Hypertension and physics

Question 1 of 21

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In Ohm's Law Flow = Pressure/

Select one of the following:

  • radius

  • resistance

  • CSA

Question 2 of 21

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Fill the blank spaces to complete the text.

In Poiseulle's Law Flow is = to Delta P/
Where R= 8Ln/ pi r^4.
Therefore Flow = delta P x r^4, so Flow is proportional to both and radius but is inversely proportional to both the and viscosity of the fluid.

Question 3 of 21

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Aneuryms result in laminated thrombus formation because the velocity of flow is quicker at the edges of a vessel, which creates the impotence for viscous blood and therefor aggregation of platelets and thrombus formation.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 4 of 21

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Velocity = Flow/ ( cross sectional area, Resistance, Length ). This means when the radius of a vessel ( decreases, increases ) such as during atherosclerosis there will be more damage occur as the Velocity will increase ( inversely, proportionately ) to the reduction in cross sectional area. This may lead to increased damage to the endothelium of vessels.

Question 5 of 21

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The extends from the arterioles to the . Its main roles are:
- of tissues, with density being proportional to the metabolic activity of the organ
-Non- e.g. glomerular capillaries of kidneys, temperature regulation, , host-defence
are single layers of SMC's and are innervated
Meta-arterioles are larger than a capillary and short cut through the vascular bed
--> important for regulating blood flow

Question 6 of 21

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How many types of capillaries are there?

Select one of the following:

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

Question 7 of 21

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Which of these is not the role of a pericyte?

Select one of the following:

  • Endothelial support cell

  • regulate capillary flow

  • regulate wound healing through inflammation, fibrosis and angiogenesis

  • signal TH2 cells

Question 8 of 21

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The Resistance of the micro-circulation is the sum of the pre, capillary and post capillary resistance

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 9 of 21

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Smooth Muscle Contraction:
Ca2+ entry through voltage gated calcium channels
Ca2+ release from SR ( here than in cardiac tissue)
Ca2+ entry through voltage independent channels e.g. NT binding receptors or stretch activated channels
Increased calcium activated calmodulin
The calcium- complex activates myosin light chain kinase
Phosphorylation of myosin light chain allows the myosin to interact with the actin, producing contraction.
Relaxation occurs when MLC phosphatase dephosphorylaes MLC.

Drag and drop to complete the text.

    poorer
    poorer
    greater
    greater
    calmodulin
    calmodulin
    phosphatase
    phosphatase

Question 10 of 21

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Apart from myogenic stretch, activating stretch channels, local factors which can impact arteriole resistance are?

Select one or more of the following:

  • PaO2

  • PaCO2

  • pH

  • Lactic Acid

  • K+

  • ATP, Adenosine, Lactic Acid

  • Sulphate

Question 11 of 21

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The equation for net filtration pressure = delta P - delta (colloid osmotic pressure)

If the hydrostatic pressure is 52 and the albumin levels are 36 in the plasma and the tissue pressure is -2 but the albumin levels are 13, what is the filtration.

Select one of the following:

  • 14

  • 16

  • 17

  • 31

Question 12 of 21

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The mechanism of vasculitis is infection leading to antigen-antibody complexes and complement activation, which causes a dense infiltration of acute and chronic inflammatory cells. Common symptoms are

Select one or more of the following:

  • Skin rash

  • Involvement of tunica intima and media

  • DVT

Question 13 of 21

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Which of these describes essential hypertension?

Select one of the following:

  • Due to a causative agent i.e. essential such as OSA, Renal artery disease, Hyperaldosteronism, Parenchymal Renal Disease, Cushing's Syndrome or Drugs.

  • Unknown cause and is believed to be a byplay between genetic, lifestyle factors, diet, obesity, smoking, reduced exercise and stress.

Question 14 of 21

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Renal HTN involves changes in systemic system caused by activation.
Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's causes excess production of cortisol which has the action of maintain vascular responsiveness to circulating vasoconstrictors.
Primary aldosteronism refers to a non-suppressible hypersecretion of aldosterone which promotes sodium reabsorption in the and therefore volume expansion.
Pheochromocytoma is a secreting tumor that arises from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and increases NA, A.

Drag and drop to complete the text.

    RAAS
    RAAS
    ADH
    ADH
    cortical collecting duct
    cortical collecting duct
    proximal tubules
    proximal tubules
    catecholamine
    catecholamine
    endothelin
    endothelin

Question 15 of 21

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Which of these is not a common end artery?

Select one of the following:

  • Splenic

  • Renal

  • Pulmonary

  • Opthalmic

Question 16 of 21

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ACE-Inhibitors end in pril and are used to treat HTN, CHF, post AMI, Diabetic nephropathy. Main mechanism is to inhibit conversion of ANG 1 to ANG 2. This will lead to all but the following. They are contra-indicated in pregnancy.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Vasodilation

  • Reduced ADH

  • Reduced sympathetic activation

  • Increased aldosterone

Question 17 of 21

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The reason people take sartans such as Candesartan and Ang 2 receptor blocker is that they cause less of a cough than ACE-Inhibitors

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 18 of 21

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Diuretics (cholothalidone and Indapamide), inhibit the reabsorption of + at the proximal segment of the DCT, which means more Na+ is maintained in the collecting duct and less H20 will here, thus reducing plasma volumes. in HTN, in CCF. They have more of a vasodilatory effect in HTN.

Question 19 of 21

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Ca2+ channel blockers such as amlodipine inhibit the entry of Ca2+ ions through a subset of voltage gated calcium channels which promotes smooth muscle relaxation.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 20 of 21

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Olol- B-blockers competitively ( antagonise, agonise ) B-adrenergic receptors throughout the body.
They reduce BP by inhibiting ( rate, speed ) and contraction of myocardium (B1) without reducing TPR. They also exert an effect on the CNS to decrease RENIN secretion. They reduce myocardial O2 demand by lowering HR, BP & Preload.

Question 21 of 21

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What type of diet and activity regime would you recommend to a patient with HTN?

Select one of the following:

  • high sodium, low potassium, moderate exercise

  • low sodium, high potassium, moderate exercise

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Hypertension and physics

jimmy_sheehan318
Quiz by , created about 1 year ago

Hypertension and associated conditions

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jimmy_sheehan318
Created by jimmy_sheehan318 about 1 year ago
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