PSYC 181 Exam 2 Review Quiz

Question 1 of 78

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In working memory, visual/spatial and verbal information are integrated in the:

Select one of the following:

  • episodic buffer

  • mnemonic

  • central executive

  • phonological loop

Question 2 of 78

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Morton moved from Alabama to Georgia ten years ago. "My fifth grade teacher made us memorize the names of all the counties in Alabama," he tells his friend Rory. Rory tests Morton by giving him a list of thirty counties - 15 Alabama counties, mixed with 15 counties from other stages. 'Ok, pick out the Alabama counties," Rory challenges Morton. Which method does Rory's test use?

Select one of the following:

  • method of loci

  • recall

  • recognition

  • priming

Question 3 of 78

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Based on the _____ effect, _____ practice leads to better learning than _____ practice does.

Select one of the following:

  • massed; distributed; spacing

  • spacing; distributed; massed

  • distributed; spacing; massed

  • spacing; massed; distributed

Question 4 of 78

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Omar Experienced a dissociative fugue state. He suddenly snapped out of it in front of a pet-supplies display in a Boise, Idaho discount store he had no memory whatsoever of his previous life in Greensboro, North Carolina. Omar's amnesia is best described as:

Select one of the following:

  • retrograde

  • anterograde

  • retroactive

  • proactive

Question 5 of 78

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The levels of processing framework propose that the ease with which information is remembered may be traced to differences in the processing that occur during:

Select one of the following:

  • storage

  • retrieval

  • encoding

  • deep thinking

Question 6 of 78

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Because she drank too much alcohol, Deanna barely remembers her 21st birthday. That is, her _____ memory is sketchy.

Select one of the following:

  • working

  • procedural

  • semantic

  • episodic

Question 7 of 78

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Preliminary evidence suggests that levels of physical and mental activity are both _____ correlated with the severity of the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer’s disease.

Select one of the following:

  • negatively

  • positively

  • not

  • somewhat

Question 8 of 78

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Which statement BEST captures the relationship between priming and a retrieval cue?

Select one of the following:

  • Retrieval cues are the unconscious awakening of memories based on priming.

  • Priming is the unconscious awakening of memories based on retrieval cues.

  • There is no relationship between priming and retrieval cues.

  • Priming is the conscious awakening of memories based on retrieval cues.

Question 9 of 78

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Bower et al. (1969) asked some participants to learn hierarchically organized words. Other participants were asked to learn the same words arranged randomly. All participants were later required to recall the words. Word recall was the _____ variable in this study.

Select one of the following:

  • independent

  • experimental

  • dependent

  • control

Question 10 of 78

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Which statement accurately captures the relationship among the types of long-term memory?

Select one of the following:

  • Episodic and semantic memory are both components of explicit memory.

  • Explicit and semantic memory are both components of episodic memory.

  • Explicit and episodic memory are both components of semantic memory.

  • There is no relationship among the types of long-term memory.

Question 11 of 78

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The frontal lobe is to _____ memory as the temporal lobe is to _____ memory.

Select one of the following:

  • spatial; working

  • visual; spatial

  • working; spatial

  • working; visual

Question 12 of 78

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The misinformation effect highlights the:

Select one of the following:

  • changeability of memory.

  • biology of memory.

  • physiology of memory.

  • both biology and physiology of memory.

Question 13 of 78

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How does short-term memory differ from sensory memory?

Select one of the following:

  • Its duration is shorter than that of sensory memory.

  • There is no difference.

  • Sensory memory is longer than short-term memory.

  • Its duration is longer than that of sensory memory.

Question 14 of 78

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The levels of processing framework:

Select one of the following:

  • Suggests that thinking about material doesn't lead to better memory than simply repeating the material to oneself.

  • Suggests that thinking about the material leads to better memory than simply repeating the material to oneself.

  • Suggests that repeating the material to oneself is more effective.

  • Relies heavily on different methods of thinking.

Question 15 of 78

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The textbook reviews the case of Henry Molaison, also known as H.M. After brain surgery, H.M. suffered hippocampal damage. Which type of memory was BEST preserved in H.M.’s case?

Select one of the following:

  • procedural

  • episodic

  • working

  • short-term

Question 16 of 78

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Mnemonic strategies facilitate retention by encouraging:

Select one of the following:

  • elaborative rehearsal

  • chunking

  • deep thinking

  • chunking and elaborative rehearsal

Question 17 of 78

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The textbook reviews the case of Henry Molaison, also known as H.M. After brain surgery, H.M suffered hippocampal damage. Which type of memory was MOST damaged in H.M.’s case?

Select one of the following:

  • episodic

  • procedural

  • working

  • short-term

Question 18 of 78

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Which statement is the BEST reason for viewing classical conditioning as a type of implicit memory?

Select one of the following:

  • Classical conditioning occurs outside one's awareness.

  • Classical conditioning occurs inside one's awareness.

  • Operant conditioning occurs outside one's awareness.

  • Operant conditioning occurs inside one's awareness.

Question 19 of 78

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Which sequence correctly arranges the information-processing stages of memory in order of increasing capacity?

Select one of the following:

  • short-term memory > sensory memory > long-term memory

  • long-term memory > sensory memory > short-term memory

  • sensory memory > short-term memory > long-term memory

  • long-term memory > short-term memory > sensory memory

Question 20 of 78

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_____ amnesia involved an inability to form new memories.

Select one of the following:

  • Retorgrade

  • Retroactive

  • Proactive

  • Anterograde

Question 21 of 78

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The phenomenon of _____ imagery is fairly similar to what people commonly call “photographic memory.”

Select one of the following:

  • eidetic

  • echoic

  • extrinsic

  • intrinsic

Question 22 of 78

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The concept of working memory represents a contemporary conceptualization of what is going on in _____ memory.

Select one of the following:

  • long-term

  • sensory

  • echoic

  • short-term

Question 23 of 78

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The hippocampus is located in the _____ lobe.

Select one of the following:

  • frontal

  • temporal

  • occipital

  • parietal

Question 24 of 78

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Psychologists use the term _____ memory to refer to photographic visual impressions that last less than a second.

Select one of the following:

  • iconic

  • echoic

  • sensory

  • semantic

Question 25 of 78

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Which of the following sequences BEST reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?

Select one of the following:

  • Storage, retrieval, encoding.

  • Encoding, storage, retrieval.

  • Retrieval, storage, encoding.

  • Retrieval, encoding, storage.

Question 26 of 78

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The study of sensory memory is associated with:

Select one of the following:

  • Sigmund Freud.

  • George Miller.

  • Daniel Kahneman.

  • Charles Spearman.

Question 27 of 78

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Jerry is at a party. He is introduced to three different people in the span of a moment. Later he is approached by the first person he met and cannot remember her name. Which explanation is MOST likely the source of Jerry’s difficulty?

Select one of the following:

  • Jerry failed to encode the woman's name.

  • Jerry failed to retrieve the woman's name.

  • Jerry failed to store the woman's name.

  • Jerry met a lot of people and didn't care enough to remember the woman's name.

Question 28 of 78

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Priti is using the method of loci to learn a list of compliance techniques in her social psychology textbook. Priti is using:

Select one of the following:

  • working memory

  • elaborative rehearsal

  • connectionism

  • memory consolidation

Question 29 of 78

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Olga is experiencing a negative emotion, but it is not especially intense. Based on the dimensions of emotion described in the textbook, which emotions is Olga MOST likely feeling?

Select one of the following:

  • Sadness.

  • Happiness.

  • Anger.

  • Excitement.

Question 30 of 78

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Consider the distinction between the set point and the settling point in the text’s discussion of hunger, eating, and obesity. Which statement is MOST accurate?

Select one of the following:

  • The set point is essentially a physiological concept; the idea of the settling point takes the social and cultural environment into account to a greater extent.

  • The settling point is essentially a physiological concept; the idea of a set point takes the social and cultural environment into account to a great extent.

  • They both have to do with social and cultural environments.

  • They are both a physiological concept.

Question 31 of 78

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According to the textbook, Maslow suggested that most people in North America are mainly motivated by _____ needs.

Select one of the following:

  • physiological

  • biological

  • safety

  • personal

Question 32 of 78

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People who cannot feel their internal organs after spinal cord injuries:

Select one of the following:

  • experience emotions, contradicting the James-Lange theory of emotion.

  • don't experience emotions, contradicting the James-Lange theory of emotion.

  • experience emotions, supporting the James-Lange theory of emotion.

  • don't experience emotions, supporting the James-Lange theory of emotion.

Question 33 of 78

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Dr. Lynch shows members of a preliterate Andean culture and American college students a serious of photos either Andeans or Americans displaying emotional expressions. She asks Andeans and Americans to identify the emotion displayed in each photo. Based on Erkman’s results, what might Dr. Lynch predict?

Select one of the following:

  • Participants should identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the group.

  • Participants shouldn't identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the group.

  • Participants should identify emotions accurately when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group.

  • Participants should identify emotions accurately when they are displayed by members of the group.

Question 34 of 78

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The notion that bodily changes and emotions happen simultaneously is the core of the _____ theory of emotion.

Select one of the following:

  • James-Lange

  • Cannon-Bard

  • Schachter-Singer

  • Erkman

Question 35 of 78

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Aptitude test is to achievement tests as _____ is to _____.

Select one of the following:

  • predicting future performance; assessing past performance

  • assessing past performance; predicting future performance

  • predicting; assessing

  • assessing; predicting

Question 36 of 78

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One advantage of using heuristics is that heuristics:

Select one of the following:

  • are usually inefficient.

  • are usually efficient.

  • they can solve multiple problems.

  • always lead to a solution.

Question 37 of 78

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_____ intelligence is NOT among Gardner’s “frames of mind,” or types of intelligence

Select one of the following:

  • Analytical

  • Emotional

  • Creative

  • Practical

Question 38 of 78

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_____ is associated with a theory of intelligence proposing seven or more distinct forms of intelligence.

Select one of the following:

  • Gardner

  • Binet

  • Wechsler

  • Chomsky

Question 39 of 78

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If one wished to predict an individual’s ability or potential for success in a given area, one would use an _____ test. If one wished to measure an individual’s level of knowledge in a given area, one would use an _____ test.

Select one of the following:

  • achievement; aptitude

  • aptitude; achievement

  • Stanford-Binet; aptitude

  • culture fair; achievement

Question 40 of 78

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People seek and remember evidence that supports their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to the:

Select one of the following:

  • confirmation bias.

  • framing effect.

  • availability heuristic

  • the representativeness heuristic

Question 41 of 78

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When one uses the representativeness heuristics, one is:

Select one of the following:

  • assuming that something is typical of its class.

  • assuming that something isn't typical of its class.

  • assuming that something is typical of its class and doesn't evaluate the degree to which primary characteristics are similar to prototypes.

  • assuming that something isn't typical of its class and doesn't evaluate the degree to which primary characteristics are similar to prototypes.

Question 42 of 78

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In Deci and Ryan’s (2008) theory, self-determination is the motivation for:

Select one of the following:

  • growth and optimal functioning

  • growth

  • optimal functioning

  • self-transendence

Question 43 of 78

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Which statement BEST expresses Maslow’s view of the relationship between physiological needs and psychological needs?

Select one of the following:

  • Physiological needs take precedence over psychological ones.

  • Psychological needs take precedence over physiological ones.

  • Psychological needs are the same as physiological needs.

  • There is no relationship between psychological and physiological needs.

Question 44 of 78

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Aretha’s BMI is 28. Jolene’s is 32. Which statement is true?

Select one of the following:

  • Aretha is obese, and Jolene is overweight.

  • Aretha is normal, and Jolene is overweight.

  • Aretha is overweight, and Jolene is obese.

  • Aretha is normal, and Jolene is obese.

Question 45 of 78

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Which statement BEST expresses the potential effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation?

Select one of the following:

  • Intrinsic motivation may undermine extrinsic motivation.

  • Extrinsic motivation may undermine intrinsic motivation.

  • Extrinsic motivation results in intrinsic motivation.

  • Intrinsic motivation results in extrinsic motivation.

Question 46 of 78

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Which hunger satiety hormone is matched with its origin?

Select one of the following:

  • leptin - pancrease

  • orexin - hypothalamus

  • insulin - stomach

  • insulin - hypothalamus

Question 47 of 78

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How do bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder differ?

Select one of the following:

  • Binge eating disorder is associated with purging, whereas binge eating disorder is not.

  • There is no difference. They are the same thing.

  • Bulimia nervosa is associated with purging, whereas binge eating disorder is not.

  • Bulimia nervosa is associated with limiting calorie intake, whereas binge eating disorder is not.

Question 48 of 78

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How does the arousal theory of motivation differ from drive-reduction theory?

Select one of the following:

  • Arousal theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to increase rather than decrease their level of stimulation.

  • Arousal theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to decrease rather than increase their level of stimulation.

  • Drive-reduction theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to decrease rather than increase their level of stimulation.

  • Drive-reduction theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to increased rather than decrease their level of stimulation.

Question 49 of 78

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According to Abraham Maslow, a person’s highest need is the need for:

Select one of the following:

  • self-determination

  • self-actualization

  • self-transendence

  • motivation

Question 50 of 78

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Which theories of emotion reflect psychology’s cognitive perspective?

Select one of the following:

  • The Schachter-Singer theory and the James-Lange theory.

  • The James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory.

  • The Cannon-Bard theory and Lazarus's appraisal theory.

  • The Schachter-Singer theory and Lazarus's appraisal theory.

Question 51 of 78

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Which statement is true regarding potential gender differences in emotion?

Select one of the following:

  • Men and women use different language to describe their emotions.

  • There is not difference between men and women with their emotions.

  • Men and women use similar language to describe their emotions.

  • Men are completely different from women when it comes to expressing their emotions.

Question 52 of 78

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Henry Murray emphasized the importance of the need for:

Select one of the following:

  • safety

  • achievement

  • power

  • self-transendence

Question 53 of 78

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The first two theoretical approaches to motivation that attained prominence in the history of modern psychology were:

Select one of the following:

  • the instinct approach, then the drive approach

  • the drive approach, then the instinct approach

  • self-determination, then the instinct approach

  • self-determination, then the drive approach

Question 54 of 78

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A.L. Washburn was the only participant in Cannon and Washburn’s (1912) demonstration of the stomach’s role in producing hunger pangs. Cannon and Washburn’s study is therefore BEST seen as an example of a(n):

Select one of the following:

  • laboratory study

  • experiment

  • case study

  • observation

Question 55 of 78

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One in _____ children ages 5-13 with an eating disorder is male.

Select one of the following:

  • 5

  • 3

  • 8

  • 4

Question 56 of 78

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The amygdala sends emotional signals to:

Select one of the following:

  • other limbic structures

  • other limbic structures, the brainstem, and the autonomic nervous system

  • other limbic structures, the brainstem, the autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine system

  • the brainstem and the endocrine system

Question 57 of 78

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According to the Cannon-Bard theory:

Select one of the following:

  • the thalamus sends sensory signals to both the hypothalamus and the cortex.

  • the hypothalamus sends sensory signals to both the thalamus and the cortex.

  • the cortex sends sensory signals to both the thalamus and the hypothalamus.

  • the thalamus sends sensory signals to the cortex only.

Question 58 of 78

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Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that direct human behavior, thought, and emotion. Dr. Schmidt studies:

Select one of the following:

  • creativity

  • motivation

  • cognition

  • emotions

Question 59 of 78

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The psychologist _____ is know for early demonstrations of the universality of emotional expressions among Americans and New Guineans

Select one of the following:

  • Paul Ekman

  • McClelland

  • Cannon

  • Washburn

Question 60 of 78

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The notion that bodily changes lead to emotions is the core of the _____ theory of emotion.

Select one of the following:

  • James-Lange

  • Cannon-Bard

  • Schachter-Singer

  • Deci and Ryan

Question 61 of 78

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According to Lazarus, emotions:

Select one of the following:

  • are biological and physiological

  • are equal among everyone

  • stem from the way people interpret their interactions with the environment

  • stem from the way people deal with the environment

Question 62 of 78

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Which hormone is involved in satiety?

Select one of the following:

  • leptin

  • oxerin

  • insulin

  • hunger

Question 63 of 78

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Which early psychologist is MOST strongly associated with instinct theory?

Select one of the following:

  • George Miller

  • Sigmund Freud

  • William James

  • Paul Ekman

Question 64 of 78

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According to the textbook, women tend to feel some emotions more often than men do. Which is NOT one of these emotions?

Select one of the following:

  • happiness

  • excitement

  • fear

  • anger

Question 65 of 78

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_____ theory was the earliest approach to motivation to develop in psychology’s history.

Select one of the following:

  • Instinct

  • motivation

  • James-Lange

  • drive-reduction

Question 66 of 78

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X is to XXY as _____ syndrome is to _____ syndrome

Select one of the following:

  • Klinefelter's; Turner's

  • 5-alpha reductase deficiency; Klinefelter's

  • Turner's; Klinefelter's

  • 5-alpha reductase deficiency; Turner's

Question 67 of 78

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Tessa is short. She is infertile and suffers from hypothyroidism. In addition, her cognitive and socioemotional functioning is somewhat impaired. Tessa’s case exemplifies:

Select one of the following:

  • Klinefelter's syndrome

  • Turner's syndrome

  • 5-alpha reductase deficiency

Question 68 of 78

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Which motive for sexual activity is correctly matched?

Select one of the following:

  • experience pleasure - characteristic of women

  • experience pain - characteristic of men

  • experience pleasure - characteristic of men

  • experience intimacy - characteristic of men

Question 69 of 78

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Of the differences of sexual development mentioned in the text, the rarest is _____, whereas the MOST common is _____.

Select one of the following:

  • 5-alpha reductase deficiency; Klinefelter's syndrome

  • 5-alpha reductase deficiency; Turner's syndrome

  • Turner's syndrome; Klinefelter's syndrome

  • Klinefelter's syndrome; Turner's syndrome

Question 70 of 78

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Casey has always believed that he is a woman trapped in a man’s body. He is undergoing hormone treatment and is considering sex reassignment surgery. Casey is BEST described as:

Select one of the following:

  • transgender

  • transsexual

  • bisexual

  • homosexual

Question 71 of 78

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Based on the information provided in the textbook, the most reasonable position to take with respect to the source of gender differences in cognition is probably:

Select one of the following:

  • an interactionist position

  • respect the differences

  • gender is gender

  • sex is sex

Question 72 of 78

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Viral is to _____ as bacterial is to _____.

Select one of the following:

  • genital herpes; genital warts

  • genital warts; genital herpes

  • genital herpes; syphilis

  • genital warts; syphilis

Question 73 of 78

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Gender differences in mate selection criteria are _____ across cultures, _____ an evolutionary explanation.

Select one of the following:

  • consistent; contradicting

  • consistent; supporting

  • inconsistent; contradicting

  • inconsistent; supporting

Question 74 of 78

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Which choice BEST expresses historical trends in the treatment of fetishism?

Select one of the following:

  • In contrast to therapists of the past, today's therapists try to eliminate fetishes.

  • Supporting therapists of the past, today's therapists do not try to eliminate fetishes.

  • In contrast to therapists of the past, today's therapists do not try to eliminate fetishes.

  • Supporting therapists of the past, today's therapists try to eliminate fetishes.

Question 75 of 78

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Unable to accept his desire for other young men, 15-year-old Juan pours himself into his studies. Juan’s case illustrates the defense mechanism of:

Select one of the following:

  • sublimation

  • denial

  • regression

  • dissociation

Question 76 of 78

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Humans constantly strive to grow and improve themselves, a motivation Adler termed the striving for:

Select one of the following:

  • self-transendence

  • self-determination

  • superiority

  • power

Question 77 of 78

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The Big Five personality dimensions demonstrate:

Select one of the following:

  • biological reality

  • cross-culture generality

  • neither biological reality nor cross-culture generality

  • both biological reality and cross-culture generality

Question 78 of 78

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Which word BEST completes this sentence: “Julian Rotter _____ the work of traditional learning theorists such as B.F. Skinner.”

Select one of the following:

  • contradicted

  • explained

  • supported

  • extended

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PSYC 181 Exam 2 Review Quiz

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Review quiz for PSYC 181 Exam 2

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