What is the definition of metabolism?
A set of reactions that accomplish a goal
The entire network of chemical processes involved in maintaining life
the main form of energy the body uses
when a substance gains 1 or more electrons
What is the definition of anabolic?
the process of building larger more complex compounds from smaller simpler ones
the process of breaking down compounds into smaller units
series of chemical reactions occurring in a cell
oxidation of food molecules resulting in the eventual release of energy, CO2, and water
What is the primary energy source for cells?
Which is NOT part of the ATP/ADP cycle?
Break ATP bonds to get energy
ADP is formed from ATP
ATP is formed from ADP + P
FADH2 is formed
When is a substance oxidized?
when a substance gains electrons
when a substance loses electrons
Which is not one of the 4 stages in producing ATP from carbohydrates?
Citric Acid Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
After ATP is formed from carbohydrates, how much ATP does it form?
What is the goal of glycolysis?
to create ketone bodies
to break down glucose into smaller molecules
to generate new glucose from certain amino acids
to completely eliminate glucose
What is the macronutrient that is especially easy for the body to store as fat when excess kcal are consumed?
What is the goal of the transition reaction?
Produce NADH, FADH2 from acetyl CoA to use in step 4 (electron transport chain)
Form ATP by oxidizing NADH and FADH2 produced
Get pyruvate ready for citric acid cycle
Break down glucose into smaller molecules
What is the goal of the citric acid cycle?
Produce NADH, FADH2 from acetyl CoA
Break down glucose when there’s no oxygen
What is NOT true about the electron transport chain?
the goal is to form ATP by oxidizing NADH and FADH2
the end gives you 28 ATP
it is a metabolic pathway
it is the step before the citric acid cycle
Aerobic produces more ATP than anerobic
Which organ can manufacture nonessential amino acids, convert fructose to glucose, and build fatty acids from excess glucose?
Which metabolic pathway uses amino acids to synthesize glucose when glycogen has been depleted in the body?
electron transport chain
citric acid cycle
Which two macronutrients does the body draw on stored forms to provide energy when nutrients from a meal are no longer available?
vitamins and minerals
carbs and minerals
carbs and proteins
carbs and lipids
Which macronutrient is replaced in the body's fuel mix when carbs are consumed in excess of the body's needs during 'feasting.'
Which metabolic compound enters the citric acid cycle during the aerobic metabolism of glucose?
Which metabolic pathway is responsible for the formation of pyruvate from glucose?
After glycogen stores in the body are depleted during fasting, these compounds are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat to provide energy for certain parts of the body.
What is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids?
Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway that
breaks down glucose
takes place in the cytosol
all of the above
Glycolysis begins with ____________ and ends with ______________:
What is the goal of beta-oxidation?
Produce NADH, FADH2 from acetyl CoA to use in electron transport chain
Cleave (cut) fatty acid at the beta carbon
Produce glucose from glucogenic amino acids
Breakdown proteins to amino acids
What is the total ATP when making ATP from fatty acids?
When does ketosis NOT generally occur?
in type 1 diabetics
very low carb diets
in type 2 diabetics
What does the production of ketones prevent?
use of body protein for energy during starvation
use of body lipids for energy during starvation
use of body vitamins for energy during starvation
use of body carbs for energy during starvation
What is the first step in making ATP from proteins?
Which is not part of the process of deamination?
Amino group removed
Produces ATP without becoming acetyl-CoA
Nitrogen turned into ammonia
Leaves carbon skeleton to use for energy
What are the two types of amino acids?
Glucogenic and Ketogenic
Glucogenic and Oxygenic
Ketogenic and Oxygenic
Oxygenic and Glycogenic
Which is true about Ketogenic amino acids?
Can produce ATP without becoming acetyl-CoA
Can produce ATP without Oxygen
Must become acetyl-CoA to produce ATP
Can produce ADP without becoming acetyl-CoA
Which is NOT required to make ATP from carbs?
Citric acid cycle
Which is NOT part of makingATP from fats?
Check all of the boxes that are part part of the process of making ATP from protein.
Deaminate amino acids (left with carbon skeletons)
Glucogenic amino acids (straight into citric acid cycle)
Excess acetyl-CoA made into fat
Ketogenic amino acids (become Acetyl-CoA and then citric acid cycle
Moderate to excessive consumption overwhelms citric acid cycle
Which is NOT one of the pathways for alcohol metabolism?
Which correctly states the right times for fasting?
Long-term (10-15 days)
Initial (2-8 hours)
Short-term (3-5 days)
Which correctly matches the macronutrient with its effects from feasting
First stored in amino acid pool
Second stored as glycogen
First goes to glycogen stores
Second stored as adipose
Conversion requires energy
Readily stored as NADH
When muscle tissue is exercising under anaerobic conditions, the production of _______ is important because it assures a continuous supply of NAD.
The net energy production of ATP via glycolysis is _______.
none of the above
The common pathway for the oxidation of glucose and fatty acid is _________.
the urea cycle
the citric acid cycle
The oxidation of fatty acids occurs in the ____________.
Metabolism is regulated by ___________.
the energy status of the body
During periods of starvation, the body uses protein as a fuel source for the brain and central nervous system in a pathway called gluconeogenesis.
Insulin is ________.
a coenzyme in the glycolytic pathway
a cofactor needed for gluconeogenesis
an anabolic hormone (build larger, more complex compounds)
a catabolic hormone (break down compounds into small units)