Shelled corn is the number what used feedstuff?
What is corn extremely deficient in?
What essential amino acids is corn low in?
Sorghum grain is the number 2 used feedstuff except in .
Sorghum grains can replace up to 50% of corn ration, but if it replaces 100% of corn what decreases?
Intake of minerals
Intake of vitamins
Sorghum grain must be or .
are the number 1 used grain in horses.
are higher than corn in crude fiber but lower than corn in .
Oats are usually what?
Oats are not a good grain.
What type of animals are Oats used in?
Young growing stock
How is barley grain usually seen?
Steam rolled (flaked)
can be used with or in replacement of oats in rations for horses, young growing stock, and show stock.
is usually to expensive for livestock feeds.
How is wheat usually found?
Rye is less palatable for animals but is used mostly for what?
is a cross of wheat (Tritium) and rye (Secale)
What is triticale's major short coming?
Intolerant of drought
Intolerant of moisture
Intolerant of sandy soils
Wheat bran is used as a source of bulk, but as a source of energy and protein in ruminants.
What animal rations can wheat bran be used in?
Dried citrus pulp is relatively high in what?
Dried beet pulp is mostly fed to cattle.
Dried beet pulp is used primarily as a bulk factor but can also be used as what?
Because of the salt content in dried bakery products, it is limited to only % of total ration.
Dried whey is very high is sugar.
Animal fat can be up to 10% of a ration in .
Animal fat can be up to 5% of a ration in cattle.
Animal fat must be treated with an to prevent rancidity.
Brain, muscle, bone, and blood are just a few things that are made up of .
Livestock diets typically run between what % of protein?
percentages of protein are required for younger animals.
How many amino acids are involved in making up animal tissue?
Essential amino acids are the amino acids that the animal need for body functions and they are to make them.
Non-essential amino acids are the amino acids that animals need for a body function but they are to make them.
What are the essential amino acids?
The percentage of the digestible protein of a feed or feed mixture which is usable by the animal is limited to what?
The limiting amino acid
The total digestible energy
The most prominent amino acid
The total crude protein
are capable of improving the quality of protein in their diet.
Non-protein nitrogen is only used in?
High protein feeds are classified in what groups?
High protein feeds are usually the expensive macro-nutrient per pound.
Ruminants by-products be fed back to ruminants.
Where does digestive tankage come from?
Meat packing industry
Dead animal recycling plant
Side of the road
is unusable animal tissue and bones which has been cooked under steam pressure, partially defatted, died, and ground.
What % protein does digestive tankage have?
What is digestive tankage fed primarily to?
Sheep & Goats
How is Meat scrap/meal cooked?
Under steamed pressure
In steam jacketted kettles, in its own fat
Meat scrap/meal is used primarily in rations.
Fish or fish by-products which have been friend and ground into a meal.
What type of fish is mostly used, but is very expensive?
Fish meal has % crude protein.
Fish meal is high in and .
Fish meal is primarily used in what swine rations?
Swine nursery pig
meal is poultry feathers which have been cooked under steam pressure, dried, and ground into a meal.
Feather meal is extremely high is protein at % and over % digestible if processed properly.
Feather meal can be used in what rations?
meal is made from usable portions of poultry carcasses which are cooked, dried, and ground into a meal.
Poultry by-product meal can be used in and rations.
Dried whole milk is fresh whole milk to a powder.
Dried whole milk is mainly fed to young and .
Dried whole milk is excellent in and very high in energy. but is too to feed to livestock.
meal is coagulated packing house blood, dried and ground into a meal.
Check all that is true for blood meal.
High in protein
Low in protein
Low in digestibility
High in digestibility
Blood meal can be used in what rations?
What are the animal origin high protein feeds?
Poultry by-product meal
Dried whole milk
Peanut oil meal
meal is fat extracted soybeans which have been ground into a meal and sometimes pelleted.
What are the 2 grades for soybean meal?
Soybean meal is the what number used plant protein in the United States?
Soybean meal is an excellent source of protein for what class of livestock?
Sheep & goats
All classes of livestock
meal consists of dehulled, fat extracted cottonseed ground into a meal with a certain amount of ground cottonseed hulls added back.
What are the 2 grades of cottonseed meal?
Cottonseed meal may kill growing swine when fed over 9% of ration because of .
meal is fat extracted peanut kernels ground into meal with a certain amount of ground peanut hulls added back.
Which is described below?
Residue which remains after most of the starches and sugars have been removed from the barley and possible other grains in the brewing process.
Distillers dried grains
Brewers dried grain
Brewers dried grains are fed mainly to .
Which is described? Reside which remains after the alcohol has been distilled of and other liquid materials have been removed from grain processed in alcohol production.
Brewers dried grains
Distillers dried grains are fed mainly to .
What are the plant origin high protein feeds?
Miscellaneous protein supplements are a bland of animal, plant, and .
Swine rations are usually 30-40% miscellaneous protein supplements are ruminants rations higher or lower?
What are some examples of miscellaneous protein supplements?
blackstrap for molasses and urea
What must be considered when deciding on which high protein feed to purchase?
Cost per unit of protein
Energy content of high protein feed
Convenience of feeding
Class of animal being fed
Whether it is mixed or fed individually
Which animals must have a mixed ration?
Which animals can be fed individually?
What can some performance modifiers do?
are produced by an organism.
Rumensin, Bovatec, Tylan, and Aureomycin are examples of what?
act like antibiotics but are from chemical origin.
EDDI, Nitrofurans, and Sulfamthazine are examples of what?
are performance stimulators.
Ralgro, Synovex, and Compudose are examples of what?
The hormone has a zero day withdrawal time.
are for parasite control.
Anthelmintics stimulate performance by parasite load/ appetite.
Ivomec, tramisol, and Strongid C are examples of what?
is the most common pH regulator.
pH regulators are using in what rations?
pH regulators excessive levels of acids.
Bloat preventatives are used in .
Poloxaline is an example of what?
Phytase enzymes are used in .
Ractopamine is called what when used in hogs?
Protein accretion feed efficiency and builds muscle.
What are the Macro-Minerals?
What are the Micro-Minerals?
What are the sources for minerals?
What are the functions of minerals?
Structural tissue building, maintenance, and repair
Regulation of body processes
Milk & egg production
Source of energy for work, heat production, and fat deposition
is also known as salt.
NaCl forms which is needed for the digestion of proteins.
What are the functions of NaCl?
Formation of digestive juices
Body fluid concentration
Nerve and muscle activity
Control of body fluid pH
Unthriftiness, lethargy, scruffy haircoat, lacking muscle, nervous prostration and muscle cramps, and poor performance are all examples of a deficiency.
Supplementation of NaCl with blocks can be done. A block has trace minerals, block is pure NaCl, and a block has suffer + salt.
When using a block to supplement NaCl there is no risk of over .
What makes the red color in mineral blocks?
With salt adequate must be provided.
In a ration NaCl may improve but ration may be if water is not available.
Bone and teeth development, nerve and muscle function, and milk and egg production are all functions of what nutrient?
What are the sign of a deficiency in calcium?
In with a deficiency in calcium paralysis may occur just prior to or immediately after parturition.
In with a calcium deficiency, paralysis close to foaling time (usually after), body temperature, colicky, sweating and tremors are seen.
are a good source of calcium.
What are some examples of calcium only supplementation?
Calcium to phosphorus ratio should always be between : and :.
What are some examples of a phosphorus deficiency?
Decreased reproductive performance
is when the anima is chewing on non-feed objects
How would phosphorus be supplemented?
Steamed bone meal
Phosphorus should never be below % when mineral mix is fed to beef cows during season.
is responsible for nervous system function, carbohydrate metabolism, and certain enzyme system functions.
A common deficiency in is grass tetany. It is seen in cows and sheep on winter grazing.
In north Georgia and are peak times for possible grass tetany poisoning with tall fescue.
2 parts to 1 part .
Neuromuscular activity, osmotic regulation, and rumen digestion are functions of .
Is potassium supplementation usually needed?
is a component of amino acids methionine and cystine.
Animals that are fed urea may need what supplementation?
A sulfur deficiency will express itself as a deficiency.
What micro mineral is a component of Cyanocobalamine?
Pernicious anemia seen in deficiency with is an enlargement of the blood cells.
is responsible for iron absorption and hair and wool synthesis.
Hair bleaching will be seen in cattle with a deficiency of .
is responsible for the hemoglobin formation for oxygen transport.
is used in the production of thyroxin.
What micro-mineral has the function of enzyme systems that influence estrus, ovulation, and fetal development?
What micro-minerals function creates the enzyme needed for uric acid production in poultry?
reduces dental cavities, and retards osteoporosis.
is the cellular trash collector.
A deficiency in can cause white muscle disease in .
Paraketosis is a deficiency of?