Forage Exam 3

Question 1 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Cool season grasses

  • Warm season grasses

Question 2 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Cool season annual grasses

  • Cool season perennial grasses

Question 3 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Tifton 85

  • Bermuda-grass

Question 4 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Brown rib millet

  • Pearl millet

Question 5 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Legumes

  • Grasses

Question 6 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Leaves

  • Stems

Question 7 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Stems in the upper canopy of the plant

  • Stems in the lower canopy of the plant

Question 8 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Young green leaves

  • Dead leaves

Question 9 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Warm and cool season perennial species in spring

  • Warm and cool season perennial species in mid-summer

Question 10 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Warm and cool season perennial species in mid-summer

  • Warm and cool season perennial species in fall

Question 11 of 102

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Which is more digestible?

Select one of the following:

  • Alfalfa in cool weather

  • Alfalfa in summer weather

Question 12 of 102

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The the temperature the the plant goes through .

Question 13 of 102

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is the general term used to describe the practice of establishing forage crops into perennial, grass dominant, hay and/or pasture. Usually accomplished with a no-till grain drill or broadcasting seed.

Question 14 of 102

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What are ways that sod-seeding is usually done?

Select one or more of the following:

  • No-till grain drill

  • Broadcasting seed

  • Tiller

Question 15 of 102

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The establishment of legumes such as clover or alfalfa into tall fescue is usually practiced where?

Select one of the following:

  • Upper south

  • Lower south

Question 16 of 102

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Cool season annual grasses (ryegrass, rye, oats, wheat) and/or leagues (clover) planted into dormant perennial warm season grass sods (bahiagrass, bermudagrass) if primarily done where?

Select one of the following:

  • Upper south

  • Lower south

Question 17 of 102

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What are some benefits of multiple species pastures/hayfields?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Higher forage yield per pasture/field

  • Improved forage quality

  • Nitrogen fiaxtion

  • Longer growing season in pasture/field

  • Lower forage yield per pasture/field

  • Average forage quality

  • Nitrogen leaching

  • Shorter growing season

Question 18 of 102

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typically have higher protein and are more digestible.

Question 19 of 102

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What are the benefits to sod-seeding?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Soil conservation

  • Time

  • Fuel

  • Moisture

Question 20 of 102

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What are the sod-seeding principles?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Fertility

  • Reduce existing vegetation

  • Use high quality seed

  • Inoculate legumes with correct bacterial strain

  • Plant at correct time with correct seeding rate

  • Insure soil contact

  • Control competition from existing vegetation

  • Control pests

Question 21 of 102

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and are ways to control competition from existing vegetation.

Question 22 of 102

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refers to the ability of a forage to support desired levels of animal performance.

Question 23 of 102

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Forage quality is a function of and .

Question 24 of 102

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Palatability refers to the and of feedstuffs to an animal.

Question 25 of 102

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Crude protein represents the total content in the diet ( as well as ).

Question 26 of 102

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X 6.25 = CP

Question 27 of 102

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provides an indication of the total amount of energy from a feed that can be available fore use by the animal.

Question 28 of 102

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Non starch carbohydrates are simple carbs such as and that can be and digested by the animal.

Question 29 of 102

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are major structural carbs present in plant cell walls.

Question 30 of 102

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Cellulose is by rumen microbes.

Question 31 of 102

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Hemi-cellulose is more digestible than but less than starches and sugars.

Question 32 of 102

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is a major structural component found in plant cell walls and is .

Question 33 of 102

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As in the plant increases, digestion decreases.

Question 34 of 102

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Total digestible nutrients (TDN) is the measure of value in a feed.

Question 35 of 102

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Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) is a close estimate of the amount of total in a feedstuff.

Question 36 of 102

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NDF is generally composed of , , and .

Question 37 of 102

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Acid detergent fiber (ADF) is the least portion of a forage.

Question 38 of 102

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ADF includes and .

Question 39 of 102

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TDN =

Question 40 of 102

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NDF =

Question 41 of 102

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ADF =

Question 42 of 102

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(NIRS) rapidly and reproductively measures the chemical composition of a feed sample.

Question 43 of 102

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is based on the fact that each of the major chemical components of a sample has a characteristic near infrared light absorption.

Question 44 of 102

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= near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

Question 45 of 102

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Relative feed value is used to compare the potential of two or more like forages on the basis of .

Question 46 of 102

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RFV =

Question 47 of 102

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RFV of 100 is equivalent to...

Select one or more of the following:

  • Full bloom alfalfa

  • Half bloom alfalfa

  • Full bloom crimson clover

  • Full bloom white clover

Question 48 of 102

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What is RFV based on?

Select one or more of the following:

  • NDF

  • ADF

  • NIRS

  • TDN

Question 49 of 102

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What is NDF an indicator of?

Select one of the following:

  • Forage intake

  • Digestibility

  • Feed value

Question 50 of 102

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What is ADF an indicator of?

Select one of the following:

  • Forage intake

  • Digestibility

  • Feed value

Question 51 of 102

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RFQ of 100 is equal to?

Select one of the following:

  • Full bloom alfalfa

  • Full bloom white clover

  • Full bloom millet

  • Full bloom red clover

Question 52 of 102

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RFQ takes into account what?

Select one or more of the following:

  • DMI

  • TDN

  • RVF

  • ADF

  • NDF

Question 53 of 102

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DMI =

Question 54 of 102

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RFQ =

Question 55 of 102

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If the RFQ is higher it is also what?

Select one or more of the following:

  • More nutritious

  • More valuable

  • Less valuable

  • Less nutritious

Question 56 of 102

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What factors affect forage quality?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Plant species

  • Plant parts

  • Climate

  • Stage of maturity

  • Fertilization

  • Diurnal Fluctuations

Question 57 of 102

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Certain species of plants posses certain compounds that interfere with .

Question 58 of 102

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Drought stress may digestibility.

Question 59 of 102

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Stage of maturity has greater effect on value than any other factor.

Question 60 of 102

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of cell wall occurs with maturity. the more mature the more lignin if found in the cell wall.

Question 61 of 102

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With maturity: increases but decreases

Question 62 of 102

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White clover is digestible for longer because of what?

Select one of the following:

  • Lack of true stems

  • Prominent true stems

Question 63 of 102

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Which is more digestible for longer?

Select one of the following:

  • Arrow-leaf clover

  • Crimson clover

Question 64 of 102

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Nitrogen generally has little effect on what?

Select one of the following:

  • Digestibility

  • Quality

  • RFV

  • ADF

Question 65 of 102

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is where soluble carbohydrates build up in the plant during . Plants use those soluble carbohydrates over night.

Question 66 of 102

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1/2 inch of rain decreases TDN by what?

Select one of the following:

  • 3.5%

  • 5.5%

  • 20.2%

  • 10.8%

Question 67 of 102

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1 inch of rain will decrease TDN by what?

Select one of the following:

  • 5%

  • 10%

  • 14%

  • 3.5%

Question 68 of 102

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If hay is left uncut each day after 4 weeks TDN will drop per day.

Question 69 of 102

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How should hay be orientated for all day sun exposure?

Select one of the following:

  • North to South

  • East to West

Question 70 of 102

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Soil compaction is a reduction in pore space therefore, it also...

Select one or more of the following:

  • Decreases soil volume

  • Decreases porosity

  • Increases bulk density

  • increases soil volume

  • Increases porosity

  • Decreases bulk density

Question 71 of 102

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compaction = compaction that occurs in the surface "plow layer"

Question 72 of 102

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/ compaction = compaction that occurs below the plow layer

Question 73 of 102

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What is the equation for bulk density?

Select one of the following:

  • Bulk density = Ms/Vt

  • Bulk density = Vt/Ms

  • Bulk density = Vv/Vt

  • Bulk density = Vt/Vv

Question 74 of 102

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What is the equation for porosity?

Select one of the following:

  • Porosity = Vv/Vt

  • Porosity = Vt/Vv

  • Porosity = Ms/Vt

  • Porosity = Vt/Ms

Question 75 of 102

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Reduction in pore space and reduction in yield are effects of .

Question 76 of 102

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Reduction in pore space is an effect of compaction. This effect can also result in water issues. Check all that apply to water issues.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Low infiltration

  • Poor drainage

  • Poor water holding capacity

  • Erosion

  • Runoff

Question 77 of 102

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Reduction in pore space is an effect of compaction. This effect can also result in plant development issues. Check all that apply to plant development issues.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Increased resistance to root penetration

  • Emergence issues

  • Reduction in nutiient uptake

  • Poor drainage

  • Runoff

  • Erosion

Question 78 of 102

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What are the 3 main causes of compaction?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Equipment traffic

  • Livestock traffic

  • Tillage operations

  • Human traffic

  • Naturally occurring compaction

  • Wind erosion

Question 79 of 102

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Total axle load, contact pressure between the tire and soil, and soil moisture affects what type of compaction?

Select one of the following:

  • Surface compaction

  • Subsoil compaction

Question 80 of 102

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Greater axle load and wet soil conditions depth of compaction

Question 81 of 102

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Check all that apply to livestock traffic.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Repeated pressure in heavy traffic areas

  • Stocking rates

  • Rotation

  • Shallow compaction

  • Deep compaction

Question 82 of 102

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Continuous plowing or disking at the same depth causes just below the depth of tillage.

Question 83 of 102

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To manage compaction with equipment traffic what should be done to decrease the depth of soil compaction?

Select one of the following:

  • Increase number of tires

  • Decrease number of tires

Question 84 of 102

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Proper rotation of livestock can prevent soil compaction as well as reduce in high traffic areas.

Question 85 of 102

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depth should vary from year-to-year to reduce chances of hardpan development.

Question 86 of 102

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What is used to measure soil compaction?

Select one of the following:

  • Pentrometer

  • Yard stick

  • Scale

  • Ruler

Question 87 of 102

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Penetrometers are supposed to mimic .

Question 88 of 102

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A dynamic penetrometer does what?

Select one of the following:

  • Moves

  • Stays stationary

Question 89 of 102

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A static penetrometer does what?

Select one of the following:

  • Stays stationary

  • Moves

Question 90 of 102

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What does a penetrometer use to measure soil compaction?

Select one of the following:

  • The resistance to root penetration

  • The depth you can physically go into the soil

  • The moisture content of the soil

  • The amount of sand, soil, or clay in the soil

Question 91 of 102

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The depth at which penetrations falls below psi is recorded by the penetrometer.

Question 92 of 102

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What is a "lot" of hay defined as?

Select one of the following:

  • A single cutting, a single field and variety, and generally less then 200 tons

  • A random pull from different fields less than 200 tons

  • A square bale of hay

  • A round bale of hay

Question 93 of 102

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How many cores should be pulled from each lot?

Select one of the following:

  • 20

  • 40

  • 10

  • 5

Question 94 of 102

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How much hay should be submitted for analysis?

Select one of the following:

  • 1/2 lb.

  • 1 lb.

  • 3 lbs.

  • 1.5 lbs.

Question 95 of 102

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What length of probe should be used to collect samples?

Select one of the following:

  • 12''- 24''

  • 24''- 36''

  • 10''- 20''

  • 25''- 48''

Question 96 of 102

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What diameter of probe should be used to collect the cores?

Select one of the following:

  • 3/8 - 3/4 "

  • 1/2 - 3''

  • 1/4 - 1''

  • 2 - 3''

Question 97 of 102

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What are the reasons for having forage sampled?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Determine forage quality

  • Identify imbalances, deficiencies, and toxicities in the forage

  • Tell the producer if their soil management technique is working

  • Establish forage value $$$

Question 98 of 102

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The most limiting factor in the forage is the amount of what that the animal consumes?

Select one of the following:

  • The amount of digestible energy

  • The amount of protein

  • The amount of minerals

  • The amount of vitamins

  • The amount of water

Question 99 of 102

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A high quality forage is one that contains large concentrations of what?

Select one of the following:

  • Digestible nutrients

  • Protein

  • Minerals

  • Vitamins

Question 100 of 102

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What is the southeastern categorization RFQ value for Choice hay?

Select one of the following:

  • 140-160 RFQ

  • 90-110 RFQ

  • 110-140 RFQ

  • 160-180 RFQ

Question 101 of 102

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What is the southeastern categorization RFQ for standard hay?

Select one of the following:

  • 90-110 RFQ

  • 140-160 RFQ

  • 120-140 RFQ

  • 70-90 RFQ

Question 102 of 102

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In the southeastern hay contest held annually in conjunction with the Sunbelt Ag Expo, samples can be thrown out due to too high levels of what two items?

Select one of the following:

  • Moisture and nitrate

  • Nitrate and potassium

  • Moisture and potassium

  • Potassium and phosphorus

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Forage Exam 3

marissaellenking
Quiz by , created about 1 year ago

Exam 3

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Created by marissaellenking about 1 year ago
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