Cancer- Primary Events

Question 1 of 31

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What is a primary event?

Select one of the following:

  • The conversion of a normal cell to a transformed cell

  • The conversion of a normal cell to a tumgeric cell

  • The conversion of a proto-oncogene to an oncogene

Question 2 of 31

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What example of primary event is found in Burkitt's Lymphomoma?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Gross DNA change- Chrimosomal translocation

  • Gross DNA change- Chromsomal deletion

  • Gross DNA change- Chromosomal insertion

Question 3 of 31

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What occurs to the DNA in Burkett's Lymphoma?

Select one of the following:

  • The C-myc transcription factor is placed under the control of a very strong promoter

  • The C-jun transcription factor is placed under the control of a very strong promoter

  • The Erk transcription factor is placed under the control of a very strong promoter

Question 4 of 31

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Which chromosomes fuse to form the Philadelphia chromosome?

Select one of the following:

  • 9 & 22

  • 7 & 13

  • 6 & 10

  • 12 & 21

Question 5 of 31

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The loss of what chromosome causes retinoblastoma?

Select one of the following:

  • 13

  • 11

  • 19

  • 10

Question 6 of 31

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Name all of the gross DNA changes that can cause oncogenes to form?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Chromosome insertion

  • Chromosome deletion

  • Chromosomal translocatiion

  • Chromosome fusion

Question 7 of 31

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In Small Lung Lymphatic Lymphoma, what chromosome gains an extra copy?

Select one of the following:

  • 12

  • 1

  • 7

  • 16

Question 8 of 31

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Can deletions and additions occur in the same tumor?

Select one of the following:

  • Yes

  • No

Question 9 of 31

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A cancer is called a sarcoma- from what type of cell did it arise?

Select one of the following:

  • Muscle

  • Skin

  • Connective

Question 10 of 31

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Leukaemia's are unusual proliferations of what type of cell?

Select one of the following:

  • Blood

  • Liver

  • Kidney

Question 11 of 31

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What differentiates a normal mole from a potential melanoma?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Moles are contained by capsules

  • Moles are smaller than melanomas

  • Moles have a regular/symmetrical shape

Question 12 of 31

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When do normal cells cease to divide?

Select one or more of the following:

  • When they have terminally differentiated

  • When subject to stress/DNA damage

Question 13 of 31

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Telomere's are shortened every time the cell replicates- what is this thought to contribute to?

Select one of the following:

  • The Hayflick limit

  • Cancer cell formation

  • Cell immortality

Question 14 of 31

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How are cancer cells thought to evade the Hayflick limit?

Select one of the following:

  • Use of telomerase to extend telomeres

  • Use of telomeric synthase to extend telomeres

  • Use of telomere synthase to extend telomeres

Question 15 of 31

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The condition or process of deterioration with age- what is this defining?

Select one of the following:

  • Mortality

  • Tumergic emergence

  • Senescence

Question 16 of 31

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The occurence of cancer rises steeply as people..

Select one of the following:

  • Age

  • Gain weight

  • Become less self sufficient

Question 17 of 31

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What is considered (usually) to be the first mutation in a tumor forming cell

Select one of the following:

  • Increased cell proliferation

  • Survival in low O2 environments

  • Production of cytotoxic chemicals

Question 18 of 31

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What is an essential requirement for tumor cell formation

Select one of the following:

  • Genetic instability

  • No seriously, otherwise they just stay normal cells

  • And don't mutate further

  • It's kinda obvious, if you think about it

Question 19 of 31

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Can a cell become too unstable genetically to survive?

Select one of the following:

  • Yes

  • No

Question 20 of 31

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What is the difference between carcino and mutagenesis?

Select one of the following:

  • Carcinogenesis- generation of cancer
    Mutatgenesis- Change in DNA sequence

  • Carcinogenesis- Generation of cancer
    Mutatgenesis- Change in DNA sequence caused by a carcinogen

Question 21 of 31

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Why is Nitroform a direct carcinogen?

Select one of the following:

  • It can damage DNA in it's present form (needn't be altered by metabolism)

  • Can cause the immediate appearance of tumergic cells

  • Can cause the appearence of more than one mutation at once

Question 22 of 31

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Why is Aflatoxin not a direct carcinogen?

Select one of the following:

  • It must be metabollically altered before binding to Guanine in DNA

  • It must bind to other chemicals before binding to Guanine in DNA

  • It must be imported directly into the nucleus before binding to Guanine in DNA

Question 23 of 31

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What is the AMES test used for?

Select one of the following:

  • To detect mutagenic properties

  • To detect mutated cells

Question 24 of 31

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Name the three components of the AMES test

Select one or more of the following:

  • Possible mutagen

  • Possible carcinogen

  • Histadine dependent salmonella

  • Lysine dependent salmonella

  • Homogenised liver extract

  • Homogenised stomach extract

Question 25 of 31

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The cells in an AMES test are placed on an Agar plate lacking what?

Select one of the following:

  • Histadine

  • Lysine

  • Guanine

Question 26 of 31

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Tumor promoters act synergystically with what?

Select one of the following:

  • Carcinogens

  • Cell proliferation

  • Mutagens

Question 27 of 31

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Do tumor promoters directly alter DNA?

Select one of the following:

  • Yes

  • No

Question 28 of 31

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In tests, which had to be added first to promote tumor growth?

Select one of the following:

  • The initiator- which causes DNA damage

  • The promoter- which causes cell proliferation

  • Either- it doesn't matter

Question 29 of 31

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What happens when, after the initiator is added, the promoter is added slowly?

Select one of the following:

  • No tumor forms

  • A tumor forms

Question 30 of 31

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Why is rapid cell proliferation required after mutation?

Select one or more of the following:

  • It reactivates genes potentially silenced by initiator damage

  • Forces the expression of damaged genes

  • Because it does

Question 31 of 31

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Name the factors that don't influence cancer cell formation

Select one or more of the following:

  • Basic Bodily functions i.e the production of O2 radicals

  • Smoking

  • Environment

  • Diet

  • Reproductive life

  • Disease

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Cancer- Primary Events

gina_evans0312
Quiz by , created about 3 years ago

Year 2 Quiz on Cancer- Primary Events, created by gina_evans0312 on 30/11/2013.

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gina_evans0312
Created by gina_evans0312 about 3 years ago
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