Which is more digestible?
Cool season grasses
Warm season grasses
Cool season annual grasses
Cool season perennial grasses
Brown rib millet
Stems in the upper canopy of the plant
Stems in the lower canopy of the plant
Young green leaves
Warm and cool season perennial species in spring
Warm and cool season perennial species in mid-summer
Warm and cool season perennial species in fall
Alfalfa in cool weather
Alfalfa in summer weather
The the temperature the the plant goes through .
is the general term used to describe the practice of establishing forage crops into perennial, grass dominant, hay and/or pasture. Usually accomplished with a no-till grain drill or broadcasting seed.
What are ways that sod-seeding is usually done?
No-till grain drill
The establishment of legumes such as clover or alfalfa into tall fescue is usually practiced where?
Cool season annual grasses (ryegrass, rye, oats, wheat) and/or leagues (clover) planted into dormant perennial warm season grass sods (bahiagrass, bermudagrass) if primarily done where?
What are some benefits of multiple species pastures/hayfields?
Higher forage yield per pasture/field
Improved forage quality
Longer growing season in pasture/field
Lower forage yield per pasture/field
Average forage quality
Shorter growing season
typically have higher protein and are more digestible.
What are the benefits to sod-seeding?
What are the sod-seeding principles?
Reduce existing vegetation
Use high quality seed
Inoculate legumes with correct bacterial strain
Plant at correct time with correct seeding rate
Insure soil contact
Control competition from existing vegetation
and are ways to control competition from existing vegetation.
refers to the ability of a forage to support desired levels of animal performance.
Forage quality is a function of and .
Palatability refers to the and of feedstuffs to an animal.
Crude protein represents the total content in the diet ( as well as ).
X 6.25 = CP
provides an indication of the total amount of energy from a feed that can be available fore use by the animal.
Non starch carbohydrates are simple carbs such as and that can be and digested by the animal.
are major structural carbs present in plant cell walls.
Cellulose is by rumen microbes.
Hemi-cellulose is more digestible than but less than starches and sugars.
is a major structural component found in plant cell walls and is .
As in the plant increases, digestion decreases.
Total digestible nutrients (TDN) is the measure of value in a feed.
Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) is a close estimate of the amount of total in a feedstuff.
NDF is generally composed of , , and .
Acid detergent fiber (ADF) is the least portion of a forage.
ADF includes and .
(NIRS) rapidly and reproductively measures the chemical composition of a feed sample.
is based on the fact that each of the major chemical components of a sample has a characteristic near infrared light absorption.
= near infrared reflectance spectroscopy
Relative feed value is used to compare the potential of two or more like forages on the basis of .
RFV of 100 is equivalent to...
Full bloom alfalfa
Half bloom alfalfa
Full bloom crimson clover
Full bloom white clover
What is RFV based on?
What is NDF an indicator of?
What is ADF an indicator of?
RFQ of 100 is equal to?
Full bloom millet
Full bloom red clover
RFQ takes into account what?
If the RFQ is higher it is also what?
What factors affect forage quality?
Stage of maturity
Certain species of plants posses certain compounds that interfere with .
Drought stress may digestibility.
Stage of maturity has greater effect on value than any other factor.
of cell wall occurs with maturity. the more mature the more lignin if found in the cell wall.
With maturity: increases but decreases
White clover is digestible for longer because of what?
Lack of true stems
Prominent true stems
Which is more digestible for longer?
Nitrogen generally has little effect on what?
is where soluble carbohydrates build up in the plant during . Plants use those soluble carbohydrates over night.
1/2 inch of rain decreases TDN by what?
1 inch of rain will decrease TDN by what?
If hay is left uncut each day after 4 weeks TDN will drop per day.
How should hay be orientated for all day sun exposure?
North to South
East to West
Soil compaction is a reduction in pore space therefore, it also...
Decreases soil volume
Increases bulk density
increases soil volume
Decreases bulk density
compaction = compaction that occurs in the surface "plow layer"
/ compaction = compaction that occurs below the plow layer
What is the equation for bulk density?
Bulk density = Ms/Vt
Bulk density = Vt/Ms
Bulk density = Vv/Vt
Bulk density = Vt/Vv
What is the equation for porosity?
Porosity = Vv/Vt
Porosity = Vt/Vv
Porosity = Ms/Vt
Porosity = Vt/Ms
Reduction in pore space and reduction in yield are effects of .
Reduction in pore space is an effect of compaction. This effect can also result in water issues. Check all that apply to water issues.
Poor water holding capacity
Reduction in pore space is an effect of compaction. This effect can also result in plant development issues. Check all that apply to plant development issues.
Increased resistance to root penetration
Reduction in nutiient uptake
What are the 3 main causes of compaction?
Naturally occurring compaction
Total axle load, contact pressure between the tire and soil, and soil moisture affects what type of compaction?
Greater axle load and wet soil conditions depth of compaction
Check all that apply to livestock traffic.
Repeated pressure in heavy traffic areas
Continuous plowing or disking at the same depth causes just below the depth of tillage.
To manage compaction with equipment traffic what should be done to decrease the depth of soil compaction?
Increase number of tires
Decrease number of tires
Proper rotation of livestock can prevent soil compaction as well as reduce in high traffic areas.
depth should vary from year-to-year to reduce chances of hardpan development.
What is used to measure soil compaction?
Penetrometers are supposed to mimic .
A dynamic penetrometer does what?
A static penetrometer does what?
What does a penetrometer use to measure soil compaction?
The resistance to root penetration
The depth you can physically go into the soil
The moisture content of the soil
The amount of sand, soil, or clay in the soil
The depth at which penetrations falls below psi is recorded by the penetrometer.
What is a "lot" of hay defined as?
A single cutting, a single field and variety, and generally less then 200 tons
A random pull from different fields less than 200 tons
A square bale of hay
A round bale of hay
How many cores should be pulled from each lot?
How much hay should be submitted for analysis?
What length of probe should be used to collect samples?
What diameter of probe should be used to collect the cores?
3/8 - 3/4 "
1/2 - 3''
1/4 - 1''
2 - 3''
What are the reasons for having forage sampled?
Determine forage quality
Identify imbalances, deficiencies, and toxicities in the forage
Tell the producer if their soil management technique is working
Establish forage value $$$
The most limiting factor in the forage is the amount of what that the animal consumes?
The amount of digestible energy
The amount of protein
The amount of minerals
The amount of vitamins
The amount of water
A high quality forage is one that contains large concentrations of what?
What is the southeastern categorization RFQ value for Choice hay?
What is the southeastern categorization RFQ for standard hay?
In the southeastern hay contest held annually in conjunction with the Sunbelt Ag Expo, samples can be thrown out due to too high levels of what two items?
Moisture and nitrate
Nitrate and potassium
Moisture and potassium
Potassium and phosphorus