Approx what % of hospitals utilize "UD" drug distribution?
The pharmacy department determines what medications are on the hospital formulary.
Medication Reconciliation is one of the most important roles for pharmacists in every practice setting.
Which is least likely to be offered by pharmacists in US hospitals?
Drug use evaluation (DUE)
Participation on medical rounds
Adverse Drug Reaction management
Typical Home Care services include all EXCEPT
minor home surgery
Hospice services cannot legally be provided in a patient's home in most states.
Funding for delivery of Mental Health services…
is nearly all federally-based
has shifted amongst payors for many years
follows the 1910 Flexner recommendation
is nearly all state-based
none of the above
For pharmacists, Mental Health patients often present….
increase risk of drug interaction issues
increased risk of medication adherence problems
increased difficulty in communication
the same need for compassionate care
all of the above
Much like hospitals, the type of long-term care received is almost solely dependent on diagnosis.
The average charge for Assisted Living in the US is…
higher than skilled nursing care
approximately $3300/month (2010 data)
approximately $200/bed/day (2010 data)
covered by Medicare
Select the true statement:
Persons with co -occurring disorders often have more instances of premature death and higher rates of disability that hose who don’t have co -occurring disorder.
Persons with co -occurring disorders do not have more instances of premature death and higher rates of disability that hose who don’t have co -occurring disorder.
Select the true statement:
From 2008 to 2014, there is a projected 6.6% annual decrease in spending for mental health and substance use services in the US.
From 2008 to 2014, there is a projected 6.6% annual increase in spending for mental health and substance use services in the US.
There will not be a % change in spending for mental health during this period in the US.
These groups/cultures are “at-risk” populations – and more likely to delay or not seek mental health care/treatment
Cultural and linguistic minorities
Women and children in lower socio-economics
Cultural and linguistic minorities & Rural populations only
All of the above
Is supported by research that is published in the clinical literature
The type of practice that is the basis of curriculum now offered by healthcare professions’ schools and colleges
Clinical literature that is reviewed and summarized by professionals with expertise in the specific area
None of the above
In a collaborative practice environment, a clinical psychiatric pharmacist can:
Provide medication management services
Initiate and discontinue med use
Dose and refill authorizations
Factors influencing prescriber behavior include:
Education (e.g., Training in pharmacotherapeutics; Preceptors’ prescribing habits)
Control and regulatory mechanisms
Demands by consumers and society
Promotional activities by drug manufacturers
What is the order of the pharmaceutical supply chain?
Raw Material Supply -> Manufacturing -> Distribution -> Dispensing -> Patient
Raw Material Supply -> Patient -> Manufacturing -> Distribution -> Dispensing
Raw Material Supply Dispensing -> Patient -> Manufacturing -> Distribution
Select the false statement:
Once a drug is approved for the market, the FDA has the ultimate power to determine how it is ultimately used.
Non -FDA -approved (“off -label”) indications are uses of a product that were not approved by the FDA, but have shown value after approval based on postmarketing research.
Non -FDA -approved indications cannot be promoted by the manufacturer.
Researchers test an experimental drug or treatment in a small group of healthy people (20-80) for the first time to evaluate its safety, determine a safe dosage range, and identify side effects.
A ________ drug treats rare medical conditions / disease, affecting fewer than 200,000 patients in USA, may be sold without competition for seven years, National Organization of Rare Diseases (NORD) & European Organization for Rare Diseases (EURORDIS)
A. All printed information accompanying a drug, label, wrapping & package insert
B. FDA Division of Marketing, Advertising & Communication seeks balanced, not misleading, scientifically accurate information for health care practitioners
C. Label claim (indication) is particularly important to sponsor because of its connection to reimbursement
D. A and B only
Select the false/untrue factor(s) that change demand:
Prices of related goods
Money income of the producer
Number of consumers in the market
Attitudes, tastes, and preferences of the consumer
Consumer expectations with respect to future prices and incomes
Select the false/untrue factor(s) that change supply:
Techniques of production, including technology
Number of buyers in the market
Resource costs (material and wages)
Prices for related goods
Demand is ___________if an increase in price causes the quantity demanded to decrease enough to result in a decrease of total revenue.
Minor home surgery
Select the true statement:
Hospice services can legally be provided in a patient's home in most states.
Major changes that have occurred in IV infusion devices as a result of the growth of home care.
The size and weight of infusion devices have decreased dramatically
Manufacturers have introduced disposable infusion devices
Pharmacists can only administer them
Home care pharmacy standards according to ASHP can include:
Initial patient database and assessment
Selection of products, devices, and ancillary supplies
Initial patient database and assessment & Clinical monitoring only
The advent of Medicare Part D coverage in 2008 provided partial or full coverage of home care medications.