You are babysitting a 4 year old twins (Sarah and Seraphim). You get a juice box for each of the twins, but they complain that they only drink juice from cups. Annoyed, you grab two random cups from the cupboard, rip open the juice boxes, and pour each into their respective glasses before shoving them to the ungrateful children. Seraphim suddenly complains that Sarah has more juice. You look and see that Sarah's juice is in a tall, thin glass, and Seraphim's juice is in a fat, short glass. This demonstrates:
That Sarah and Seraphim do not yet have a concept of conservation of mass.
That children will always be ungrateful, and you are not getting paid enough for this gig.
That Seraphim is egocentric, and only thinks about himself.
That Seraphim is only capable of logical reasoning, and is likely in the Concrete Operation Stage of Piaget's Stages.
Stage 1 of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development is called . This stage lasts from ages . This stage is characterized by the development of in which the understanding that objects continue to exists even when they are not observed. During this stage, children understand and interact with the world using their . In this stage, children have rudimentary schemas (a schema is mental representation of events and relationships among concepts used to organize the world around you). These schemas tend to become more refined as new experiences occur. Two ways a schema can change is through Assimilation and Accommodation. modifies an existing schema to fit new experiences to it. fits new experiences into an existing schema without changing the schema.
Stage 2 of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development is called . This stage lasts from ages . This stage is characterized by a child's tendency to be very (meaning the inability to see a situation from another person's point of view.) This tendency is observable in young children. If Billy takes Sally's favorite toy, then Billy is happy, and he won't understand why Sally is upset, because he is not currently experiencing an upset emotion. Children in this stage also tend to participate in , in which the child roleplays, allowing them to gain a better understanding of the world. As this stage progresses further and further, children will tend to play with added rules and playmates. Another major characteristic of this stage is the inability to , or the inability to determine that a certain quantity of a substance does not change no matter what container it is placed in, or what shape it is in. An example of this would giving two children (Filmore and River) equal amounts of PlayDoh. If River is given her PlayDoh in a ball, and Filmore in a flat sheet, then Filmore will think that River has more, even if he saw the same amount of PlayDoh being flattened moments before.
Stage 3 of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development is called . This stage lasts from ages . This stage is characterized by a child's ability to , or the ability to determine that a certain quantity of a substances remains the same no matter the container it is in, or shape it is in. Children in this stage also think a very . Everything is very black and white, with no grey area (i.e. A man stealing a drug in order to save his wife is obviously wrong because stealing is wrong.) Children are also able to do , in which they are able to order subgroups in a hierarchy and relate them to other subgroups. Children can understand that things have multiple dimensions. Children are beginning to understand some abstract ideas (i.e. numbers) but only in very (i.e. manipulatives, coins, physical objects.)
Stage 4 of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development is called . This stage lasts from ages . This stage is characterized by a child's ability to think . Children can do complex mathematics that does not require manipulatives or physical representations of ideas. Children can also create that they are able to reason through, and think of multiple solutions. Children can also . For example, a child could reason that smoking is bad, even though they never experienced any negative consequences of smoking personally. Some people never reach this stage.
An infant has two boxes in front of it. One box (A) is empty, while the other box (B) has a toy. An experimenter allows the infant to pick up and play with the toy from box (B). After a while, the experimenter takes the toy, and while the infant is watching, he places it box (A). The experimenter observes as the infant begins to look for the toy in box (B), where the toy was originally found. This demonstrates:
A-not-B Effect in which infants have a tendency to search for an item in its original location.
A lack of object permanence, shown by the infant's inability to find the toy that no longer "exists" in the infant's mind.
Accommodation in which the infant modified its schema for the toy in order to separate the concept of the toy from the concept of the box.
Assimilation in which the infant attempted to fit the new information of the location of the toy into an existing schema.
A middle-aged mother, and her teenaged daughter both purchase their first smartphones at the same time. It takes the daughter approximately 2 days to "master" the use of her new smartphone, while the mother is still struggling after 2 weeks. This demonstrates:
Fluid Intelligence and how it decreases with age.
Fluid intelligence and how it increases with age.
Crystallized intelligence and how it decreases with age.
Crystallized intelligence and how it increases with age.
A middle-aged father is playing Trivial Pursuit with his teenaged daughter. The daughter pulls a trivia questions which reads, "What actress was known for her portrayal of Katniss Everdeen in the Hunger Games?" the daughter easily responds with "Jennifer Lawrence" to which the father agrees, knowing it to be a correct fact. The daughter then pulls a second question which asks, "What actress was famous for her role as Morticia Addams in the 1964 Television Series, "The Addams Family"". The daughter complains that no one would know the answer, but the father easily answers, "Carolyn Jones". When the daughter complains that her father must have cheated, her father reminds her that Carolyn Jones was a famous actress when he had grown up, so it was a fact he learned back then. This demonstrates:
Crystallized Intelligence and how it can increase with age.
Crystallized Intelligence and how it can decrease with age.
Fluid Intelligence and how it can increase with age.
Fluid intelligence and how it can decrease with age.
Infants prefer to look at faces in comparison to other stimuli (stimuli can be an visual picture or object...etc...)
Infants cannot comprehend what other people intend to do.