In working memory, visual/spatial and verbal information are integrated in the:
Morton moved from Alabama to Georgia ten years ago. "My fifth grade teacher made us memorize the names of all the counties in Alabama," he tells his friend Rory. Rory tests Morton by giving him a list of thirty counties - 15 Alabama counties, mixed with 15 counties from other stages. 'Ok, pick out the Alabama counties," Rory challenges Morton. Which method does Rory's test use?
method of loci
Based on the _____ effect, _____ practice leads to better learning than _____ practice does.
massed; distributed; spacing
spacing; distributed; massed
distributed; spacing; massed
spacing; massed; distributed
Omar Experienced a dissociative fugue state. He suddenly snapped out of it in front of a pet-supplies display in a Boise, Idaho discount store he had no memory whatsoever of his previous life in Greensboro, North Carolina. Omar's amnesia is best described as:
The levels of processing framework propose that the ease with which information is remembered may be traced to differences in the processing that occur during:
Because she drank too much alcohol, Deanna barely remembers her 21st birthday. That is, her _____ memory is sketchy.
Preliminary evidence suggests that levels of physical and mental activity are both _____ correlated with the severity of the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer’s disease.
Which statement BEST captures the relationship between priming and a retrieval cue?
Retrieval cues are the unconscious awakening of memories based on priming.
Priming is the unconscious awakening of memories based on retrieval cues.
There is no relationship between priming and retrieval cues.
Priming is the conscious awakening of memories based on retrieval cues.
Bower et al. (1969) asked some participants to learn hierarchically organized words. Other participants were asked to learn the same words arranged randomly. All participants were later required to recall the words. Word recall was the _____ variable in this study.
Which statement accurately captures the relationship among the types of long-term memory?
Episodic and semantic memory are both components of explicit memory.
Explicit and semantic memory are both components of episodic memory.
Explicit and episodic memory are both components of semantic memory.
There is no relationship among the types of long-term memory.
The frontal lobe is to _____ memory as the temporal lobe is to _____ memory.
The misinformation effect highlights the:
changeability of memory.
biology of memory.
physiology of memory.
both biology and physiology of memory.
How does short-term memory differ from sensory memory?
Its duration is shorter than that of sensory memory.
There is no difference.
Sensory memory is longer than short-term memory.
Its duration is longer than that of sensory memory.
The levels of processing framework:
Suggests that thinking about material doesn't lead to better memory than simply repeating the material to oneself.
Suggests that thinking about the material leads to better memory than simply repeating the material to oneself.
Suggests that repeating the material to oneself is more effective.
Relies heavily on different methods of thinking.
The textbook reviews the case of Henry Molaison, also known as H.M. After brain surgery, H.M. suffered hippocampal damage. Which type of memory was BEST preserved in H.M.’s case?
Mnemonic strategies facilitate retention by encouraging:
chunking and elaborative rehearsal
The textbook reviews the case of Henry Molaison, also known as H.M. After brain surgery, H.M suffered hippocampal damage. Which type of memory was MOST damaged in H.M.’s case?
Which statement is the BEST reason for viewing classical conditioning as a type of implicit memory?
Classical conditioning occurs outside one's awareness.
Classical conditioning occurs inside one's awareness.
Operant conditioning occurs outside one's awareness.
Operant conditioning occurs inside one's awareness.
Which sequence correctly arranges the information-processing stages of memory in order of increasing capacity?
short-term memory > sensory memory > long-term memory
long-term memory > sensory memory > short-term memory
sensory memory > short-term memory > long-term memory
long-term memory > short-term memory > sensory memory
_____ amnesia involved an inability to form new memories.
The phenomenon of _____ imagery is fairly similar to what people commonly call “photographic memory.”
The concept of working memory represents a contemporary conceptualization of what is going on in _____ memory.
The hippocampus is located in the _____ lobe.
Psychologists use the term _____ memory to refer to photographic visual impressions that last less than a second.
Which of the following sequences BEST reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?
Storage, retrieval, encoding.
Encoding, storage, retrieval.
Retrieval, storage, encoding.
Retrieval, encoding, storage.
The study of sensory memory is associated with:
Jerry is at a party. He is introduced to three different people in the span of a moment. Later he is approached by the first person he met and cannot remember her name. Which explanation is MOST likely the source of Jerry’s difficulty?
Jerry failed to encode the woman's name.
Jerry failed to retrieve the woman's name.
Jerry failed to store the woman's name.
Jerry met a lot of people and didn't care enough to remember the woman's name.
Priti is using the method of loci to learn a list of compliance techniques in her social psychology textbook. Priti is using:
Olga is experiencing a negative emotion, but it is not especially intense. Based on the dimensions of emotion described in the textbook, which emotions is Olga MOST likely feeling?
Consider the distinction between the set point and the settling point in the text’s discussion of hunger, eating, and obesity. Which statement is MOST accurate?
The set point is essentially a physiological concept; the idea of the settling point takes the social and cultural environment into account to a greater extent.
The settling point is essentially a physiological concept; the idea of a set point takes the social and cultural environment into account to a great extent.
They both have to do with social and cultural environments.
They are both a physiological concept.
According to the textbook, Maslow suggested that most people in North America are mainly motivated by _____ needs.
People who cannot feel their internal organs after spinal cord injuries:
experience emotions, contradicting the James-Lange theory of emotion.
don't experience emotions, contradicting the James-Lange theory of emotion.
experience emotions, supporting the James-Lange theory of emotion.
don't experience emotions, supporting the James-Lange theory of emotion.
Dr. Lynch shows members of a preliterate Andean culture and American college students a serious of photos either Andeans or Americans displaying emotional expressions. She asks Andeans and Americans to identify the emotion displayed in each photo. Based on Erkman’s results, what might Dr. Lynch predict?
Participants should identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the group.
Participants shouldn't identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the group.
Participants should identify emotions accurately when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group.
Participants should identify emotions accurately when they are displayed by members of the group.
The notion that bodily changes and emotions happen simultaneously is the core of the _____ theory of emotion.
Aptitude test is to achievement tests as _____ is to _____.
predicting future performance; assessing past performance
assessing past performance; predicting future performance
One advantage of using heuristics is that heuristics:
are usually inefficient.
are usually efficient.
they can solve multiple problems.
always lead to a solution.
_____ intelligence is NOT among Gardner’s “frames of mind,” or types of intelligence
_____ is associated with a theory of intelligence proposing seven or more distinct forms of intelligence.
If one wished to predict an individual’s ability or potential for success in a given area, one would use an _____ test. If one wished to measure an individual’s level of knowledge in a given area, one would use an _____ test.
culture fair; achievement
People seek and remember evidence that supports their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to the:
the representativeness heuristic
When one uses the representativeness heuristics, one is:
assuming that something is typical of its class.
assuming that something isn't typical of its class.
assuming that something is typical of its class and doesn't evaluate the degree to which primary characteristics are similar to prototypes.
assuming that something isn't typical of its class and doesn't evaluate the degree to which primary characteristics are similar to prototypes.
In Deci and Ryan’s (2008) theory, self-determination is the motivation for:
growth and optimal functioning
Which statement BEST expresses Maslow’s view of the relationship between physiological needs and psychological needs?
Physiological needs take precedence over psychological ones.
Psychological needs take precedence over physiological ones.
Psychological needs are the same as physiological needs.
There is no relationship between psychological and physiological needs.
Aretha’s BMI is 28. Jolene’s is 32. Which statement is true?
Aretha is obese, and Jolene is overweight.
Aretha is normal, and Jolene is overweight.
Aretha is overweight, and Jolene is obese.
Aretha is normal, and Jolene is obese.
Which statement BEST expresses the potential effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation?
Intrinsic motivation may undermine extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation may undermine intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation results in intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation results in extrinsic motivation.
Which hunger satiety hormone is matched with its origin?
leptin - pancrease
orexin - hypothalamus
insulin - stomach
insulin - hypothalamus
How do bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder differ?
Binge eating disorder is associated with purging, whereas binge eating disorder is not.
There is no difference. They are the same thing.
Bulimia nervosa is associated with purging, whereas binge eating disorder is not.
Bulimia nervosa is associated with limiting calorie intake, whereas binge eating disorder is not.
How does the arousal theory of motivation differ from drive-reduction theory?
Arousal theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to increase rather than decrease their level of stimulation.
Arousal theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to decrease rather than increase their level of stimulation.
Drive-reduction theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to decrease rather than increase their level of stimulation.
Drive-reduction theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to increased rather than decrease their level of stimulation.
According to Abraham Maslow, a person’s highest need is the need for:
Which theories of emotion reflect psychology’s cognitive perspective?
The Schachter-Singer theory and the James-Lange theory.
The James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory.
The Cannon-Bard theory and Lazarus's appraisal theory.
The Schachter-Singer theory and Lazarus's appraisal theory.
Which statement is true regarding potential gender differences in emotion?
Men and women use different language to describe their emotions.
There is not difference between men and women with their emotions.
Men and women use similar language to describe their emotions.
Men are completely different from women when it comes to expressing their emotions.
Henry Murray emphasized the importance of the need for:
The first two theoretical approaches to motivation that attained prominence in the history of modern psychology were:
the instinct approach, then the drive approach
the drive approach, then the instinct approach
self-determination, then the instinct approach
self-determination, then the drive approach
A.L. Washburn was the only participant in Cannon and Washburn’s (1912) demonstration of the stomach’s role in producing hunger pangs. Cannon and Washburn’s study is therefore BEST seen as an example of a(n):
One in _____ children ages 5-13 with an eating disorder is male.
The amygdala sends emotional signals to:
other limbic structures
other limbic structures, the brainstem, and the autonomic nervous system
other limbic structures, the brainstem, the autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine system
the brainstem and the endocrine system
According to the Cannon-Bard theory:
the thalamus sends sensory signals to both the hypothalamus and the cortex.
the hypothalamus sends sensory signals to both the thalamus and the cortex.
the cortex sends sensory signals to both the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
the thalamus sends sensory signals to the cortex only.
Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that direct human behavior, thought, and emotion. Dr. Schmidt studies:
The psychologist _____ is know for early demonstrations of the universality of emotional expressions among Americans and New Guineans
The notion that bodily changes lead to emotions is the core of the _____ theory of emotion.
Deci and Ryan
According to Lazarus, emotions:
are biological and physiological
are equal among everyone
stem from the way people interpret their interactions with the environment
stem from the way people deal with the environment
Which hormone is involved in satiety?
Which early psychologist is MOST strongly associated with instinct theory?
According to the textbook, women tend to feel some emotions more often than men do. Which is NOT one of these emotions?
_____ theory was the earliest approach to motivation to develop in psychology’s history.
X is to XXY as _____ syndrome is to _____ syndrome
5-alpha reductase deficiency; Klinefelter's
5-alpha reductase deficiency; Turner's
Tessa is short. She is infertile and suffers from hypothyroidism. In addition, her cognitive and socioemotional functioning is somewhat impaired. Tessa’s case exemplifies:
5-alpha reductase deficiency
Which motive for sexual activity is correctly matched?
experience pleasure - characteristic of women
experience pain - characteristic of men
experience pleasure - characteristic of men
experience intimacy - characteristic of men
Of the differences of sexual development mentioned in the text, the rarest is _____, whereas the MOST common is _____.
5-alpha reductase deficiency; Klinefelter's syndrome
5-alpha reductase deficiency; Turner's syndrome
Turner's syndrome; Klinefelter's syndrome
Klinefelter's syndrome; Turner's syndrome
Casey has always believed that he is a woman trapped in a man’s body. He is undergoing hormone treatment and is considering sex reassignment surgery. Casey is BEST described as:
Based on the information provided in the textbook, the most reasonable position to take with respect to the source of gender differences in cognition is probably:
an interactionist position
respect the differences
gender is gender
sex is sex
Viral is to _____ as bacterial is to _____.
genital herpes; genital warts
genital warts; genital herpes
genital herpes; syphilis
genital warts; syphilis
Gender differences in mate selection criteria are _____ across cultures, _____ an evolutionary explanation.
Which choice BEST expresses historical trends in the treatment of fetishism?
In contrast to therapists of the past, today's therapists try to eliminate fetishes.
Supporting therapists of the past, today's therapists do not try to eliminate fetishes.
In contrast to therapists of the past, today's therapists do not try to eliminate fetishes.
Supporting therapists of the past, today's therapists try to eliminate fetishes.
Unable to accept his desire for other young men, 15-year-old Juan pours himself into his studies. Juan’s case illustrates the defense mechanism of:
Humans constantly strive to grow and improve themselves, a motivation Adler termed the striving for:
The Big Five personality dimensions demonstrate:
neither biological reality nor cross-culture generality
both biological reality and cross-culture generality
Which word BEST completes this sentence: “Julian Rotter _____ the work of traditional learning theorists such as B.F. Skinner.”