The functional consequences of valve disease are?
stenosis and insufficiency
dilatation and insufficiency
The 3 main pathological processes of acquired valve disease are- degeneration either calcific or myomatous degeneration ). Infective involving or syphilis (aortic valve). Inflammatory involving non-infective endocarditis or ?
The clinical consequences of calcific aortic stenosis include left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac compensation
Mitral valve calcification typically involves calcification of the?
Rheumatic Heart Disease is a multi-system inflammatory disease involving the heart, skin, joints and brain. It occurs 6/52 after ? strep infection. Chronic infection includes valve scarring and damage, which can predispose to clinical sequelae.
Rheumatic heart disease involves a type 2 hypersensitivity
type 1 hypersensitivity
type 4 hypersensitivty( type 2 hypersensitivity, type 1 hypersensitivity, type 4 hypersensitivty ) reaction. The target antigen is the cell wall antigen of the group A strep
group B strep
group C strep( group A strep, group B strep, group C strep ). This leads to sterile
infective( sterile, infective ) vegetations and activation of macrophages and cytokines which can cause damage to the heart valves.
Infective endocarditis involves formation of vegetations on heart . Most common valves affected are aortic and valves. Right sided valves typically occur with organisms or intravenous drug usage. Large destruction occurs due to vegetations involving fibrin, cells, necrotic debris and bacteria.
Infective vegetation is typically associated with <5mm vegetations?