What is a primary event?
The conversion of a normal cell to a transformed cell
The conversion of a normal cell to a tumgeric cell
The conversion of a proto-oncogene to an oncogene
What example of primary event is found in Burkitt's Lymphomoma?
Gross DNA change- Chrimosomal translocation
Gross DNA change- Chromsomal deletion
Gross DNA change- Chromosomal insertion
What occurs to the DNA in Burkett's Lymphoma?
The C-myc transcription factor is placed under the control of a very strong promoter
The C-jun transcription factor is placed under the control of a very strong promoter
The Erk transcription factor is placed under the control of a very strong promoter
Which chromosomes fuse to form the Philadelphia chromosome?
9 & 22
7 & 13
6 & 10
12 & 21
The loss of what chromosome causes retinoblastoma?
Name all of the gross DNA changes that can cause oncogenes to form?
In Small Lung Lymphatic Lymphoma, what chromosome gains an extra copy?
Can deletions and additions occur in the same tumor?
A cancer is called a sarcoma- from what type of cell did it arise?
Leukaemia's are unusual proliferations of what type of cell?
What differentiates a normal mole from a potential melanoma?
Moles are contained by capsules
Moles are smaller than melanomas
Moles have a regular/symmetrical shape
When do normal cells cease to divide?
When they have terminally differentiated
When subject to stress/DNA damage
Telomere's are shortened every time the cell replicates- what is this thought to contribute to?
The Hayflick limit
Cancer cell formation
How are cancer cells thought to evade the Hayflick limit?
Use of telomerase to extend telomeres
Use of telomeric synthase to extend telomeres
Use of telomere synthase to extend telomeres
The condition or process of deterioration with age- what is this defining?
The occurence of cancer rises steeply as people..
Become less self sufficient
What is considered (usually) to be the first mutation in a tumor forming cell
Increased cell proliferation
Survival in low O2 environments
Production of cytotoxic chemicals
What is an essential requirement for tumor cell formation
No seriously, otherwise they just stay normal cells
And don't mutate further
It's kinda obvious, if you think about it
Can a cell become too unstable genetically to survive?
What is the difference between carcino and mutagenesis?
Carcinogenesis- generation of cancer
Mutatgenesis- Change in DNA sequence
Carcinogenesis- Generation of cancer
Mutatgenesis- Change in DNA sequence caused by a carcinogen
Why is Nitroform a direct carcinogen?
It can damage DNA in it's present form (needn't be altered by metabolism)
Can cause the immediate appearance of tumergic cells
Can cause the appearence of more than one mutation at once
Why is Aflatoxin not a direct carcinogen?
It must be metabollically altered before binding to Guanine in DNA
It must bind to other chemicals before binding to Guanine in DNA
It must be imported directly into the nucleus before binding to Guanine in DNA
What is the AMES test used for?
To detect mutagenic properties
To detect mutated cells
Name the three components of the AMES test
Histadine dependent salmonella
Lysine dependent salmonella
Homogenised liver extract
Homogenised stomach extract
The cells in an AMES test are placed on an Agar plate lacking what?
Tumor promoters act synergystically with what?
Do tumor promoters directly alter DNA?
In tests, which had to be added first to promote tumor growth?
The initiator- which causes DNA damage
The promoter- which causes cell proliferation
Either- it doesn't matter
What happens when, after the initiator is added, the promoter is added slowly?
No tumor forms
A tumor forms
Why is rapid cell proliferation required after mutation?
It reactivates genes potentially silenced by initiator damage
Forces the expression of damaged genes
Because it does
Name the factors that don't influence cancer cell formation
Basic Bodily functions i.e the production of O2 radicals