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Which of the following should be the primary focus of early language intervention
for at-risk infants?
Establishing object permanence through play activities
Training primary caregivers to facilitate language learning
Creating readiness activities in the context of play
Enhancing social communication through play activities
Primary motor innervation to the larynx and velum is provided by which cranial
Federal laws regarding freedom of access to information stipulate that client
records kept or written by health care professionals can be
reviewed only by other health-care professionals
reviewed only by the clients themselves unless the client provides written permission to share with others
reviewed by anyone who submits a formal written request
released only by subpoena
The speech reception threshold (SRT) is a basic component of an evaluation of
hearing function. Which of the following statements about the SRT is most accurate?
It is measured in decibels and corresponds to the intensity level at which spondaic words can be recognized approximately 50% of the time.
It makes use of test materials that are limited to monosyllabic words.
It provides information on how well speech is understood at conversational levels.
It is useful in validating acoustic intermittence measures.
A clinician who employs active listening is doing which of the following?
Responding to both the content and the affect of the client’s remarks
Listening very carefully and taking extensive notes
Conducting a clinician-directed interview
Directing the client to specific answers to questions
Which of the following is the best action to take initially with a client who presents
with poor oral control of liquids and solids, coughing and choking while eating and
drinking, and a history of hospitalizations associated with pneumonia?
Thickening liquids so that the client will be better able to control oral movements for swallowing
Obtaining a modified barium-swallow study to determine appropriate interventions
Evaluating the client’s ability to eat a variety of foods in order to determine which foods are safest
Prescribing that the client be NPO, since aspiration is present
Ms. Brown, a 70-year-old retired female, was admitted to the hospital following a
CVA. The SLP conducted a comprehensive evaluation that revealed the presence of left-side neglect, anosognosia (denial of impairment), and visuospatial problems, including prosopagnosia (difficulty recognizing familiar faces). Although her auditory comprehension and repetition skills were good, she experienced difficulty with topic maintenance and turn taking. Based on the clinical features described, Ms. Brown’s diagnostic classification would most likely be
Cognitive-communicative disorder consistent with right hemisphere damage
Cognitive-communicative disorder consistent with left hemisphere damage
A client exhibits weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations of the right side of the
tongue and lower face. The client also has right vocal-fold weakness and nasal
regurgitation of fluid when swallowing. These problems are the result of damage to which part of the nervous system?
Left cerebral cortex
Right cerebral cortex
A child exhibits the following production errors.
If a target sound for initial intervention is to be selected on the basis of established developmental norms, then that sound will be
A public-school-based speech-language pathologist is employed in a state that sets the maximum caseload at 65. However, the clinician’s caseload is currently at 64 with a waiting list of 10 additional students. The school principal insists that the speechlanguage pathologist enroll the 10 students immediately, because the district cannot locate another clinician to assist with the caseload. Which of the following is the most appropriate way for the speech-language pathologist to address the situation?
Enroll 1 of the 10 students and provide the principal with a written statement of caseload needs, mentioning the amount, type, and frequency of treatment
Refer the 10 students to a speech-language pathologist working in a private setting
Suggest that the principal ask a school speech-language pathologist from another school district to take the 10 students
Maintain current caseload until an additional speech-language pathologist is Hired
Which of the following views make up a standard videofluoroscopic swallow study?
Select all that apply.
Hearing loss in infants who are born with a cleft palate is usually related to which
of the following?
The infant’s inability to create positive pressure in the oral cavity
Malformation of the middle-ear ossicles associated with malformation of the palate
Eustachian tube dysfunction
Children diagnosed as having specific language impairments are likely to exhibit
the greatest deficits in which of the following?
Production of sentences with appropriate inflectional morphology and syntax
Acquisition of word meanings
Comprehension of short sentences
Motoric aspects of written expression
A 5-year-old girl with a repaired cleft palate has recently undergone a pharyngeal
flap operation to correct velopharyngeal incompetence, but she continues to use glottal stops, pharyngeal fricatives, and mid-dorsum palatal stops. Which of the following is the most appropriate action for the SLP to take?
Recommending that the child be examined by a cleft palate team to determine the cause of the persistent articular errors
Referring the child back to the surgeon to determine the need for a revision of the pharyngeal flap
Initiating articulation treatment to teach the correct placement for the stops and fricatives
Initiating articulation treatment to teach correct production of nonpressure consonant sounds
A 70-year-old female has dysphagia characterized by poor posterior oral
containment of the bolus during the oral preparatory stage, causing aspiration before the swallow. Cognition and the pharyngeal stage of the swallow are intact. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment approach for the client?
Providing a puree diet with thickened liquids
Having the client flex her head forward (perform the chin-down posture) during oral preparation and transit stages of the swallow
Having the client turn (rotate) her head to the right when swallowing
Providing a diet that consists of thin liquids
An SLP receives a referral regarding a 4-year-old boy who uses two words
spontaneously and functionally, who began walking at 3 years of age, and who
responds to his name inconsistently. On the basis of the information alone, the SLP can legitimately conclude that the child’s communication profile reflects
a developmental delay
autism spectrum disorder
a chromosomal anomaly
a metabolic disorder
Which of the following is the most important acoustic cue that distinguishes
between an unreleased final /p/ and an unreleased final /b/, as in “cap” versus “cab”?
Locus frequency of burst
Voice onset time
Vocal fundamental frequency
Duration of the preceding vowel
John is a 4 1/2 year old whose consonantal inventory includes word-initial [ w ], [ m], [ n ], [ p ], [ b ], [ t ], [ d ], and [ f ]. He uses [ t ] for /k/, [ d ] for /ɡ/, [ b ] for /v/, and [ f ]for /θ/. He produces no consonant clusters. His word-final consonantal inventory consists of [m] and [n]. His word shape inventory includes V, CV, CVC, and CVCV. The information given most strongly indicates that the child has
childhood apraxia of speech
an oral motor impairment
delayed phonological development
a significant high-frequency hearing loss
Immediately following removal of a benign tumor from the base of the brain, a
76-year-old client exhibits severe nasalization and a weak, breathy voice. A fourmonth postsurgical assessment reveals no improvement. At this time, the remediation strategy for this client should focus on
evaluation for prosthetic or surgical intervention
strengthening exercises for the oral articulators
a trial period using the yawn-sign technique
complete vocal rest
A 4-month-old-infant who has a low birth weight but passed a neonatal hearing
screening was evaluated for development of communication skills. The speechlanguage pathologist found that the infant followed moving objects visually, showed interest in mouthing and banging objects, and began sucking in anticipation of eating, but failed to localize to environmental sounds. On the report to the infant’s primary care physician, the most appropriate recommendation by the speech-language pathologist is
consideration of auditory amplification
hearing-loss counseling for the parents
careful parent monitoring of the child’s speech-language development
evaluation of auditory function by an audiologist
Which of the following procedures would be effective in remediating a falsetto voice for an adult male with a severe bilateral hearing loss?
Development of phonation from coughing
Manual depression of the larynx
Manual elevation of the larynx
Cognitive therapy for stuttering focuses on which of the following?
Extinguishing the overt, dysfluent speech behavior by withholding positive reinforcement
Changing distorted beliefs about self-efficacy and the need to speak with complete fluency . Cambio de creencias distorsionadas sobre la autoeficacia y la necesidad de hablar confluidez completa
Providing positive reinforcement during periods of fluent speech
Reducing dysfluent speech behavior by using visual imaging
A prospective client is described as a man in his forties who is under chronic
stress. He uses his voice extensively in daily life has a hard-driving personality, and
exhibits glottal fry. The client has the classic profile of a person at high risk for
Which of the following most accurately represents the etiology of cleft palate?
Genetic factors alone
Environmental influences alone
Genetic factors interacting with environmental influences
Medications taken by the mother during pregnancy
For which individual would a recommendation for an augmentative and
alternative communication (AAC) intervention be least appropriate?
A preschool child with a language-learning disorder and highly unintelligible speech
A teenager with a repaired cleft palate who continues to experience
A young adult with severe cerebral palsy precluding functional oral
A 55-year-old man who has had a laryngectomy
Which of the following is an accurate statement about whispered speech?
It is produced by approximating the arytenoid cartilages so that their medial surfaces are in direct contact.
It is composed largely of aperiodic sounds.
Spectrographic analysis of it reveals no discernible formants for the vowels.
Most people can produce longer utterances per breath using it than they can using conventional phonation.
Which of the following describes an important diagnostic distinction between
apraxia of speech and dysarthria?
Apraxia of speech is a result of lower motor neuron lesions, whereas dysarthria is the result of upper motor neuron lesions.
Clients with apraxia of speech lack the ability to monitor reactive speech, whereas clients with dysarthria lack the ability to sequence volitional speech movements.
Strength and coordination of the speech musculature are intact in clients with apraxia of speech, whereas slowness, weakness, incoordination, or altered tone of the speech musculature are associated with dysarthria.
Apraxia of speech is characterized by distortions, omissions, and substitutions, whereas dysarthria is characterized by inconsistent, highly variable misarticulations.
Naturalistic teaching chiefly involves which of the following? Enseñanza naturalista
implica fundamentalmente cuál de las siguientes?
Establishing successful and useful communication
Using multiple trials and training techniques
Using more adult-initiated interactions than child-initiated interactions
Using differential reinforcement, fading, and modeling
Which of the following muscles produces the opposing action to those that
produce velopharyngeal closure?
Levator veli palatini
An otolaryngologist has referred a 45-year-old man for voice treatment following medialization thyroplasty for a paralyzed vocal fold. Which of the following is the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for the SLP to use?
Assisting the patient to produce a soft glottal attack
Digitally manipulation of the patient’s neck to reduce strap-muscle tension
Assisting the patient to produce a hard glottal attack
Employing techniques aimed at increasing airflow
Which of the following types of cerebral palsy is characterized by slow, arrhythmic
writhing and involuntary movements of the extremities?
In the treatment of acute Wernicke’s aphasia, the initial focus should be on
encouraging self-monitoring of the adequacy of verbal output
increasing the rate of speech
improving the client’s ability to elaborate verbally
increasing the complexity of sentence structures
In the treatment of voice disorders, the chewing technique is used to do which
of the following?
Improve control of loudness
Increase pitch range during voice production
Increase air supply during voice production
Reduce tension in the laryngeal area
An SLP is planning treatment for a 5-year-old child with multiple speechproduction
errors. The most effective strategy the clinician can use to treat the child is to
arrange error sounds by developmental pattern and correct them sound by sound
start with sounds the child can make and use them as bridges to error sounds
teach sounds in isolation, then use nonsense syllables, and then build to words
delineate phonological processes in operation and address them through minimal-contrast pairs
A teacher asks the speech-language pathologist for advice regarding a child
who talks excessively during class, rarely listens to instructions, and does work only intermittently. Attempts at alternative seating for the child have not been successful. Of the following, which is the most appropriate recommendation that the speechlanguage pathologist can provide to the teacher?
Have the school counselor consider working with the child and the parents on self-control and discipline
Put the child on a management system for classroom behavior
Refer the child for evaluation by members of the child-study team
Suggest remedial speech-language services for the child to improve the child’s interactive communication
A 6-year-old child produces [t] for /s/, [d] for /z/, [p] for /f/, and [b] for /v/.
Intervention for this problem would target language at the level of
A correct-response rate of 51 percent on a two-choice picture-pointing task
would most likely indicate which of the following?
A random pointing response
Development of crucial discrimination skills by the client
Readiness to progress to a three-picture point task
Which of the following areas needs to be evaluated first for a 5 year old
who says [pun] for “spoon” and [top] for “soap”?
For which of the following conditions is it most appropriate for the SLP to
recommend that the patient’s primary-care physician refer the patient to a prosthodontist for construction of a palatal-lift appliance?
Submucous cleft palate
Unrepaired cleft of the secondary palate
Flaccid paralysis of the soft palate
Congenitally short palate
Computer software that has been developed to facilitate speech and language
treatment can best be used
in group sessions when the SLP’s caseload precludes working individually with
by clients in place of services that would otherwise be provided by an SLP
by clients under the direction of SLPs
when SLPs are unavailable
Which of the following is a typical symptom of cerebellar involvement?
Overshooting or undershooting an intended target
Rigidity during voluntary motions
Spasticity during involuntary action
A 42-year-old client with upper-and lower-extremity weakness and a diagnosis
of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is referred for a speech-language evaluation. The
evaluation reveals a progressive severe dysarthria that is characterized by imprecise articulation secondary to bilateral facial and lingual weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations; mild-to-moderate hypernasality and weak pressure consonants with associated nasal emission during speech; and strained, harsh, groaning voice quality with occasional inhalatory stridor. Speech intelligibility is poor. Which of the following will most effectively improve this client’s ability to communicate?
Teflon injection into one or both vocal cords
Augmentative communication system
Which of the following communication disorders is most frequently associated
with significant dysphagia?
Organic voice tremor
Language impairment in a child with Down syndrome is often determined by
comparing performance on one or more standardized language tests with the
child’s mental age, rather than with the child’s chronological age. Although mental age should not be used to specify the need for treatment, mental age can legitimately be used as a performance criterion because
using chronological age would overidentify language disorders
using chronological age would underidentify language disorders
mental age always correlates with verbal performance
language performance is expected to exceed mental age
Which of the following is the ratio of reinforcement that will most quickly cause
a newly acquired behavior to be habituated?
A random ratio of tokens to correct responses
A ratio of 1 token to 1 correct response
A ratio of 1 token to 4 correct responses only
A ratio of 1 token to 10 correct responses only
An adult client exhibits visuospatial disorganization, an inability to initiate
interactions, left-side neglect, and lack of facial expression. This combination of
symptoms is most likely associated with which of the following?
Right-hemisphere traumatic brain injury
Left-hemisphere cerebrovascular accident
Bilateral traumatic brain injury
A physician told the spouse of a client that melodic intonation therapy (MIT) would improve the client’s speech considerably. The most appropriate next action by the SLP would be to
provide MIT, as recommended
tell the physician that it is inappropriate for the physician to make
recommendations for a speech treatment
consider the potential value of incorporating MIT into the client’s treatment
explain MIT to the client’s spouse to assist in the decision-making process about the type of therapy to use
Which of the following muscles is primarily responsible for vocal fold
A client has been determined to have poor upper esophageal sphincter
opening secondary to decreased hyolaryngeal excursion, following a lateral
medullary stroke. Cognitive functions are within normal limits. Which of the
following interventions would be the most appropriate recommendation for this
client as an initial course of treatment for the underlying disorder?
Chin-down posture (head/neck flexion)
If a child’s language exhibits the phonological process of gliding, the child
might say [wɛd] for “red.” When asked, “Do you mean wed?” the child may
respond, “No! [wɛd]!” Such a response demonstrates which of the following?
Phonological development lags behind semantic development.
Semantic development lags behind phonological development.
Linguistic competence lags behind linguistic performance.
Linguistic performance lags behind linguistic competence.
Of the following sentences, which represents the greatest degree of syntactic
Is John helping Bill?
Why isn’t John helping Bill?
John isn’t helping Bill.
Why is John helping Bill?
Establishment of which of the following is most important in ensuring that the
results of any diagnostic test of speech or language are replicable?
Which of the following is the most reasonable standard to apply when judging
whether a client has achieved generalization of a targeted skill?
The client uses the targeted skill under stimulus conditions that were not present during the training process and without reinforcement.
The client maintains the correct production of the targeted skill when the reinforcement schedule is changed.
The client correctly produces the targeted skill effortlessly and without hesitation.
The client is able to monitor errors and correct them with only a minimal number of cues from the clinician.
Which of the following indicates the goal of the Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act (HIPAA) ?
To ensure a patient’s privacy and confidentiality of health-care information
To maximize health insurance coverage for speech-language pathology services
To ensure a free and appropriate education
To ensure a patient’s knowledge of health insurance
Laborious, halting, telegraphic utterances are typical of clients with which of
the following types of aphasia?
A videofluoroscopic study of a client with dysphagia revealed post-swallow
vallecular residue occupying more than 50 percent vallecular height. Which of the
following is the most likely overt symptom that the client will experience?
Watery eyes during swallowing
Oral pocketing of foods
Coughing after swallowing
When treating a client who is using an electronic augmentativecommunication
device, the speech-language pathologist’s primary goal should be to
ensure that the client develops skill in using every technical aspect of the aid
ensure that the client’s caregivers learn how to modify the aid’s hardware and any applicable software to meet the client’s communication needs
train the client to use the aid as independently and interactively as possible in a variety of settings
help the client develop the skills necessary for moving on to a more
A 4,5-year-old boy has significant speech and language difficulties exemplified
by poor oral-motor control, slight difficulty in swallowing, high palate, poor tongue mobility, and fasticulation on protrusion. During an evaluation, the speech-language pathologist notes very poor paper-and-pencil grasp, poor posture, and an inability to complete performance tasks requiring fine motor control. To which of the following should the child be referred in order to obtain additional diagnostic information?
A physical therapist
A clinician is working with the response cost strategy and she asked the child's mom to correct her son's disfluencies, telling him: "that sounds bumpy" and in the middle of his disfluency "to stop" and repeat it the word again. What is the clinician doing??
Creating awareness to the child about his disfluency
Is not effective since it does not hold a relaxation level
That the child experience awareness to see his mom anxiety and correct him
This strategy is a good strategy
A 65 or 56 year old pacient with a post lingual hearing loss with meaningful words will receive aural rehabilitation is benefit from which of the following approaches??
Successful use of an alternative and augmentative communication system is based on such factors as selecting appropriate vocabulary, seating and positioning, and having a reliable method of controlling the system. To facilitate the most effective use of the system, clinicians most often advocate which of the following approaches?
Which of the following is most important for an SLP to do when assessing a child
who has an acquired brain injury?
Evaluate pragmatics through a structured language test
Compare premorbid performance with present performance
Ensure administration of an intelligence test
Compare nonverbal performance with verbal performance
Language intervention for a child at the one-word stage should be most strongly
influenced by a consideration of the child’s
Before an SLP initiates voice intervention, it is most important that the SLP gather
information about the
cause of the client’s voice problem
client’s breathing patterns
client’s oral motor skills
fundamental frequency of the client’s laryngeal tone
A client with anomic aphasia is a native speaker of Spanish with fair proficiency in English. Production of the word “shoes” as [tʃuz] on a repetition task is most likely due to which of the following factors?
Phonological interference from the speaker’s native language
Semantic interference from the speaker’s native language
Semantic paraphasia due to the aphasia
Phonemic paraphasia due to the aphasia
An SLP has a consultation with a self-referred adult who has a fluency disorder. The client had been enrolled in treatment programs with the clinician three times before and had reached from 75 to 90 percent fluency before dropping out of treatment for various reasons. Thirty percent of the client’s syllables are spoken disfluently. The client also exhibits signs of depression and anxiety. Which of the following is the most appropriate action for the SLP to take?
Encouraging the client to re-enroll for remedial services
Encouraging the client to take responsibility for maintaining fluency by using techniques learned in the previous treatment sessions
Recommending that the client schedule a neurological evaluation
Referring the client for psychological counseling
Immediately following removal of a benign tumor from the base of the brain, a 76- yearold client exhibits severe nasalization and a weak, breathy voice. A four-month postsurgical assessment reveals no improvement. At this time, the remediation strategy for this client should focus on
A 4-month-old-infant who has a low birth weight but passed a neonatal hearing screening was evaluated for development of communication skills. The speech-language pathologist found that the infant followed moving objects visually, showed interest in mouthing and banging objects, and began sucking in anticipation of eating, but failed to localize to environmental sounds. On the report to the infant’s primary care physician, the most appropriate recommendation by the speech-language pathologist is
Which of the following is a type of perturbation that can be measured to determine
the amount of noise in the voice?
Changes in the frequency range between F1 and F2 over time
Changes in the frequency range between F2 and F3 over time
F3 cycle-to-cycle variations in sound energy over time
F0 cycle-to-cycle variations in sound energy over time
A 67-year-old male patient with no history of swallowing problems has undergone a cardiothoracic surgical procedure. Postoperatively, he is found to be aspirating while swallowing and is diagnosed with a left vocal-fold paralysis and left pharyngeal paresis. Which of the following is the most likely etiology?
An intraoperative CVA in the right pons
Damage to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve
Damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve
A left hemispheric stroke
A speech-and-hearing clinic has recently opened, but referrals are slow in coming. Which of the following would be most appropriate and effective for the clinic’s director todo first?
Ask local hospitals to provide names of recent clients likely to need speech-language services
Identify and define the major consumer groups and referral sources, and develop a plan to reach them
Identify the weaknesses in the competition, and inform consumer groups and referral sources of the weaknesses
Wait for demand to increase on its own, because marketing speech-language services i against the ASHA Code of Ethics
A 6-year-old child produces [t] for /s/, [d] for /z/, [p] for /f/, and [b] for /v/. Intervention for this problem would target language at the level of
Ms. Lopez’s articulation errors consist of the following: f/v, ʃ/ʒ, and s/z. On the basis
of these errors, the SLP should begin remediation that focuses on
Which one of the following is a homophonous pair?
The term coarticulation refers to which of the following?
Speech sounds being modified due to the influence of adjacent sounds to the point that there are perceptible changes in sounds
The extent to which vocal-tract configuration changes shape during the production of consonants and vowels in running speech
Vocal punctuation or a combination of suprasegmentals such as intonation and pausing
The influence of various syllables upon one another when a client recites a phonetically balanced list of words
The influence of one phoneme upon another in production and perception, wherein two different articulators move simultaneously to produce two different speech sounds
A child’s speech analysis suggests the phonological process of consonant-cluster
reduction. Which of the following is the word you would most likely put on a word list used for treatment?
What is the muscle that exerts the pull that allows the Eustachian tube to open during yawning and swallowing?
Which of the following is an example of an entity + locative?
Jump [on] bed
Juice [in] glass
What are cartilages that are cone-shaped and are located under the mucous
membrane that covers the aryepiglottic folds called?
Which of the following primarily vibrate and produce sound?
What is the definition of fast mapping?
An important concept associated with syntax
An important concept associated with pragmatics
The ability to categorize concepts
The ability to learn a new word on the basis of just a few exposures to it
The ability to differentiate between free and bound morphemes
Approximately when is the past tense regular –ed mastered by typically developing
The phoneme /k/ sounds the same perceptually to the listener; however, it is
produced in a slightly different manner in the words kitten, bucket, and cook. These variations of the /k/ phoneme are called
You would diagnose a disorder of fluency (stuttering) when the dysfluencies in
5% of the words spoken
15% of the words spoken
1% of the syllables spoken
10% of the syllables spoken
2% of the words spoken
Select the statement that is true of the response cost method
A token is given for every fluent speech production.
Twenty tokens are given for good speech at the beginning of the treatment session.
A token is presented for each utterance that is produced at a reduced rate of speech.
The fluent productions are counted during treatment, and the same number of tokens are given at the end of the session.
A token is given for each fluent production, and one is withdrawn for each dysfluency
In correctly administering the pause-and-talk (timeout) procedure to reduce
stuttering, what would you do immediately following a stutter?
Give a signal to stop and then ask the client to start talking again.
Give a signal to stop, ask the client to describe the problem, and then let the client continue to talk.
Say, “No,” pause for 5 seconds, and then let the client continue to talk.
Give a signal to stop talking, avoid eye contact for 5 seconds, reestablish the eye contact, and then ask the client to continue.
Ask the client to keep quiet for 20 seconds before resuming speech.
patient with a double voice, which is the perception of two distinct simultaneous
pitches during phonation, has
Injecting botulinum toxin (Botox) directly into one or both vocal folds (thyroarytenoid muscles) has been used for which of the following voice conditions?
What is true about Broca’s aphasia?
The speech is generally meaningless.
The grammar is typically intact.
It is never associated with apraxia of speech or dysarthria.
It is often, though not always, caused by damage to Brodman’s areas 44 and 45.
It is not associated with paralysis or paresis
Repetition skills are better preserved in
transcortical motor aphasia
Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) are
determined by the patient’s response to a list of monosyllabic words presented at a low level of hearing
determined by looking at the patient’s pure-tone test results at the frequencies most important to speech
the lowest levels of hearing at which a person can understand 100% of the words presented
the lowest levels of hearing at which a person can understand 50% of the words presented
the highest levels of hearing at which a person can understand 50% of the words presented
You gather a language sample, and find that Tommy often says sentences like “My
shoes hurting my feet today.” This sentence has
6 words, 6 morphemes
6 words, 9 morphemes
6 words, 8 morphemes
6 words, 10 morphemes
6 words, 7 morphemes
When the clinician screens Tommy’s language skills, she finds that he says things
like “I went store Mom’s car, bought apples.” This utterance has
7 words, 7 morphemes
7 words, 9 morphemes
7 words, 8 morphemes
7 words, 10 morphemes
7 words, 11 morphemes
Sara is reading a story aloud in her class. To make distinctions between similarsounding words like “I scream” and “ice cream,” she uses a combination of
suprasegmentals such as intonation and pausing, which mark special distinctions or grammatical divisions in speech. This type of vocal punctuation is also called
According to Brown’s stages, what is the last morpheme to be acquired by a typical
Regular third-person –s
Halliday described seven functions of communicative intent that develop between 9 and 18 months of age. Which of the following is an example of the heuristic function?
“More” (said by a child with an empty juice glass).
“I want cookie.”
“Grandpa white car.”
“Why doggy bark?”
“Mommy go store.”
A child has been referred to you for an assessment of his pragmatic skills. The chief complaint of adults and children with whom he interacts is that he frequently gives commands and sounds rude and bossy. His classroom teacher says she is fed up with his bossiness and peers do not include him in their games. His father tells you that the boy frequently says things like “Take me to Chuck E. Cheese” or “Get me Mario Cart Wii.” The father would like intervention to help his son say things like “I wonder if we could get Mario Cart Wii at the store?” instead of giving orders. In therapy, you know you will need to work on the boy’s facility with
passive sentence transformations
You work in early intervention with a child who uses holophrastic speech. This child
uses primarily two-word utterances
speaks in compound sentences
uses solely complex sentences
uses one word to communicate a variety of meanings
only coos and babbles
You decide to use gestural-assisted augmentative and alternative communication
with a child who has some proficiency in American Sign Language. Which type of
symbols would you use in this situation?
A child is brought for an evaluation because he is having difficulty producing /r/ and
/l/. In your report, you state that he is having difficulty producing
Linguavelars are produced by
raising the tip of the tongue to make contact with the alveolar ridge
the tongue coming in contact with the hard palate
the back of the tongue rising to contact the velum
the tongue making contact with the upper teeth
keeping the vocal folds open and letting the air pass through them
You observe the following substitution errors in the speech of a 6-year-old client: w/l (e.g., waemp/laemp), j/l (e.g., jait/lait), or w/r (e.g., wabbit/rabbit). You explain to the child’s waemp/laemp), j/l (e.g., jait/lait), or w/r (e.g., wabbit/rabbit). You explain to the child’s mother that these are examples of
When a child repeats a pattern (e.g., wawa/water), it is referred to as
Stuttering in preschool children tends to occur somewhat more frequently on
function words than on content words
content words than on function words
words that begin with /s/ and /k/ than on words that begin with other sounds
second or third syllables in multisyllable words
the fourth word in a sentence
An opera singer complains that she is unable to maintain adequate breath support to produce her optimal voice. You want to measure the singer’s lung volume to check for adequate breath support for optimal voice. You will need to measure ___________, which is the volume of air that the singer can exhale after a maximal inhalation.
total lung capacity
Lisa, a 19-year-old college student, was in a car accident and was air lifted to the
trauma center at a local hospital. The paramedics at the accident scene had to perform an emergency intubation to permit her to breathe. A week after the accident, Lisa was discharged from the hospital and was breathing normally. A month later, Lisa returned to the hospital complaining of hoarseness and breathiness. The laryngologist performed an evaluation and noticed that Lisa had a unilateral localized inflammatory vascular lesion that had developed on the vocal process of her arytenoid cartilage. The laryngologist believed that the intubation may have caused
A patient complains that her voice is soft, hoarse, low pitched, and breathy. After
conducting an endoscopic evaluation, the laryngologist concludes that the patient has benign growths of thick, whitish patches on the surface membrane of the mucosa. The laryngologist asks his resident to diagnose the problem. The resident identifies the problem as
What is a pink or white wart-like growth that can be found anywhere in the airway
and can make a person’s voice sound hoarse, breathy, and low pitched?
A patient comes to you complaining of a sore throat and hoarseness. After talking to the patient, you discover that he also often experiences heartburn and acid indigestion. You consult with the on-call physician, who mentions that this patient’s gastric contents are spontaneously emptying into his esophagus. The physician’s diagnosis of the problem is
Which of the following is a homophonous pair?
When a normal distribution of scores shows that the mean is 100 and 68% of the
sampled children have scored between 85 and 115, the standard deviation of that
Which of the following statements is false regarding a null hypothesis?
It states that there is no cause-effect relationship between two specified variables.
It means a zero hypothesis.
It is the one that researchers try to reject.
It states that two variables are causally related.
It is different from the alternative hypothesis
A researcher who developed a language acquisition test claimed that her test
measures what it is supposed to measure because the scores are progressively higher across age groups. She is claiming that her test has what kind of validity?
A clinician measured the number of misarticulations in a child’s speech sample in December, 2010. She went on winter break and came back 2 weeks later in January 2011, rested and refreshed. She decided to gather another speech sample from the child and re-measure the number of misarticulations. She did this to establish
The mode is evident in which of the following sets of scores?
12, 10, 5, 15, 8, 4, 11
10, 3, 9, 12, 25, 29, 43
16, 23, 16, 8, 16, 16, 4, 16, 16
58, 76, 96, 12, 5, 9
100, 95, 95, 78, 82, 73
In the phrase great zoo, the /z/ in zoo is devoiced because of the voiceless /t/ in the
preceding word. This is an example of
When a person is producing a voiced and voiceless /th/, the muscle that is most
involved is The
Which of the following muscles helps adduct the vocal folds?
A clinician who works in a skilled nursing facility has an 82-year-old male patient
referred to her. The patient presents with a mask-like face with infrequent blinking and no smiling, tremors in his muscles that diminish when he moves voluntarily, swallowing problems, reduced vital capacity, irregular breathing, imprecise articulation, short rushes of speech with variable and increased rate in segments, and difficulty walking. This patient has a swallowing disorder. The referring physician states that the patient has a weak cricopharyngeus, causing difficulties in passing the bolus through the cricopharyngeus muscle and past the 7th cervical vertebra. Most likely this patient has
disorders of the esophageal phase of swallow
difficulties in propelling the bolus through the pharynx and into the P-E segment
reduced pharyngeal peristalsis
difficulty in forming and holding the bolus accompanied by slippage of food into the lateral sulcus
food residue in the valleculae, on top of the airway, and in the pyriform sinuses
The primary muscle of the lips is the
depressor labii inferioris
depressor anguli oris
A U-shaped bone that suspends the larynx is the
all of the above
Before a surgeon performs a glossectomy, she informs the patient that the cranial nerves that innervate the tongue muscles will probably be damaged. Which of the following cranial nerves that innervate the tongue muscles will be affected by the operation?
Cranial Nerve X, vagus nerve
Cranial Nerve IX, glossopharyngeal nerve
Cranial Nerve XII, hypoglossal nerve
Cranial Nerve VII, facial nerve
Cranial Nerve VIII, vestibulocochlear nerve
A patient with ataxia complains of difficulties maintaining balance and posture. The physician explains to the patient that the structure that regulates equilibrium, body posture, and coordinated fine-motor movements may be damaged. Therefore, the damaged structure is the
Peter has suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA); the neurologist reports lesions in the third convolution of the left cerebral hemisphere. Based on this, you conclude that the damaged area is
the occipital lobe
the basal ganglia
the primary auditory area
Sara has arterial damage that causes her to have cognitive deficits such as impaired judgment, problems concentrating, and difficulties with reasoning. According to the surgeon, damage to this artery can also cause a person to have paralysis of the feet and legs. Damage to which artery produces these effects?
A semi-vowel that can be categorized as a voiced bilabial glide that is + anterior and
+ continuant is the
The lowest frequency of a periodic wave is
When sound waves move from one medium (e.g., air) to another (e.g., water), it
causes a bending of the sound wave due to change in its speed of propagation. This
phenomenon is known as
A child who calls all tall and brown-haired men “Daddy” is exhibiting the
The theory that asserts that each child is born with an innate language acquisition
device (LAD) is the
nativist theory of Chomsky
cognitive theory of Piaget
information processing theory
behavioral theory of Skinner
social interactionist theory of Vygotsky
Which of the following would be true of a clinician who used Skinner’s behaviorism
as a foundation for her/his intervention with children with language delays?
She or he would teach the child to use mands, tacts, and echoics.
She or he would target auditory sequencing skills.
She or he would ensure that the child had cognitive precursors such as object permanence.
She or he would teach the child to scaffold utterances.
She or he would target grammatical transformations.
You are treating a 4-year-old boy with specific language impairment (SLI) for
intervention. You notice that he omits all grammatical morphemes in his speech. Which one of the following morphemes would you target first in therapy with him?
Articles a, an, the
Regular plural –s
Present progressive –ing
Regular past tense –ed
Prepositions in, on
Melissa says “clink” instead of “blink”; she produces an incorrect sound in place of
a correct sound. This articulation error is known as
On completion of an oral mechanism examination, the attending orthodontist
notices that her patient has a protruding maxilla and a receded mandible. The
orthodontist asks the student speech–language pathologist for a diagnosis of the condition. The student should diagnose the condition as
class I malocclusion
class II malocclusion
class III malocclusion
The diadochokinetic rate is used to evaluate
Speech samples of persons who clutter may contain such productions as “many
thinkle peep so.” This phenomenon is a
A 43-year-old high school football coach comes to you for an evaluation. He states that he has been hoarse for approximately 10 months. A subsequent medical evaluation reveals that he has bilateral lesions on the anterior third of the vocal fold. A nasoendoscopic evaluation confirms that the patient has developed
The disorders of the pharyngeal phase of swallow include
delayed or absent swallowing reflex
anterior instead of posterior movement of the tongue
reduced range of lateral and vertical tongue movement
difficulty in forming and holding the bolus
premature swallow and aspiration before swallow
In assessing a patient with swallowing disorders, you would
not be concerned about screening the patient for concrete and abstract language comprehension because it would provide irrelevant information
consider the correct positioning of the patient for certain procedures
restrict the patient’s foods choices to limit potential aspiration
not consider literacy skills because they are irrelevant to swallowing assessment
not consider the possibility of an ultrasound examination because you want to limit cost
A person who deciphers speech by looking at the face of the speaker and using
visual cues to understand what the speaker is saying is using a technique known as
A clinician measured the dysfluency rates of a client from a speech sample. She
then asked another clinician to measure dysfluencies using the same method she had used. The first clinician calculated a reliability index based on her measure and that of the second clinician. This index is a measure of
interobserver agreement (or interobserver reliability)
concurrent validity of measures
A researcher is describing the speech of a group of children who have been
diagnosed as clutterers. She finds that the faster the children speak, the less intelligible they are. The researcher obtains a Pearson r correlational relationship of -.89. This shows that there is___________________ between rate of speech and intelligibility.
a strong negative correlational (or inverse) relationship
a positive correlational relationship
a moderate cause-and-effect relationship
a canonical correlational relationship
virtually no correlational relationship
Select the statement that applies to ethnographic studies.
They are mostly descriptive.
They are suitable for evaluating treatment effects.
They are well-established in speech–language pathology.
They are very inexpensive to conduct.
They are not appropriate for studying patterns of cultures.
A correlation coefficient
helps establish the effect of a variable
suggests the ways in which two variables are related to each other
allows researchers to make predictions about their subjects’ future behaviors
confirms a cause–effect relationship between two variables
helps researchers examine data retroactively
A client who stutters mentions to his speech–language pathologist that his social
life is limited. He states that “No one will talk to me because I stutter.” This is an example of the common defense mechanism known as
A researcher places surface electrodes on both sides of the thyroid cartilage and
passes a high-frequency electric current between the electrodes. The patient is asked to phonate while the electric current is applied to the electrodes. This procedure is called
If Abby has difficulty with homophonous pairs, she would have trouble
distinguishing between words like
He says sentences like “I ran to playground and my shoes got wet.” This sentence
9 words, 10 morphemes
9 words, 11 morphemes
9 words, 12 morphemes
9 words, 13 morphemes
9 words, 9 morphemes
The components of the vertebral column consists of
8 cervical, 10 thoracic, and 4 lumbar, 4 sacral, and 2–3 coccygeal (fused) vertebrae
9 cervical, 11 thoracic, and 3 lumbar, 7 sacral, and 5–6 coccygeal (fused) vertebrae
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 3–4 coccygeal (fused) vertebrae
10 cervical, 111 thoracic, and 6 lumbar, 6 sacral, and 4–5 coccygeal (fused) vertebrae
11 cervical, 11 thoracic, and 3 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 1–2 coccygeal (fused) vertebrae
The source-filter theory of speech production states that
the larynx filters the sound before the sound travels through the vocal tract
the resonating cavities of speech are the source of speech production
the oral cavity is the source of all English sounds
the nasal cavity is not important in speech production
the laryngeally produced sound is modified by the resonating cavities
Various arteries help supply blood to the face and the brain. Neurogenic
communication disorders are associated with interrupted blood supply to the brain. Of the following statements about the arteries that supply blood to the brain, which one is correct?
Internal carotid artery supplies the muscles of the face.
Damage to the external carotid artery causes aphasia.
Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area are supplied by the middle cerebral artery.
If an artery below the circle of Willis is blocked, the brain damage is maximal.
The anterior cerebral artery primarily supplies the occipital lobe.
change word meanings
are not variations of phonemes
are not perceived as the same
may not vary from production to production
may vary from production to production
Consonants and vowels have certain distinct characteristics. Of the following
statements, which one accurately distinguishes the two classes of speech sounds?
Vowels form the nucleus of syllables, whereas consonants release and arrest syllables.
Consonants are syllabic, whereas vowels cannot stand alone to form syllables.
The vocal tract is constricted for vowel productions, whereas it is open for consonantal productions.
Consonants may be described in terms of distinctive features, whereas vowels cannot be so described.
Airflow is continuous for consonants, whereas the flow is constricted for vowels.
Dynamics of speech production involve several important concepts. Select the
statement that accurately describes one of the concepts of speech production dynamics.
Phonetic adaptations refer to the influence of adjacent sounds on speech sound production.
Assimilation refers to changes in vocal tract configurations.
Phonetic adaptations refer to the variations in articulatory movements and changes in vocal tract configurations.
Assimilation refers to the variations in articulatory movements.
Coarticulation is not related to assimilation or adaptation.
As you analyze a language sample, you find an utterance made by the child: “big
pizza.” This utterance is an example of which type of semantic relation?
Action + locative
Agent + action
Attribute + locative
Attribute + entity
Possession + attribute
As you analyze a child’s language sample, you find that she uses many instances of
recurrence. Which of the following is an example of recurrence?
What would a child whose utterance contained an embedded form say?
“My dad drove me to school, and he dropped me off at the car-pool place.”
“Because I did my homework right after school, I got to play extra Game Boy.”
“My mom took away my cell phone because I didn’t get a good report card.”
“The teacher who gave a lot of homework wasn’t very popular.”
“We wanted to have a party; however, we had a school project to finish.”
A teacher has referred a second grader, Delanie, to you. As you assess Delanie’s
language, you see that she has difficulty with word endings. For example, she says things such as “My candy is tasty than yours” instead of “My candy is tastier than yours,” or “He was happy than she was” instead of “He was happier than she was.” Delanie is having difficulty specifically with which aspect of language?
You are working with Chad, a 10-year-old child who has a language impairment. The teacher tells you that other students get angry with Chad because he frequently says things such as “Gimme that pencil” and “Move your books over.” As a clinician, what will you focus on in therapy to help Chad get along better with others and have improved pragmatic skills?
Use of gerunds
Use of indirect requests
Use of complex sentences
Use of abstract adjectives
Use of derivational morphemes
A child being assessed for a possible language impairment says to you, “My dad
put my shoes on my feet before he drove me to school.” This sentence has shoes on my feet before he drove me to school.” This sentence has
14 words, 14 morphemes
14 words, 15 morphemes
14 words, 16 morphemes
14 words, 17 morphemes
14 words, 18 morphemes
As you evaluate the language of an eighth-grade boy, Derek, and listen to him talk about his hobbies and interests, he says things such as “I like to play football, and I also like Mario Cart Wii” and “My football team won the championship last Saturday; later, we celebrated at a pizza place.” What has Derek just used?
Compound sentences containing two independent clauses
Complex sentences containing two independent clauses
A compound and a complex sentence
Complex sentences containing two dependent clauses
Complex sentences containing an independent and a dependent clause
A mother brings her 4-year-old child, Aubrey, to you for an evaluation. She says that at preschool, children have difficulty understanding what Aubrey is saying. The preschool teachers are concerned because they think Aubrey “is behind in her pronunciation.” Your evaluation reveals that Aubrey does indeed need intervention, and you decide the most appropriate approach is a type of therapy based on metalinguistic awareness. In this therapy approach, you will help Aubrey improve her acquisition of rules of the phonological system. What will you be using?
McCabe and Bradley’s multiple phoneme approach
McDonald’s sensory-motor approach
Baker and Ryan’s Monterey Articulation Program
Van Riper’s approach
You are working closely with an orthodontist who frequently refers children to your prívate practice. Many of these children have protrusion of the maxilla and retrusion of the mandible accompanied by a condition in which the upper teeth from the molars forward are positioned excessively anterior to the lower teeth. What do these children have?
A class I malocclusion accompanied by underjet
A class II malocclusion accompanied by underjet
A class III malocclusion accompanied by overjet
A class III malocclusion accompanied by underjet
A class II malocclusion accompanied by overjet
You find that a child you have evaluated uses a number of phonological processes. One of those processes is stopping. You know this when you hear the child make what substitutions?
Sometimes specialists assess the lung volume of voice patients because breath
support is inadequate. Specialists can measure __________, or the total volume of air in the lungs; other measurements can include __________, or the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal breathing cycle; and __________, or the volume of air that the patient can exhale after a maximal inhalation.
total lung capacity, tidal volume, vital capacity
vital capacity, tidal capacity, total lung volume
vital capacity, total lung capacity, tidal volume
tidal volume, total lung capacity, vital volume
vital capacity, total lung volume, tidal volumen
What does the cover-body theory of phonation state?
The superficial layer of the lamina propria and much of the intermediate layer of the lamina propia vibrate as a “cover” on a relatively stationary “body,” which is made up of the remainder
of the intermediate layer, the deep layer, and the TA muscle.
The epithelium, the superficial layer of the lamina propria, and much of the intermediate layer of the lamina propria vibrate as a “cover” on a relatively stationary “body,” which is made up of
the remainder of the intermediate layer and the deep layer.
The epithelium, the superficial layer of the lamina propria, and much of the intermediate layer of the lamina propria vibrate as a “cover” on a relatively stationary “body,” which is made up of
the remainder of the intermediate layer, the deep layer, and the TA muscle.
The epithelium and much of the intermediate layer of the lamina propria vibrate as a “cover” on a relatively stationary “body,” which is made up of the remainder of the intermediate layer
and the TA muscle.
The epithelium, the deep layer of the lamina propria, and much of the superficial layer of the lamina propria vibrate as a “cover” on a relatively stationary “body,” which is made up of the
remainder of the superficial layer, the deep layer, and the TA muscle.
While working in a hospital setting, you are asked to evaluate a 70-year-old patient who has had a brainstem stroke. The medical records indicate that the patient has difficulty swallowing. When you conduct test swallow trials, you observe anterior tongue movements, food residue in the anterior and lateral sulcus, premature swallow, and reduced range of tongue elevation. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis you would make on this patient?
Predominantly a disorder of the oral phase
Predominantly a disorder of the pharyngeal phase
Predominantly a disorder of mastication
Predominantly a problem of delayed or absent swallowing reflex
Predominantly a problem of a tracheoesophageal fistula
You are watching an experienced clinician conduct swallowing therapy for a 68-
year-old woman with dysphagia. You note that the clinician teaches the patient to tilt her head forward while swallowing and to switch between liquid and semisolid swallows, and applies gentle pressure on one side of the thyroid cartilage during the swallow. This kind of treatment is appropriate for the disorders of which of the following phases?
The oral preparatory phase
The oral phase
The pharyngeal phase
The esophageal phase
The oral-esophageal phase
Which one of the following is a homophenous pair?
A researcher teaches a new book-reading program to caregivers of low-income
children and evaluates the language skills of the children before the implementation of the program and one year later. The researcher’s goal is to evaluate whether there is a relationship betweencaregivers’ implementation of the program and children’s growth in language skills. The researcher finds that there is an r = .13 correlational relationship between caregivers’ reported implementation of the program and children’s language skills. What can the researcher safely conclude?
There is a mildly significant cause-and-effect relationship between the caregivers’ implementation of the program and children’s language skills.
There is a strong negative correlation between the caregivers’ implementation of the program and children’s language skills.
There is a moderately significant cause-and-effect relationship between the caregivers’ implementation of the program and children’s language skills.
There is no significant relationship between the caregivers’ implementation of the program and children’s language skills.
There is a strong positive correlation between the caregivers’ implementation of the program and children’s language skills.
A hospital-based speech–language pathologist is serving increasing numbers of
patients with Parkinson’s disease. This clinician, Jason, works to help his patients
increase their intelligibility. One way that Jason evaluates the success of the therapy he provides for these patients is to rate their overall intelligibility of speech before and after they participate in 10 weeks of articulation and voice therapy. He finds that the patients appreciate these before-and-after measures of their progress. However, after seeing a number of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Jason realizes that a potential problem with his before-and-after intelligibility ratings is that he has become accustomed to the patients’ speech as he has gotten to know them, and this could be affecting the “after” intelligibility rating. Jason goes to a local university and selects four speech–language
pathology graduate students to watch before-and-after videos of his patients and independently rate each patient’s intelligibility. He finds that, happily, the four students’ ratings of the same patients vary little. For example, Student A rates Patient 1 as “90% intelligible after 10 weeks of therapy;” Student B rates Patient 1 as “92% intelligible,” and Students C and D rate this same patient as “88% intelligible.” In this situation, what can one conclude?
There is low interjudge reliability.
There is high interjudge reliability.
There is moderate interjudge reliability.
There is low intrajudge reliability.
There is high intrajudge reliability.
You have been asked to give an in-service to a group of students who wish to
eventually specialize in service delivery to children with cleft palates and their families. The students want to know detailed information about in utero development of the hard and soft palate (among other things). You can accurately tell them that in utero the hard palate fuses between which developmental ages?
ASHA (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) regulates professional
practice in speech–language pathology and audiology by specifying the scope of
practice. According to the existing scope-of-practice documents, which of the following statements is false?
ASHA does not allow infant feeding by speech–language pathologists (SLPs).
Memory and such other cognitive aspects of communication disorders are within the SLP’s scope of practice.
SLPs should not treat esophageal-phase swallowing disorders.
Counseling is not just the province of psychologists; SLPs, too, can counsel their clients.
Sensory awareness training related to swallowing disorders is within the SLP’s scope of practice.
The Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) passed by the U.S. Congress mandates certain rules that all health professionals must follow. Of the following statements regarding HIPAA, select the one that is correct.
Consumers who think their privacy may have been violated by a medical provider can complain only to the provider in question.
The law (HIPAA) does not provide for civil or criminal penalties for facilities that misuse patient information.
HIPAA regulations apply to hospitals and medical doctors, not to other allied health professionals.
HIPAA regulations do not cover electronically transmitted medical records of patients.
Medical information about a patient may be shared by other professionals who serve the same patient, but it cannot be released for purposes unrelated to the care of the patient.
A clinician in a private practice is approached by the parents of Cole, a 5-year-old
boy. They want to place Cole in kindergarten in the fall, but they share that “we know there’s something wrong with him; we’re just not sure what.” According to Cole’s parents, he is a “sweet, lovable boy who will go to anybody. He likes to sing a lot, too.” Because the parents live in a rural area, health-care access has been limited. After seeing Cole for the first time, the clinician refers his parents to a neurologist because she suspects that Cole has a syndrome. Cole is small for his age and has an elfin-like appearance characterized by a small chin, turned-up nose, puffiness around the eyes, a long upper lip, and a wide mouth. Cole’s teeth are small and widely spaced. What does the clinician suspect that Cole has?
Cri du chat syndrome
Before an SLP initiates voice intervention, it is most important that the SLP
gather information about the
A child with discourse problems is most likely to need remediation directed at
which of the following?
An initial lexicon
The sensorimotor integration of the muscles of the lower face depends on
which two of the cranial nerves?
The accessory and hypoglossal
The trigeminal and facial
The vagus and glossopharyngeal
The phrenic and facial
A 42-year-old client with upper-and lower-extremity weakness and a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is referred for a speech-language evaluation. The
evaluation reveals a progressive severe dysarthria that is characterized by
imprecise articulation secondary to bilateral facial and lingual weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations; mild-to-moderate hypernasality and weak pressure consonants with associated nasal emission during speech; and strained, harsh, groaning voice quality with occasional inhalatory stridor. Speech intelligibility is poor. Which of the following will most effectively improve this client’s ability to communicate?
An SLP sees a college-educated 22-year-old man who has sustained a brain
injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident eighteen months earlier. The man was unconscious for five days and had posttraumatic amnesia for three months. In the last year he has held three unskilled jobs, from which he was released for
unspecified reasons. Based on the information given, the man’s most pervasive
condition is most likely impaired
attention and memory