Surrounding the kidney from superficial to deep are?
inferior renal capsule, superior renal capsule, paranephric fat, fascia, perinephric fat
inferior renal capsule, superior renal capsule, perinephric fat, fascia paranephric fat
The kidney is a retroperitoneal structure. The renal hilum (entrance to the kidney) has three vessels enter. From anterior to posterior they are?
Renal artery, Renal vein, Renal Pelvis
Renal Pelvis, Renal vein, Renal Artery
Renal Vein, Renal Artery, Renal Pelvis
The right renal artery is _____and passes _____to the IVC.
The left renal vein is____ and receives the L) _____________. Each vein drains into the _______
Each nephron is an independent entity until the point at which its collecting ducts merge with other collecting ducts. The nephron consists of a glomerulus
arteriole( glomerulus, bowmans capsule, arteriole ) and tubule. The glomerulus is a cluster of blood vessels from which the plasma filtrate originates. The tubule is an epithelial structure consisting of many subdivisions including the PCT, thin descending limb, thick ascending limb and the DCT.
Within the renal cortex there are two types of populations of nephrons. Superficial nephrons and nephrons which play a special role in of urine, having loops of henle.
Label these structures of the kidney?
The PCT has cuboidal epithelium with microvilli to increase surface area. The DCT has?
stratified squamous epithelium
The control of blood flow in the kidney occurs by:
1. Myogenic Response
Vascular Response( Myogenic Response, Neurogenic Response, Vascular Response )- Afferent arterioles have an ability to respond to changes in vessel circumference by contracting or relaxing Mechanism in response to opening of stretch-activated
voltage gated( stretch-activated, voltage gated ) non-selective cation channels, depolarising the cell and leading to an influx of calcium.
potassium( calcium., sodium, potassium )
2. Tubuloglomerular Feedback
Juxtamedullary feedback( Tubuloglomerular Feedback, Juxtamedullary feedback )
The filtrate is detected by the Juxtaglomerular apparatus (macula densa cells) and in response to an increase in GFR, translate this into contraction of the afferent
efferent( afferent, efferent ) arteriole. The JGA
Na-K-ATPase pump( JGA, Na-K-ATPase pump ) mediates this response.
An important feature of the renal circulation is its ability to maintain RBF and GFR within narrow limits, even though MAP may vary between?
80 and 170mmHg
Factors that increase sensitivity of TGF are: volume contraction, adenosine
Endothlelin( adenosine, cAMP, Endothlelin ), PGE2, TXA2, Ang 2.
Factors that decrease the sensitivity of TGF are: volume expansion, ANP
Endothelin( ANP, Adenosine, Endothelin ), NO, cAMP, PGI2,
The descending limb of the LOH is highly permeable
impermeable( permeable, impermeable ) to water but does not extrude sodium
potassium( sodium, potassium ) for reabsorption. The thick ascending limb of the LOH actively
passively( actively, passively ) transports sodium and other ions out of the tubular lumen into the interstitium, thus creating a counter-current gradient. Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in the ascending limb is both passive and active (Na/K/Cl-) cotransporter. The filtrate is 100m
300m( 100m, 200m, 300m ) OSM at the DCT. Urea recycling contributes to the medually osmotic gradient. The urea is unable to leave ascending limb of LOH but is transported by facilitated diffusion in the collecting tubule
descending limb( collecting tubule, descending limb ), into the interstitium.
nephron( vasa-recta, nephron ) shape and slow blood flow protects this gradient.