes an cycle approximately every 24 hours. It is often characterized by the natural change of body temperature, hormone release, and wakefulness throughout the day.
6. is the question posing how the abstract and non-physical mind can affect the physical body.
There was a certain case in which experimenters exposed a young child named Little Albert to a white rat. At first interaction with the rat, Little Albert showed no fear, and would happily play with the rat. Experimenters then began making loud noises, which caused Little Albert to become frighten. The experimenters began making loud noises only when Little Albert reached or touched the white rat. Eventually, Little Albert became terrified of the white rat.
This is an example of the creation of a:
Joe's football team has lost every game for weeks. Finally, they win their last game in a huge upset. Joe realized that he wore a pair of dirty socks and they won the game. Joe becomes convinced that their team only won because he was wearing his, now lucky, dirty socks.
This demonstrations the creation of a:
-When we are awake, our brain produces
-When we are tired, our brain produces
-When we reach Stage 1 of Sleep, our brain produces
-When we reach Stage 2 of Sleep, our brain begins to produces
-When we reach Stage 3 of Sleep, our brain begins to produce
-When we reach Stage 4 of Sleep (this stage is when commonly occurs), our brains produce delta waves