How does a light microscope work?
What is the maximum magnification and resolution of a light microscope
Why are specimens stained?
Why are specimens sectioned?
How does a SEM work?
What is the maximum magnification and resolution of a SEM?
How does a TEM work?
What is the maximum magnification and resolution of a TEM?
What are the steps of protein synthesis?
What is the function of the cytoskeleton of a cell?
What are the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Describe the structure and role of the nucleus
Describe the structure and role of the endoplasmic reticulum
Describe the structure and role of the Golgi apparatus
Describe the structure and role of mitochondria
Describe the structure and role of chloroplast
Describe the structure and role of the lysosomes
Describe the structure and role of the ribosomes
Describe the structure and role of cilia
Describe the structure and role of flagella
Describe the structure and role of the centrioles
What are the roles of the cell membrane?
How are vesicles moved from one organelle to another?
Why is the fluid mosaic model named that?
What is the role of cholesterol in cell membranes?
What are the functions of glycoproteins and glycolipids?
What do channel proteins do?
What do carrier proteins do?
What does increasing the temperature of cell membranes do?
How does decreasing the temperature affect cell membrane permeability?
Define active transport
What happens when putting the following into a hypotonic solution?
a) animal cell
b) plant cell
What happens when putting a plant cell in an isotonic solution?
What happens when putting the following into a hypertonic solution?
a) animal cell
b) plant cell
What are the stages of the cell cycle?
What happens in prophase?
What happens in metaphase?
What happens in anaphase?
What happens in telophase?
Why is mitosis important?
What are a homologous pair of chromosomes?
What are the differences between cells produced by mitosis and those produced by meiosis?
What are stem cells?
What can adult stem cells in the bone marrow specialise into?
What can stem cells in the cambium of plants specialise into?
How are erythrocytes specialised?
How are sperm cells specialised?
How are guard cells specialised?
What is a tissue?
What is an organ?
What is an organ system?
How is the lung adapted?
What are the structures of the trachea and bronchi?
What is the function of the smooth muscle in the airway?
What is the function of elastic fibres in the airways?
How do spirometers work?
What is tidal volume?
What is vital capacity?
What is breathing rate?
What is ventilation rate?
What is residual volume?
Why is there a residual volume?
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
What is expiratory reserve volume?
Why is double circulation more efficient than single circulation?
What is open circulation?
What is closed circulation?
Why is the left ventricle wall thicker than the right ventricle wall?
Why are the walls of the atria thinner than the walls of the ventricles?
How do valves work?
What happens during diastole?
What happens during atrial systole?
What happens during ventricular systole?
What is the sinoatrial node?
How is the cardiac cycle controlled by the SAN?
Why is there a delay for electrical waves to travel to the atrio-ventricular node?
Why is the heart described as myogenic?
What does the P wave of an ECG represent?
What does the QRS wave of an ECG represent?
What does the T wave of an ECG represent?
Describe the structure of arteries
How are the walls of arteries adapted to withstand high hydrostatic pressure?
How are the walls of the arteries adapted to maintain high hydrostatic pressure?
Describe the structure of veins
Describe the structure of capillaries
What is blood composed of?
What is the role of tissue fluid?
What is tissue fluid composed of?
How is tissue fluid formed?
What is lymph composed of?
What causes the shape of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve?
What are the advantages of the shape of the dissociation curve, in terms of oxygen supply to tissues?
Why is there a difference in the affinities of fetal haemoglobin and adult haemoglobin?
How is carbon dioxide transported around the body?
How is carbaminohaemoglobin formed?
How are hydrogencarbonate ions formed?
What is the Bohr effect?
How are the phloem and xylem distributed in the roots?
How are the phloem and xylem distributed in the stem?
How are the phloem and xylem distributed in a leaf?
What is the structure of xylem?
What is the structure of phloem?
How does water move from the root to the xylem?
What are the 2 pathways water can take to the xylem?
What is the Casparian strip?
How does water move up the stem of a plant?
What factors affect transpiration?
What exactly do potometers measure?
How are xerophytes adapted?
How does sucrose loading happen?
What is evidence for the translocation mechanism?
What evidence is there against the translocation mechanism?