1. is a structure in our mind, such as an idea or image.
2. is a mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object (i.e. picture of a cat)
3. is an abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea (i.e. the actual word "cat").
4. is a mental picture in a person's mind of the physical world outside of that person.
5. is a mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or ideas around common themes. (Basketballs, footballs, and baseballs can be categorized as sports equipment)
6. is the most basic unit of meaning in a representation. It is the smallest statement that can be judged either true or false.
7. refers to a connection between conceptual entities or mental states that results from the similarity between those states or their proximity in space or time.
8. is a term that refers to the process by which people make decisions and form conclusions based on available information and material combined with mental activity (thought) and experience. (If I see someone with suspenders, high waisted khakis, and large glass, I may assume that the person is a nerd, because that is what a nerd looked like in my past experiences).
9. is estimating how frequent or likely an event is based on easy it is to recall it from memory or think of related examples. (I think it is likely to have at least a foot of snow this winter because I can recall that happening in the past.)
10. is used to decide whether a someone, or something, or an event belongs in a certain category. (This tends to be linked to stereotyping, or generalizing. i.e. I know someone who smokes and HE didn't get cancer, so smokers never get cancer. It can lead to inaccuracy of thought.)
11. are effective but often inaccurate mental shortcuts to estimate likelihood of uncertain events.
12. are made up of two strategies (System 1 and System 2) to estimate the likelihood of uncertain events, though it is generally a slower (and less risky) process.
13. is a fast, efficient mental processing, but maybe risky (intuition and gut-feel based).
14. is a slower type of metal process that takes more effort to do, but it is more accurate (this system relies on reasoning and is driven by rules).
15. is the process of drawing conclusions to inform how people solve problems and make decisions.
16. is the tendency to interpret new evidence as proof of one's existing beliefs or theories.
17. is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more proposition that are asserted or assumed to be true. (i.e. All cats have four legs. I have four legs. Therefore I am a cat)
18. is an example of a cognitive bias in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented.
19. is the tendency for people to become sentimentally attached to their belongings and become unwilling to part with it. (Think of hoarders)
20. can make it difficult to make a decision.
1. is the sounds a language uses.
2. are the units of sound.
3. are the smallest language units that carry meaning. (single words, or numbers. i.e. milk, 5, terrible)
4. are grammatically correct sentence that seems like it should be incorrect.
5. are 'necessary and sufficient conditions' that characterize a word's meaning.
6. are things that resemble closely enough will also be treated as category members. These category member's can don't have to be identical, they can share a "family resemblance".
7. refers to the phenomenon in which experimental subjects are faster to respond to typical instances of a concept. (faster to respond to "robin" for the concept "bird” , than they are to atypical instances, for example, "penguin")