Which of these is not a term used to describe chronic kidney disease
reduction in GFR
Which of these is not a common form of CKD?
Polycystic Kidney Disease
In glomerulonephritis, there is efficient and lasting compensation via glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration
EPO is made in the peritubular interstitium of the kidney by what cells and what do these cells change to during chronic kidney disease?
Type 1 fibroblastoid cells
Which of these is not an effect of Ang 2?
Bind to A1 receptors on apical and basolateral membrane of PCT to cause increase Na+ reabsorption
Stimulate Na/H exchange in the TAL
Promote aldosterone and ADH release
Aldosterone diffuses into the principal cells
intercalated discs( principal cells, intercalated discs ) of the collecting ducts and binds to type 1 steroid receptors. This leads to increased apical Na+ channels (ENAC's) and basolateral Na/K/ATPases which increase sodium reabsorption
potassium reabsorption( sodium reabsorption, sodium secretion, potassium reabsorption ).
Natriuretic peptides only action is to bind on collecting ducts and inhibit apical Na+ channels thereby reducing Na+ reabsorption
H+ secretion is regulated partially by the H+/K+ exchanger in the collecting ducts, but where are the NHE primarily based?
Thin Descending Limb
Thick Ascending Limb
Early distal tubule
Collecting duct- alpha intercalated discs
Ammoniogenesis occurs in the of proximal tubule cells. NH4+ is secreted into the tubular lumen and is under the thick ascending limb, where it is reabsorbed with Na/K/2Cl-. H+ is secreted here and NH3 created in the interstitium. This causes an NH3 medullary gradient, which allows NH3 into the collecting duct lumen. NH3 binds to H+ secreted from cells and forms NH4+ which is now "trapped" and able to be excreted.
Phosphate is the most important filtered buffer?
What stages of renal disease have eGFR > 60
Stage 1- no loss
Stage 2- some loss
Calculate the using the Cockcroft-Gault Equation of a 75 year old man, with a serum creatinine of 139 umol who weighs 85kg.
Under normal circumstances, glucose is normally fully reabsorbed via the Na/glucose cotransporter in early part of PCT.
Almost all the Calcium
Carbon( Calcium, Albumin, Carbon ) is stored in bones. Unbound calcium accounts for 50% of total plasma calcium and is freely filtered at the glomerulus. Phosphate is also found in high levels in bone (80%) and is a major buffer
protein( buffer, anion, protein ) of the urinary system. Due to falling GFR in CKD, phosphate levels will elevate and this will cause calcium levels to fall. This will lead to release of PTH
TSH( PTH, ADH, TSH ) which will have several effects including: increased secretion of phosphate, Ca2+ mobilisation from bone. This may lead to renal bone disease.
alkalosis( renal bone disease., acidosis, alkalosis )