_____ is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.
_____ is the degree to which workers possess the knowledge, skills, and talent needed to do a job well.
_____ are factors beyond the control of individual employees, such as tools, policies, and resources that have an effect on job performance.
McClelland's Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are the needs for _____.
power, achievement, and affiliation
affiliation, existence, and power
existence, relatedness, and growth
power, self-actualization, and growth
achievement, relatedness, and growth
On the basis of research evidence, the two basic categories of needs are _____.
physiological and psychological needs
tangible and intangible needs
extrinsic and intrinsic needs
realized and unrealized needs
higher-order and lower-order needs
Which of the following statements is true of needs ?
Higher-order needs can be used to motivate people in any situation.
Once lower-order needs are satisfied, it is easy for managers to predict which higher-order needs will motivate behavior.
Higher-order needs will not motivate people as long as lower-order needs remain unsatisfied.
The relative importance of various needs changes over time in a predictable pattern.
Higher-order needs are only concerned with survival and security.
According to the model of work motivation and performance, an unsatisfied need produces _____.
Which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?
A sense of achievement
A salary increase
A pride from accomplishing a difficult task
A chance to learn something new from a task
A feeling of responsibility
_____ are the natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
Which of these methods will work best in motivating employees to increase their efforts?
Asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
Relying on the innate value of extrinsic rewards
Satisfying higher-order needs first
Setting reasonably high standards to stimulate employees to make use of their abilities
Expecting employees' needs to remain stable over time
According to _____, people will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly.
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory
Which of the following is a basic component of equity theory?
the two basic kinds of inequity are
intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
balanced and unbalanced rewards
underreward and overreward
higher-order and lower-order inequities
valence and instrumentality
Which of the following factors is directly affected by perceived inequity?
In equity theory, _____ is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly allocated.
_____ holds that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory
According to the expectancy theory, ____ affect the conscious choices that people make about their motivation.
valence, expectancy, and instrumentality
equity, competency, and instrumentality
expectancy, reinforcement, and instrumentality
expectancy, equity, and reinforcement
instrumentality, equity, and expectancy
In terms of expectancy theory, when _____ is strong, employees believe that their hard work and efforts will result in good performance, so they work harder.
Reinforcement theory says that behavior is a function of _____.
the situations in which it occurs
The two parts of reinforcement are ____.
positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
interval reinforcement and ratio reinforcement
reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement
continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement
reinforcement temporality and reinforcement administration
_____ can increase the frequency of a particular behavior.
_____ is a reinforcement strategy that weakens behavior by removing a positive consequence associated with the behavior.
In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, a consequence follows every instance of a behavior.
According to business professor Fred Luthans, one of the steps to motivating workers with reinforcement theory is "identify" that means:
studying causes and consequences of performance-related behaviors.
determining the baseline frequencies of performance-related behaviors.
assessing the extent to which an intervention actually changes workers' behavior.
singling out critical, observable, performance-related behaviors.
changing organization by using positive and negative reinforcement to increase the frequency of critical behaviors.
Which of the following is NOT a basic component of goal-setting theory?