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The only state that still permits the firing squad as a possible form of execution is?
Survey methodology did not become a powerful research tool until the?
Every western European country has banned capital punishment, except?
none of the these
The goal of the statistical theory of sampling is?
To match the sampler's views with a public response
To account for wide variances in public opinion on controversial issues
To reflect the views of the population with some predictable degree of accuracy
To obtain the view of every individual in the population
The accuracy of the population sample used for public opinion polls depends on?
Randomness of selection, size of sample, and variation in population
The factors of believability and reliability
Whether telephoning or direct contact is used to draw the sample
The care with which questions are written and asked
One of the nation's oldest polls, the_____________, was started in the 1930's, and was most notably wrong in 1948 when it predicted that Thomas Dewey, the Republican candidate, would defeat the Democratic candidate incumbent, Harry Truman in the presidential election.
Today, college students are much more ______________ than the general public
When elementary schools introduce students to authority figures outside the family, like the teacher, they prepare students for the value of _________; when they stress norms of democratic decision making and respecting the opinions of others, they teach _________.
As a general trend, college-educated individuals are more likely to choose?
Social Order over freedom
Equality over freedom
Freedom over social order
Equality over social order
Which of the following statements concerning ideological “moderates” is correct?
Many people identify as “moderate” because they do not understand the alternatives.
Moderates tend to have higher than average incomes and education.
Moderates are as likely as liberals and conservatives to correctly identify ideologies
Fewer Americans identify as “moderate” than as liberal or conservative
The civil rights guarantee of “equal protection of the laws” is located in the ?
the Civil Rights Act of 1875
the Declaration of Independence
the Fourteenth Amendment
the Sixth Amendment
A primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot is a(n) ________ primary.
The outcome of the1800 presidential election between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr was so close that the election was decided by the?
electoral college on a second ballot
House of Representatives
__________, candidate for president in 1992, ran as an independent and won 19 percent of the popular vote.
__________ captured the presidency in 1968 and won five of the eleven southern states in the old Confederacy, signaling an electoral realignment that has seen Republican candidates for president do very well in the south.
From 1860 to 1930
the Democrats won most presidential elections
the Republicans won most presidential elections
the Democrats and Republicans won about the same number of presidential elections.
the Democrats, then the Republicans won most presidential elections.
In response to the increase in the number of citizens eligible to vote in the 1820s and 1830s, political parties
ran more candidates for office
downplayed the use of party platforms
devised the national convention for nominating presidents.
restricted the use of popular elections to select presidential electors.
Which of the following statements best describes the attitude of the American people toward political parties?
Americans feel strong personal loyalties to their parties
Americans recognize the value of parties but distrust the existing ones.
Americans are ideologically divided, as are parties
Americans see parties as inherently undemocratic
Who was the leader of the Federalists?
The early Republicans (also known as the Democratic Republicans) were led by
Those that supported the new Constitution were called __________, and those who opposed it were called __________.
A method of delegate selection that begins with local meetings and culminates in a state convention is also known as the
A state moves its primary to an earlier date to encourage presidential candidates who would otherwise have skipped that state to campaign there. This is known as
A Silent primary
A Horse race
Successful candidates for party nominations for the presidency owe their nominations primarily to
their own personal campaign organizations
the backing of the national party organization
interest group endorsements and support
endorsements from newspapers and television stations
There are a total of _________ votes in the electoral college.
In 2000, Republican George W. Bush won the presidency despite
his failure to win his party’s nomination
his losing more states than Al Gore
winning fewer electoral college votes than Democrat Al Gore
receiving fewer popular votes than Al Gore
The number of electoral votes needed to win the presidency
If no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral college votes, the election is decided by
the U.S. Congress.
the U.S. Supreme Court.
the House of Representatives.
A voter who determines which candidate he or she will vote for very early in the campaign most likely has based that decision on
the media’s perception of the front-runner
the candidate’s stand on a particular issue of importance
the candidate’s projected image
Which of the following statements about unconventional participation is not true?
It challenges existing government channels or institutions.
It violates principles or beliefs of the dominant culture.
It always involves working outside the rules of democratic politics.
It may be effective for those who have been otherwise excluded from participation in a democratic polity.
Which of the following was the first known act of unconventional participation in America?
The Boston Tea Party
The Revolutionary War
The Declaration of Independence
Americans are less likely to __________ than citizens of other countries
be interested in politics
A practical test of whether or not a government is democratic is whether
people can operate outside government institutions to influence policymaking.
conventional political action consists largely of influencing behaviors and not supportive behaviors.
direct action is necessary for government to hear citizens’ views.
citizens can affect its policies by acting through its institutions
A legal action brought by a person or group on behalf of a number of people in similar circumstances is also known as a(n)
class action suit.
A direct primary is a
direct vote on a proposed law.
preliminary election to choose party candidates.
procedure by which voters can propose a law to be considered by the legislature.
recorded position on an issue by an interest group.
Most referenda are placed on the ballot by
Characteristics frequently associated with nonvoters are
low education, high income, and being middle-aged.
high education, low income, and being relatively old.
low education, low income, and being relatively young
low income and general apathy.
A 2009 study showed that half of all voters are unaware that they can
vote by mail.
register at motor vehicle offices.
vote for U.S. Senators.
switch political parties.
The majoritarian model of democracy favors
resourceful individuals seeking particularized benefits.
better-educated, wealthier citizens.
both conventional and unconventional forms of participation.
voting as the primary means of participation.
The primary goal of interest groups is to
influence public policy.
educate the public about issues.
provide campaign donations.
fight corruption in government.
Alexis de Tocqueville believed that the American tendency to join associations
would decline as the country grew.
was a threat to democracy.
reflected a strong democratic culture.
could lead to factionalism.
_________ believe that interest groups further democracy by broadening representation within the system.
An important idea of pluralist theory is that
most interest groups work for the good of the majority.
the institutions of government will ignore interest groups regardless of their orientation.
people join groups for benefits, regardless of current circumstances.
new interest groups naturally form when the need arises.
When the air you breathe is made cleaner as a result of lobbying done by an interest group to which you do not belong, you are an example of
a program monitor.
a free rider.
the PAC problem.
__________ make sure that people in government know what their members want and that their organizations know what the government is doing.
Federal agency administrators
The lobbyist’s primary job involves
passing information on to their employers and to policymakers.
mobilizing campaign contributors.
trading on favors.
A strategy that relies on a group representative’s personal contact with policymakers is
Most lobbyists believe that public testimony before congressional committees
is the most effective way of influencing legislation.
should be televised so that all citizens have access to this information.
should be a matter of public record.
is less important than are private one-on-one meetings.
The most common form of grassroots lobbying involves
web page building.
__________ weaken parties more because it allows voters to float between parties rather than require the voters to participate in the party in which they are registered.
In 2011, President Obama announced his candidacy for reelection
in a two-minute YouTube video.
on the front lawn of the White House.
in a cable news channel interview.
on his campaign Facebook page.
Supporters of the new technological journalism make all but the following defense of the new era?
Readers will still want investigative, local, and international reporting.
In 2011, a non-profit online news site won a Pulitzer for its Wall Street coverage
Traditional media, such as newspapers, are successfully reinventing themselves as online ventures
The spread of mobile technology allows information to reach bigger audiences
A poll of Americans who had seen or heard of Michael Moore’s 2007 documentary Sicko found that _________ changed their mind and said health-care reform was more necessary.
So far, the only major paper with a long-standing successful practice of charging its online readers for content is
the Wall Street Journal.
the Washington Post.
the New York Times.
Since 2009, most prominent weekly news magazines
have seen a resurgence in readership circulation.
have declined in recent years as much as newspaper circulation has declined.
have reinvented themselves as online publications.
have formed content-distribution partnerships with radio and television stations.
The Internet was started
in 1989, by Bill Gates for Microsoft’s Windows products.
in 1972, by a group of thirty-seven universities.
in 1920, after the Great Depression.
in 1969, with support from the U.S. Department of Defense.
A 2011 news analysis found that cable TV was particularly devoted to __________ whereas online news sites and newspapers provided more coverage of __________.
local news; election coverage
economic news; foreign affairs
election coverage; foreign affairs
local news; economic news
The five members of the Federal Communications Commission
are appointed by the president.
are chosen by Congress.
serve life terms.
are selected by a council chosen by the broadcast industry.
The _________ prohibits Congress from abridging freedom of the press.
One difference between media habits of men and women is that
women are more likely to get their news from radio.
women are more likely to get their news from television.
women listen to more sources of news than men do.
women are more interested in programming about the economy.