What are the three external factors that affect ethic differences in achievement?
What are the two main aspects of cultural deprivation?
What do cultural deprivation theorists claim children from low income black families lack?
What does this mean they fail to do as a result?
Who argues that the language spoken by poorer black American families is ungrammatical and disjointed?
What do Bereiter and Engelmann argue this leaves these children unable to do?
What do some cultural deprivation theorists argue about some children who do not speak English at home?
Some cultural deprivation theorists argue that the subculture into which some black children are socialised into is _________
What is this subculture focused on?
What does this result in?
What may a lack of a male role model in many Afro-Caribbean families lead to?
Who argues that the high rate of lone-parenthood leads to the underachievement in some ethnic minority pupils?
What kind of thinker is Murray?
How does Moynihan expand on this?
What does Moynihan argue happens to these children because they fail at school?
Who argues that the Black Caribbean culture is less resistant to racism due to the experience of Black History and slavery?
What does this result in (in terms of young people and achievement)?
Why does Kahn argue the Asian family is an obstacle to achievement, especially towards girls?
Why is it argued that white working class pupils also underachieve?
Which two sociologists gathered evidence that supports this view?
What did Lupton study?
What did the teachers report in the white working class schools?
What did they link this to?
Why does Evans argue there is a strong pressure to reject school?
What are the two examples of compensatory education?
Where did each of these take place?
What was the aim of Operation Head Start?
What was the aim of Sure Start?
What are the names of the three main criticisms of cultural deprivation?
Who makes the argument of victim blaming?
What is this argument?
What is meant by cultural exclusion?
Who's argument is this?
What does Gerwitz expand this with?
How does compensatory education cause cultural domination?
What is material deprivation?
Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are more likely to be ____ than whites
_____________ is higher for many minorties
Pay is ______ and overcrowding in the home more likely for ethnic minorities
Which document argues that social class accounts for at least half the difference in educational achievement between ethnic groups?
Which minority groups are most likely to be working class and therefore do worse in education?
What may material deprivation be a product of?
Why is this?
What are the three main internal factors that cause ethnic differences in achievement?
Why may labelling lead to under achievement?
What two types of pupils have sociologists studied the labelling of?
Who studied the Black Pupils?
Gillborn and Youdell found that teachers had ___________ ____________ about black pupils
What is another word for racialised expectations?
How did teachers view black pupils?
Black pupils were more likely to be punished than other for ___ ____ _________
How did the pupils feel?
What did Gillborn and Youdell conclude that conflict between white teachers and black pupils stemmed from?
What are the two reasons why this can cause underachievement?
Which two sociologists did studies on Asian pupils?
What did Wright find out about Asian primary school pupils?
In which 3 ways did this happen?
What happened as a result?
Connolly found that primary school teachers saw Asian pupils as ______ and _________
In Connolly's study, both teachers and pupils saw Asian boys as more _________, _________ and less able to protect themselves
Pupils may react to labelling by forming a pupil subculture. Who identified 4 types of black boy subcultures?
What are these 4 types?
Which was the largest group?
Give some characteristics of the conformists
Which was the second largest group?
Give some characteristics of the innovators
What name is given to a tiny minority of isolated individuals that disconnected themselves from the school and from black subcultures outside school?
Give some characteristics of the rebels
What was the rebels' aim?
Which subculture did teachers tend to see all black boys as?
What did this discrimination result in?
Who found a similar response in Asian pupils (explain)?
Who did they study of the black girls in year 11 who continued to work hard despite negative labelling and didn't look for teacher approval?
What did Mirza find about black girls strategies for dealing with teachers racism?
What is institutional racism?
How is this different from teacher racism?
What is meant by ethnocentric?
Which three sociologists have argued that the curriculum of British schools is ethnocentric?
What do Troyna and Williams argue?
What does David argue?
What does Ball argue?
Who may minority ethnic groups suffer as a result of an ethnocentric curriculum?
Give two other examples of institutional racism, apart from the ethnocentric curriculum
What did a study on setting and streaming find?
Who did the study on governing bodies?
What did Hatcher find?
Who found that governing bodies were disproportionally white?
The __________ procedures followed by schools can also be a from of institutional racism is they are used in a discriminatory way against minority ethnic groups
Which commission found racism in secondary schools admissions procedures?
What was there a lack of?
What was there present in entrance interviews?
What process may make this worse?
Why is this?
What does this create more opportunities for?
What might this make it more difficult for minority pupils to do?
What does the education system become as a result?
What schools are minority pupils more likely to be in?
What did Gerwitz find that Asian parents did?