study guide

Question 1 of 145

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The patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior referred to as:

Select one of the following:

  • Social structure

  • Foundational organization

  • Political organization

  • Social differences

  • Elitism

Question 2 of 145

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Fear of witchcraft accusations would best be categorized as:

Select one of the following:

  • A formal mechanism of justice.

  • An informal mechanism of social control

  • A use of psychology by authorities to control unwanted society members

  • Irrational, since witches do not exist in any society

  • The best way to avoid being the victim of a witch or sorcerer

Question 3 of 145

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A society's political organization is primarily related to:

Select one of the following:

  • The ecology of the area that they inhabit.

  • The degrees of access individuals and groups have to basic material resources.

  • The presence of powerful individuals within the society

  • The political organization of neighboring societies

  • Whether or not they were ever colonized

Question 4 of 145

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An important way of resolving conflict in band-level societies involves all of the following except:

Select one of the following:

  • Ridicule

  • Individuals moving from one band to another

  • Contests between individuals

  • Public confession

  • Imprisonment

Question 5 of 145

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In a society that is characterized by age grades:

Select one of the following:

  • Chiefs control all of the critical material resources

  • People follow a well-ordered progression through a series of age-related life stages.

  • Rituals are rarely necessary

  • People who lack the necessary skills to progress to the next grade are cast out of society

  • People are very unlikely to make significant investments in warfare

Question 6 of 145

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Which of the following best characterizes "ethnic groups"?

Select one of the following:

  • A group of families living in a well-defined geographical location

  • A group of individuals who are, at some level, all biologically related to each other

  • A group of people who all speak the same language

  • A gorup of people who all seem to others to look like each other

  • A group of people who view themselves as sharing an identity that separates them from others in society

Question 7 of 145

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The tribal "big man" is an inherited position of leadership

Select one of the following:

  • True

  • False

Question 8 of 145

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A tribal society:

Select one of the following:

  • Is a creation of Western colonial administrators and not naturally occurring

  • Imagines all of its members to be related by kinship

  • Is characterized by peaceful relations among its different segments

  • Lacks any social mechanisms to hold its different units together

  • Is constantly in a state of warfare

Question 9 of 145

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A religious cosmology, or world view, functions primarily to:

Select one of the following:

  • Give meaning and order to the lives of believers

  • Differentiate primitive from civilized societies

  • Increase technical control over the physical environment

  • Increase the upper class' control of the lower class

  • Keep a society in a constant state of conflict

Question 10 of 145

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Prayer and magic are most likely to be used when:

Select one of the following:

  • People are superstitious

  • The outcome of an event is uncertain

  • People are not Christians

  • The outcome of an event is certain and the success of the technique is assured

  • People have sufficient time to carefully consider an event

Question 11 of 145

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Use of the world "myth" is problematic in anthropology because:

Select one of the following:

  • Many things we call myths are true

  • Since "myth" is generally used to talk about ancient culture, it is more appropriate to history or archaeology

  • We tend to use it to describe others' beliefs that we consider false but rarely apply it to our own beliefs

  • "Myths" generally refer to origin stories but religious tories cover many subjects

  • The central characters of "myths" are generally hero figures, but understanding these isn't very important in anthropology

Question 12 of 145

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The Christian notion that reenacting the Last Supper stands for communion with God is an example of:

Select one of the following:

  • Superstition

  • Science

  • Prophecy

  • Magic

  • Symbolism

Question 13 of 145

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A primary function of rites of intensification is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Help an individual through a personal crisis

  • Help a young man in his search for a guardian spirit

  • Regulate male-female conflict within a society

  • Reinforce the values and norms of the community and strengthen group identity

  • Restrain the ghosts of dead people from taking revenge on the living

Question 14 of 145

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The purpose of divination is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Get in contact with the divine

  • Find water

  • Prove that God exists

  • Find something hidden

  • Cast a spell on an enemy

Question 15 of 145

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A sorcerer who manipulates the fingernails of an intended victim to cause harm to that person is using:

Select one of the following:

  • Mythological magic

  • Contagious magic

  • Ecological magic

  • Psychological reductionism

  • Superstitious magic

Question 16 of 145

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In anthropology, the term "priest" refers to:

Select one of the following:

  • Anyone who considers themselves a true believer in any religion

  • A member of the Catholic clergy

  • A religious leader who claims to be able to personally converse with God

  • Someone who has made a life-long study of religion

  • A person formally elected, appointed, or hired to a full-time religious office

Question 17 of 145

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_____ is a religious order that contains a combination of different religious

Select one of the following:

  • Atheism

  • Mannerism

  • Super religion

  • Philosophical religions

  • Syncretism

Question 18 of 145

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A type of a religious spirit thought of - "As a figure having the thought processes and emotions similar to humans" is known as

Select one of the following:

  • Anthropomorphic

  • Anthropopsychic

  • Ghosts

  • Zoomorphic

  • Naturalistic

Question 19 of 145

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A nativistic religious movement is:

Select one of the following:

  • An attempt by an economically powerful group to maintain its control of society.

  • A religious movement that looks to the re-establishment of a past golden age

  • A series of rituals designed to determine who is and who is not a true member of a group

  • An ecclesiastical movement to convert nonbelievers

  • An attempt by the state to impose state religion on its citizens

Question 20 of 145

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Which of the following is the most important function of marriage?

Select one of the following:

  • Agreement between parties to maximize sexual competition

  • Creation of a stable environment in which to raise children

  • Arrangement between families for economic gain

  • Accord between individuals so that they can obtain political status

  • Ritual ordained by religion so that the church can endure

Question 21 of 145

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If you live in a society that practices exogamy, you must:

Select one of the following:

  • Have more than one husband or wife

  • Get married (no one is allowed to be a single adult)

  • Marry someone of your own social group

  • Marry someone of a different social group

  • Marry someone chosen by your mother's parents

Question 22 of 145

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One of the exceptions to the almost universal prohibition on brother/sister marriage was among:

Select one of the following:

  • The Toda of India

  • The Tiwi of Australia

  • The ancient Hawaiian royalty

  • The Kipsigis of East Africa

  • Medieval European royalty

Question 23 of 145

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In a system of cross-cousin marriage, a man would be required to marry:

Select one of the following:

  • His mother's sister's daughter

  • His mother's brother's daughter

  • His father's brother's daughter

  • A woman with whom he has no blood relations

  • A member of his own village

Question 24 of 145

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When a society practices polygyny:

Select one of the following:

  • Most men will have more than one wife

  • Some men will have more than one wife

  • Some women will have more than one husband

  • Most women will have more than one husband

  • Some men will have more than one wife and some women will have more than one husband

Question 25 of 145

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If your society has avunculocal residence, then, after marriage, a new couple will be expected to live with:

Select one of the following:

  • The husband's family

  • The wife's family

  • The chief's family

  • Their maternal grandmother's family

  • The husband's mother's brother's family

Question 26 of 145

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Neolocal residence is when a couple can choose to live with either the wife or the husband's family

Select one of the following:

  • True

  • False

Question 27 of 145

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The practice of _____ is when a man's wife ies, and the deceased woman's sister is given to him as a wife

Select one of the following:

  • Levirate

  • Polygyny

  • Incestuous union

  • Sororate

  • Polyandry

Question 28 of 145

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Which of the following post marital residential pattern is usually practiced by people of matrilineal lineage?

Select one of the following:

  • Patrilocal

  • Matrilocal

  • Neolocal

  • Avunlocal

  • Matrilineal

Question 29 of 145

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Margaret Mead's study of the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli showed that:

Select one of the following:

  • Women in all cultures have the same personality traits

  • Only in the US are women primarily concerned with child care

  • The relationship between gender and personality varies with cultural expectations

  • Where women work, they are more likely to be aggressive

  • Where women's qualities are valued, men's qualities are likely to be devalued

Question 30 of 145

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Men in Andalusia, Spain generally view women as:

Select one of the following:

  • Angels

  • Lustful

  • Naive

  • Trustworth

  • More intelligent than men

Question 31 of 145

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The hijra subculture:

Select one of the following:

  • Has no connection to the rest of Indian society

  • Is ignored by Indian society

  • Was introduced by the British into Indian society

  • Has disappeared from Indian society

  • Has a ritual role in Indian society

Question 32 of 145

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One of the world's most sexually repressed societies is the:

Select one of the following:

  • Inuit

  • Irish of Inis Beag

  • Peasant villages of Southern Spain

  • Arapesh of New Guinea

  • United States of America

Question 33 of 145

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In gender studies, the idea of the public/private dichotomy refers to the notion that:

Select one of the following:

  • Behavior of both men and women is different in the public sphere than in the private sphere

  • Men act differently toward women in the public than they do in private

  • Women are able to maintain more power over men if their actions are public than if they are private

  • Private relationships between men and women are threatened by public disclosure

  • Societies are divided into a private world dominated by women and a public world dominated by men

Question 34 of 145

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Which of the following is common in horticultural societies?

Select one of the following:

  • Men's cults are closed to women

  • Women earn their living by market trading

  • Women control the cash crop, but men control subsistence crops

  • Men are likely to adopt innovations rapidly, but women are not

  • Women are key religious leaders

Question 35 of 145

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An alternative gender role in Tahiti is known as _____

Select one of the following:

  • Berdache

  • Koho basia

  • Mahu

  • Xanith

  • Hijra

Question 36 of 145

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The idea that gender is "constructed" means that:

Select one of the following:

  • Most cultures have few expectations about behavior as it relates to gender

  • In a free society, like the US, we can take on any gender characteristics we like

  • Masculine and feminine are essentially the same in all cultures, and any differences across cultures are relatively superficial

  • Gender is established by social norms and values rather than biology

  • Gender traits are best analyzed with reference to material items, especially the built enviroment

Question 37 of 145

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According to the readings in the Elvio book, "The Haitian article" states that Haitians believe that Zombies are the living dead raised from their graves by malevolent ____

Select one of the following:

  • French Catholic priests

  • Nuer sorcerers

  • Voodoo sorcerers

  • Traditional African priests

  • The devil in the Christian faith

Question 38 of 145

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According to the Haitians article the case of Clavius who returned to his sister and claimed to be a zombie was unique because

Select one of the following:

  • He looked just like a regular person

  • There is medical record that he actually died at an American directed hospital

  • Proved that Zombies have good memory

  • He remember his death and burial

Question 39 of 145

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Which of the following correctly defines "bride service"?

Select one of the following:

  • A ritual done in many cultures in which a man pledges his daughter to the son of a friend

  • Payments made by the family of the bride to the family of the groom

  • Payments made to cover the cost of rituals associated with marriage

  • Labor preformed by the groom for the family of the bride

  • Gifts given to a newly married couple, particularly grifts associated with preparing and serving food

Question 40 of 145

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Gender has to do with our biological sexual characteristics while our sex is the cultural role assigned to men and women

Select one of the following:

  • True

  • False

Question 41 of 145

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Which of the following is true of fraternal polyandry in Tibet?

Select one of the following:

  • All the brothers are equal in authority

  • The wife is supposed to favor the elder brother sexually

  • It is not important to link children biologically to particular brothers

  • All of the above

Question 42 of 145

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As the Kayapo of the Xingu River Basin in Souther America demonstrate, people in non-industrial societies:

Select one of the following:

  • Do not understand their enviroment

  • Have very simple methods for managing their resources

  • Would be better off with modern technology

  • Are committed to becoming modernized

  • Have adapted to their environments without the use of modern science

Question 43 of 145

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Historically, the greatest source of environmental degradation has been:

Select one of the following:

  • Slash and burn farming practiced by traditional peoples

  • Consumer desires and energy needs in wealthy nations

  • Slash and burn farming practiced by modern peasants

  • Traditional agriculture done without soil erosion control techniques

  • Collection and burning of wood for cooking fires in large cities in poor nations

Question 44 of 145

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The major areas of pastoralism are found in:

Select one of the following:

  • East Africa, the Australian desert, and the Canadian arctice

  • North AMerica, the highlands of South America, and the Pacific Islands

  • East Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Subarctic

  • Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa

  • South American tropical forests, the Australian desert, and North Africa

Question 45 of 145

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A critical form of cultural knowledge trypically passed from fathers to elder sons in Maasai society is:

Select one of the following:

  • Hunting techniques in a marginal environment

  • Environmental knowledge and how livestock is moved

  • Market trade and economic partners

  • Traditional healing techniques

  • Means of contacting the supernatural and asking for abundance

Question 46 of 145

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Which of the following best illustrates transhumant pastoralism?

Select one of the following:

  • The male cattle pastoralists of East Africa have two settlements and move their herds between these, while the women stay in the permanent dwelling year-round

  • The Saami reindeer herders and their families move across the frozen landscape during the winter months and in the summer take jobs as day laborers

  • The Yarahmadzai of Iran move with the entire village during the year from settlement to settlement, never knowing where they will be next

  • The Quechua herd their alpacas from one pasture to another as needed, depending on the climate. They never move their residence.

Question 47 of 145

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Rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, more complex state societies are called:

Select one of the following:

  • Farmers

  • Horticulturalists

  • Agriculturalists

  • Peasants

  • Peons

Question 48 of 145

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Agriculture is characterized by a:

Select one of the following:

  • Simple technology, such as the use of a digging stick

  • Low population densities when compared with other food getting strategies

  • Relatively complex techniques of water and soil control

  • Slashing and burning of forest cover

  • Nomadic movement of village populations

Question 49 of 145

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According to "When Brothers Share a Wife," polyandry in Tibet

Select one of the following:

  • is considered detrimental to social structure

  • is based on the need for population growth

  • consists of brothers marrying the same woman

  • causes early death for many women

Question 50 of 145

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The yield per person per unit of land is known as the population density

Select one of the following:

  • True

  • False

Question 51 of 145

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Which of the following was true of hunter-gatherer societies

Select one of the following:

  • resources equally distributed

  • primarily polygamous

  • centralized leadership

  • all of the above

  • none of the above

Question 52 of 145

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Which of the following was true of hunter-gatherer societies

Select one of the following:

  • resources equally distributed

  • primarily polygamous

  • centralized leadership

  • all of the above

  • none of the above

Question 53 of 145

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musha is the money sent back to the village by migrant labor

Select one of the following:

  • true

  • false

Question 54 of 145

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the number of individuals supported persquare mile of earth is called maximum capacity of the land

Select one of the following:

  • true

  • false

Question 55 of 145

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how is pastoralism different from ranching

Select one of the following:

  • pastoralists raise their animals on semi-arid grasslands whose vegetation is not a human food source, while ranchers feed their livestock grain, a human food source

  • while ranchers see their animals of sources of meat and wealth, pastoralists, see their animals as spirits

  • among the ranching groups animals are fed only grass while in pastoralist groups animals are fed human food on special occasions

  • ranchers often consider their animals as part of their family whereas vegetation in a pastoral society animals are associated with the spirit world

Question 56 of 145

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the integration of resources, labor, and capital into a global network is called ___

Select one of the following:

  • production

  • globalization

  • sedentism

  • transhumant tradition

  • democracy

Question 57 of 145

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in a typical, traditional japanese family, according to 'who needs love,' the husband

Select one of the following:

  • does not tell his wife that he likes her or thank her for what she does for him

  • spends very little time with the children

  • spends little time talking to his wife

  • all of the above

  • none of the above

Question 58 of 145

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the critical elements of any economic system are:

Select one of the following:

  • reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange

  • production, distribution and consumption

  • currency, capital, and exchange

  • government, exchange and consumption

  • agriculture, trade and taxation

Question 59 of 145

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in economics, economizing behavior is

Select one of the following:

  • behavior designed to save money for a household

  • choosing to buy a generic rather than a name brand product

  • attempting to increase profits by investing savings

  • only present in capitalistic market economies

  • making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit

Question 60 of 145

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in economics, economizing behavior is

Select one of the following:

  • behavior designed to save money for a household

  • choosing to buy a generic rather than a name brand product

  • attempting to increase profits by investing savings

  • only present in capitalistic market economies

  • making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit

Question 61 of 145

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material goods, natural resources or information used to create other goods or information is known as the

Select one of the following:

  • econoimc system

  • consumption resources

  • distributive resources

  • productive resources

  • economizing behavior

Question 62 of 145

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among the lacandon maya, an extensive cultivating society:

Select one of the following:

  • indivuduals have the right to buy and sell any land use

  • individuals retain right to land they have cleared even if they leave it fallow

  • individuals and families must petition the chief yearly for an allotment of land

  • individuals may not buy and sell land but heads of families may do so

  • individuals may only gain access to land through inheritance

Question 63 of 145

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among extensive cultivators, one of the key factors that determine whether land will be considered exclusive and defended is

Select one of the following:

  • contact with western cultures

  • the types of crops planted

  • the presence of irrigation works

  • the presence of warrior societies

  • the relationship of land and population

Question 64 of 145

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peasants generally

Select one of the following:

  • own the land that they farm

  • support a wealthy, landowning class

  • have higher standards of living than horticultralists

  • become landowners if the work hard enough

  • survive only by doing part time factory work for wages

Question 65 of 145

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one critical economic difference between a firm and a household is

Select one of the following:

  • firms look for profit in their cash transactions, households rarely do

  • firms have no obligations to the communities in which they are found; households have many

  • firms have grow with relative ease, but the structure of households limits their growth

  • firms may expand their size through hiring new members but the membership of a household is fixed

  • firms usually behave in a manner that is economically rational, households rarely do

Question 66 of 145

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marcel mauss, and many other anthropologists, theorized than an important function of gift giving is to:

Select one of the following:

  • hold societies together

  • expand th technological base of a society

  • build up the economic resources of some families at the expense of other families

  • provide an outlet for the innate human desire to give and receive gifts

  • build up the power of the state

Question 67 of 145

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generalized reciprocity is the dominant form of exchange in:

Select one of the following:

  • foraging societies

  • pastoral societies

  • chiefdoms

  • peasant agricultural societies

  • state societies

Question 68 of 145

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for the trobriand islanders, the central part of the kula trade is:

Select one of the following:

  • the opportunity to prove their manhood by taking long sea voyages

  • trading for types of food that are unavailable on their home island

  • trading for bracelets and armbands

  • the opportunity to meet potential mates

  • the after-parties that accompany all trading

Question 69 of 145

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kluckhohn showed when the navajo traded with outsiders

Select one of the following:

  • they were extremely careful to be honest and fair

  • they engaged in silent trade, placing the goods they wanted to trade in the open and accepting whatever their trading partners gave

  • they were particularly interested in jewelry and less interested in money

  • it was considered morally acceptable to deceive

  • they generally got taken

Question 70 of 145

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which of the following might a chief at a potlatch be likely to do?

Select one of the following:

  • ask god for forgiveness of his sins

  • brag about his wealth and power

  • praise the wealth and power of the people he has invited

  • demand that his followers worship him

  • demand that those whom he invited give him gifts

Question 71 of 145

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which of the following best describes the economics of potlatch of the tribes of the pacific northwest coast

Select one of the following:

  • an irrational destruction of valuable property

  • an imitation of european parties and feasting

  • the most fundamental reason why these tribes have such a low standard of living

  • a method increasing productivity and distributing food and goods to a large dispersed population

  • an expression of a cultural value that emphasizes charity and helping the poor

Question 72 of 145

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in mexico, a cargo is

Select one of the following:

  • the amount of a handicraft that can be produced in a single day

  • the requreiment that women carry water and cook food for the family

  • the quantity of a crop that can be carried from field to village

  • the obligation of a son-in-law to provide for his wife's parents

  • a religious office held for a year and requiring substantial financial outlay

Question 73 of 145

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today's market exchange system can be characterized by the phrase, 'caveat emptor,' which means;

Select one of the following:

  • let the buyer beware

  • all trade is equal

  • you break it, you buy it

  • fair trade is empty trade

  • heed all warnings

Question 74 of 145

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which of the following is one of the fundamental attributes of capitalism

Select one of the following:

  • people in capitalist societies sell their labor for wages in order to survive

  • government plays a very little role in the regulation of the economy

  • all people in capitalist societies are involved in capitalism

  • ownership of capital resources is spread roughly evenly throughout the population

  • people receive approximately the full value of their labor

Question 75 of 145

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according to patricia gadsby ('the intuit paradox') the northern food chain is threatened by

Select one of the following:

  • global warming

  • land development

  • industrial pollutants

  • all of the above

  • none of the above

Question 76 of 145

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as shown in 'the inuit paradox' the eskimo did well on

Select one of the following:

  • low protein and low fat diets

  • high protein and high fat diets

  • minimal carbohydrates

  • excessive carbohydrates

Question 77 of 145

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a practice, value, or aspect of social organization that results in lessening of the true disparities of wealth in a society is called a(n) ___

Select one of the following:

  • productivity mechanism

  • fairness mechanism

  • leveling mechanism

  • foraging mechanism

  • market mechanism

Question 78 of 145

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which kinship system is the matrilineal equivalent of the omaha system?

Select one of the following:

  • hawaiian

  • iroquois

  • eskimo

  • sudanese

  • crow

Question 79 of 145

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kinship is important to the study of anthropology because

Select one of the following:

  • it explains political rights and obligations for all industrialized societies

  • it determines the economic system of all societies

  • it plays the key role in determining rights and obligations in nonindustrial societies

  • it determines the foundation of all market economies in industrial socities

  • it is the only social institution present in foraging and tribal societies

Question 80 of 145

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a correct conclusion from the chapter regarding kinship in modern, complex societies is that kinship;

Select one of the following:

  • has no place in these societies

  • is more important than other forms of belonging, such as citizenship

  • is more important as a basis of social relationships than in more traditional societies

  • plays an important but not central role in establishing rights and relationships

  • is more important among lower than the upper class

Question 81 of 145

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all of the following are basic functions of kinship except:

Select one of the following:

  • it reveals who is biologically related to whom

  • it defines the members of society on which an individual can depend for help

  • it sets up the transfer of property from one to another generation

  • it sets up the succession within family as social positions are transferred across generations

  • it serves as a way of structuring society

Question 82 of 145

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in a system of unilineal descent

Select one of the following:

  • the grandfather is recognized as the only father

  • descent groups, which include relatives from both the father's and the mother's side, are formed

  • a household is composed of a man, his wife, his sons, and their children

  • a man is not allowed to marry his cousin

  • an individual belongs to the descent group of either the mother or the father, but not both

Question 83 of 145

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traditionally in korean villages, the eldest son inherited most of his parents' property. in erturn, he was required to:

Select one of the following:

  • educate his brothers and sisters at the university

  • worship his parents as ancestors after their death

  • sell the remaining property at the best price he could get

  • live in a lavish life style to bring prestige to his family

  • live in relative poverty, assuring that brothers and sisters were well cared for

Question 84 of 145

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all of the following correctly express the differences between a lineage and a clan except:

Select one of the following:

  • members of lineage can trace their common ancestors, but members of a clan cannot

  • members of a lineage tend to live together or near each other, whereas members of a clan tend to be spread over different local communities

  • members of a lineage recognize a blood tie, whereas members of a clan do not

  • lineages have primarily domestic and economic functions, whereas clans more frequently have political and religious functions

  • lineages consist of fewer members than do clans

Question 85 of 145

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in modern capitalist societies, people rarely get much of their identity through work

Select one of the following:

  • true

  • false

Question 86 of 145

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there are ____ types of the reciprocracy exchange system has

Select one of the following:

  • 2

  • 4

  • 3

  • 7

  • 5

Question 87 of 145

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the nuer are a patrilineal society in which clans adn lineages function as a type of political structure. this is called:

Select one of the following:

  • a segmentary lineage system

  • a segementary corporate system

  • a unilineal political system

  • a bilateral lineage system

  • political usufruct rights

Question 88 of 145

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in a matrilineal society:

Select one of the following:

  • there is no concern over who the child's biological father is

  • women occupy the politically important positions

  • inheritance and succession pass from the mother's brother to her son

  • men are afraid of women

  • marriages are extremely stable

Question 89 of 145

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in a system of double descent, as among the yako of nigeria:

Select one of the following:

  • kinship is of no importance, and one can call on whichever individuals one wants for aid

  • an individual belongs to the patrilineal group of the father and the matrilineal group of the mother

  • kinship is important, but there are no corporate kin groups

  • kinship is doubly important, because there are no other units of cooperation

  • each married couple makes a join decision about whose kin they will live with

Question 90 of 145

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a kinship system in which the establishment of rights and obligations is based on both maternal and paternal lines is called a:

Select one of the following:

  • bilateral system

  • patrilineal system

  • clan system

  • lineage system

  • kindred system

Question 91 of 145

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a kinship system in which the establishment of rights and obligations is based on both maternal and paternal lines is called a:

Select one of the following:

  • bilateral system

  • patrilineal system

  • clan system

  • lineage system

  • kindred system

Question 92 of 145

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in northern india, much of the undelrying logic of the kinship sytem is based on all the following except:

Select one of the following:

  • relative age

  • heirarchy

  • flexibility

  • patrilineality

  • bifurcation

Question 93 of 145

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the system used for classifying kin in the us includes distinctions based on:

Select one of the following:

  • generation, relative age, and collaterality

  • sex of linking relative, bifurcation, and generation

  • generation, consanguineal versus affinal kin, and sex of linking realtive

  • bifurcation, relative age, and generation

  • consanguineal versus affinal kin, gender and generation

Question 94 of 145

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in comparison to the us, in japan married couples are expected to

Select one of the following:

  • be more patient with each other

  • have a great deal in common

  • like each other

  • all of the above

Question 95 of 145

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parallel cousins are found in the iroquois system of kinship and are defined as

Select one of the following:

  • mothers sisters children or fathers brothers children

  • motehrs brothers children or fathers sisters children

  • mothers brothers children or fathers brothers children

  • mothers sisters children or fathers sisters children

  • cousins that are descended fro the same ancestor

Question 96 of 145

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one critical factor that distinguishes anthropology from other fields of study is:

Select one of the following:

  • its emphasis on rigorous experimentation and analysis of data

  • its exclusive focus on non-western cultures

  • its use of theories aof biological evolution to explain human behavior

  • its interest in describing humankind throughout time and in all parts of the world

  • its focus on the discovery of a single human nature

Question 97 of 145

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the sapir-whorf hypothesis suggest that:

Select one of the following:

  • the best way to study language is with subjects in a laboratory

  • the vocabulary and structure of a language influence how its speakers perceive reality

  • the ability tot use language determines an individuals intelligence

  • formal education increases vocabulary

  • there is no connection between language and other aspects of culture

Question 98 of 145

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one of the critical goals of cultural anthropology as an academic discipline is to:

Select one of the following:

  • describe, analysis and explain different cultures

  • increase the level of culture in particular human societies

  • place large numbers of cultural anthropologists in political offices

  • determine the direction of human evolution

  • increase the number of cultural anthropology students in universities

Question 99 of 145

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to say that anthropology is holistic means that anthropologists are particularly interested in:

Select one of the following:

  • objects and acts regarded as holy by various peoples

  • the whole personality of any particular individual

  • the integration of biological, sociocultural, and environmental factors in explaining human behavior

  • studying every culture in the world

  • the efforts to find holes in particular theories

Question 100 of 145

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to say that anthropology is holistic means that anthropologists are particularly interested in:

Select one of the following:

  • objects and acts regarded as holy by various peoples

  • the whole personality of any particular individual

  • the integration of biological, sociocultural, and environmental factors in explaining human behavior

  • studying every culture in the world

  • the efforts to find holes in particular theories

Question 101 of 145

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which of the following correctly identifies the sub-disciplines of anthropology?

Select one of the following:

  • archaeology, anthropometry, cultural anthropology, paleontology, and cultural relativity

  • archaeology, cultural anthropology, cognitive anthropology, ethno-history, and linguistics

  • archaeology, ethno-history, anthropometry, structural anthropology, and cultural anthropology

  • archaeology, cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, applied anthropology, and linguistics

  • archaeology, phonology, medical anthropology, development studies, and cultural anthropology

Question 102 of 145

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accoridng to alra deeb and jessica winegar ('the september 11 effect on anthropology'), middle east anthropologists have come under greater surveillance and suspicion primarily with respect to research related to the

Select one of the following:

  • war in iraq

  • war in afghanistan

  • conflict in israel-palestine

  • war on terror

Question 103 of 145

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which of the following correctly compares culture and society?

Select one of the following:

  • while all human beings have culture, not all cultures are also societies

  • while all human beings live in societies, not all societies are cultured

  • while culture refers to art and literature, society refers to production technologies and religions

  • each person born into a group is automatically a member of its culture, but people must be invited into societies

  • while culture refers to values, traditions, and lifeways, society refers to social relationships, statuses and roles

Question 104 of 145

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culture in anthropology refers to:

Select one of the following:

  • civilized behavior such as good manners

  • complex social structures including the development of cities and centralized governments

  • a highly developed individual taste in the arts, literature, and music

  • the way humans adapt to the enviromemnt and give meaning to their lives

  • the presence of religion, art, and literature in some societies

Question 105 of 145

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an emic approach to the study of culture is one that emphasizes:

Select one of the following:

  • the description of a culture from the point of view of a member of the culture

  • the comparison of similar parts of different cultures

  • studying the agricultural technology and ecological adaptation of a culture

  • the notion of a cultural evolution

  • search for general laws or princples that can be applied to all human cultures

Question 106 of 145

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anthropologists healther horst and daniel miller studied high levels of cellphone use among jamaicans in two different communities. which of thefollowing statements best illustrates why jamaicans use cell phones so regularly?

Select one of the following:

  • they are used to engage in long casual conversations about daily life

  • they are used primarily to create social networks and request needed resources

  • they are used as emergency technology in case the individual is in any kind of danger

  • they are used primarily among young people who are dating via cell phone

Question 107 of 145

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according to deeb and winegar, palestine is the number one cause of persecution of faculty in the classroom

Select one of the following:

  • true

  • false

Question 108 of 145

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human's capacity for culture is based on our unique biology

Select one of the following:

  • true

  • false

Question 109 of 145

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early anthropologists who relied on travelers and missionaries for their fieldwork data were called:

Select one of the following:

  • armchair anthropologists

  • novices

  • native anthropologists

  • secondhand anthropologists

  • early scholars

Question 110 of 145

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lewis henry morgan and edward tylor were influenced deeply by the evolutionary theories of:

Select one of the following:

  • franz boas

  • charlies darwin

  • bronislaw malinowski

  • margaret mead

  • carolus linnaeus

Question 111 of 145

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how would you describe lewis henry morgan's and edward tylor's evolutionary theories

Select one of the following:

  • it is the study of how humans have changed from simple to complex communication and transportation systems

  • it is the study of how societies have harnessed more energy for production over time

  • it is the study fo how the human body has changed physically from earlier to later forms, sometimes even changing species

  • it is the study of the history of human society from simple technology and socila institutions to complex ones

  • it is the study of ow native people classify their natural world

Question 112 of 145

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lewis henry morgan and edward tylor classified small-scale societies as:

Select one of the following:

  • savage

  • barbarian

  • primitive

  • childlike

  • civilized

Question 113 of 145

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all of the following are associated with franz boas, except

Select one of the following:

  • he was a critic of evolution

  • he was the first professor of anthropology at columbia university

  • he was a champion of human rights

  • he did his fieldwork in the trobriand islands

  • he trained a generation of us fieldworkers

Question 114 of 145

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applying ones own cultural standards of value, worth and morality to another culture is called:

Select one of the following:

  • ethnocentrism

  • participant observation

  • cultural relativism

  • ethnography

  • postmodernism

Question 115 of 145

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studies of the ways in which children learn language show that:

Select one of the following:

  • a language must be consciously taught; otherwise a child will not learn it

  • children in different societies learn to speak their native languages at different ages because some langauges are harder to learn than others

  • formal education is requried for a child to learn to speak his or her native language grammatically

  • human beings have an inborn predisposition for learning language and will speak grammatically even if not taught to do so

  • boys learn to speak much earlier than girls

Question 116 of 145

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boas nsisted that anthropologists must value a culture on its own terms. this idea is called:

Select one of the following:

  • logical postiivism

  • postmodernism

  • phenomenology

  • cultural relativism

  • dualism

Question 117 of 145

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which of the following has been a hallmark of american anthropology?

Select one of the following:

  • ethnocentrism

  • ethnology

  • participant observation

  • multiculturalism

  • holism

Question 118 of 145

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how is malinowski's approach to the study of cultures different from boas?

Select one of the following:

  • malinowski was an evolutoinist and boas was a critic of evolutionism

  • their approachers are similar, except that franz boas did not actually carry out fieldwork

  • boas focused on teh study of child-rearing, while malinowski focused on the study of history and body measurements

  • malinowski emphasized the notion of function in society, whileboas focused on teh study of history and adaptation of culture

  • boas focused on the study of history and adaptation, adn malinowski focused on the study of child-rearing

Question 119 of 145

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there is evidence that exposing people to foul smells can affect

Select one of the following:

  • their attitude towards gays

  • the way they vote

  • their attitudes towards ethnic minorities

  • all of the above

Question 120 of 145

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which of the following emotions seem to be the most important in swaying a jury?

Select one of the following:

  • disgust

  • anger

  • fear

  • pride

Question 121 of 145

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the function of an institutional review board(irb) is to:

Select one of the following:

  • certify and approve departments of anthropology

  • suggest disciplinary actions against researchers who violate ethical standards

  • approve, monitor and review all university research involving human subjects

  • review articles submitted to academic journals prior to publication

  • fund anthropological research

Question 122 of 145

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which of the following isnot a subsystem of language?

Select one of the following:

  • symbology

  • phonology

  • morphology

  • syntax

  • semantics

Question 123 of 145

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according to 'where fat is a mark of beauty,' a stay in teh fattening room in nigeria is

Select one of the following:

  • essential to every youth's cultural education in parts of nigeria

  • undertaken between the ages of five and seven

  • a rite of passage between maidenhood and womanhood

  • traditional for nigerian brides

Question 124 of 145

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among the efik of nigeria, a woman's 'rotundity' is a sign of

Select one of the following:

  • good health

  • prosperity

  • allure

  • all of the above

Question 125 of 145

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a child raised outside of human society and culture would be:

Select one of the following:

  • entirely normal except for a lack of language

  • rapidly able to participate in normal culture once allowed a chance

  • innnocent, unable to lie, cheat or dissemble

  • craftier, more logical, and more violent than a cultured individual

  • completely unable to understand culture

Question 126 of 145

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one of the earliest definitions of human culture is that 'complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society.' who introduced this definition?

Select one of the following:

  • margaret emad

  • pierre bourdieu

  • sir edward tylor

  • franz boas

  • bronislaw malinowski

Question 127 of 145

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anthropologists consider that all of the following are characteristics of culture except:

Select one of the following:

  • practiced by as few as one individual

  • patterned and integrated

  • in some way adaptive

  • made up of learned behaviors

  • involving symbols

Question 128 of 145

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in english, bit and pit have different meansings. thus the /b/ and /p/ are:

Select one of the following:

  • words

  • sounds

  • morphemes

  • structures

  • phonemes

Question 129 of 145

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theoretical perspective is critical in anthropology because:

Select one of the following:

  • theory does not tolerate diverse opinions

  • it allows us to explore difference perspectives

  • anthropology must be similar to other sciences

  • not every researcher is capable of understand culture

  • anthropology is a democratic science

Question 130 of 145

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the theory of sociobiology views a culture as

Select one of the following:

  • the visible expression of genetic coding

  • as a way for members of society to understand who they are

  • the mechanism that drives individuality and self-expression

  • the result of little other than its own history

  • a result of the sum total of personalities that makes it up

Question 131 of 145

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social birth refers to

Select one of the following:

  • the biological act of giving birth through a social ritual

  • the ceremonial transition from childhood to adolescence

  • the spiritual awakening of an individual through the complete of his or her designated rite of passage

  • the point where a person is considered a human being and a member of human society

  • the event where women collectively give birth in a social setting

Question 132 of 145

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in which society are some children believed to be born chichuru(spirit children) if they have physical abnormalities?

Select one of the following:

  • western brazil

  • northeastern ghana

  • northern africa

  • eastern south america

  • southwestern europe

Question 133 of 145

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bound morphemes differ from free morphemes in which of the following ways?

Select one of the following:

  • the former have strictly one meaning, the latter have more than one meaning

  • the former occur either in nouns or in verbs but never in both, while the latter may occur in both

  • the former never stand alone as complete words; the latter do

  • the former can be pronounced only one way, while the latter may have more than one pronunciation

  • the former exist in all human languages; the latter exist in English only

Question 134 of 145

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anthropologists consider that the concept of humaness and the recognition of human status is

Select one of the following:

  • a biological designation

  • a sociological achievement

  • a cultural designation

  • patterned and integrated throughout cultures

  • a cultural universal

Question 135 of 145

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which of the following best defines the concept of enculturation?

Select one of the following:

  • it is the process of being born and raised within a human society

  • it is a ritual in which the individual is formally introduced to society

  • it is the process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group

  • it is the outcome of two cultures coming into contact and adapting to each other

  • it is the sum of all behaviors that an individual learns in childhood

Question 136 of 145

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human speech is infinitely productive. this means that

Select one of the following:

  • humans can combine words into new, meaningful utterances that they have never heard before

  • human beings never become tired of talking

  • the more human beings talk, the more productive they are economically

  • every normal adult can produce an infinite number of sounds

  • human speech is always directed toward some productive purpose

Question 137 of 145

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all of the following are characteristics that are emphasized in inuit enculturation except:

Select one of the following:

  • violence

  • cooperation

  • emotional restraint

  • physical acuity

  • independence

Question 138 of 145

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an anthropological perspective that focuses on culture as the principal force in shaping the typical personality of a society is called:

Select one of the following:

  • sociobiology

  • culture and personality theory

  • personification theory

  • structuralism

  • symbolic anthropology

Question 139 of 145

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charles hockett argues that the following two steps were critical in the evolution of human language:

Select one of the following:

  • productivity and displacement

  • displacement and blending

  • blending and dual structure

  • blending and duality of patterning

  • duality and pattern and producitivity

Question 140 of 145

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anthropologists who are interested in the ways in which people in different cultures classify their world often use a theory called:

Select one of the following:

  • structuralism

  • interpretive anthropology

  • ethnoscience

  • functionalism

  • sociobiology

Question 141 of 145

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structural anthropology is largely concerned with:

Select one of the following:

  • the ways in which people build houses and public buildings

  • the ways that biology and culture interact

  • the ways in which different parts of asingle culture affect each other

  • the ways in which members of different cultures classify and understand their environments

  • underlying patterns of thought common to all humanity

Question 142 of 145

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human children appear to be pgrammed to learn language instinctively before the age of

Select one of the following:

  • 6 months

  • 3 years

  • 6 years

  • 12 years

  • 21 years

Question 143 of 145

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all of the following are characteristics of cultural symbols except:

Select one of the following:

  • they contain codnensed meanings

  • they are used to create meaning

  • they can be both objects and ideas

  • they are used to store information

  • they are easily defined

Question 144 of 145

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many linguists argue that there is a universal grammar. this is:

Select one of the following:

  • a set of words that means the same thing in every language

  • a set of principles, conditions and rules that underlie all languages

  • a single word orderin which different parts of speech must appear in all languages

  • a simple way of speaking that can be understood by everyone all over the world

  • an alphabet in which all languages and the sounds that make them up can be written

Question 145 of 145

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nacirema ritual centers around:

Select one of the following:

  • health and cleanliness

  • pigs and warfare

  • canoes and trading

  • garden magic

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Sam Kil
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Quiz on study guide, created by Sam Kil on 24/11/2015.

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